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This hook belonged to the 
lateHugh Kikvani Egerton^ 
Beit Professor of Qolonial 
History in the University of 
Oxford from i go ^ to 1920 

^ — 

ju.' axx7 ^. ^Ti 







For the YEAR 1799. 


TrtMM %r T. ByRllh HO. II. UHc Qi w —l l Mt, 

Jbr the Proprietors ofDodJley's Annual Segi^er, 


K. l&a; ]. nvnk; j.TTAtitBft; LACK iHfiTOH, allkn, and CO. 
E, jeffeky; and verhor and hood. 






For the YEAR 17S9. 



ings, the republic of letters would fink undter its own 
weight. Claffifications, refults, conclufions, ^d max- 
ims, long perhaps the fabje£ts pf difcuffion, beconie 

' the elements of new compofitipns. 

The neceffity of compreffion, in our European cam- 
paigns, is not leffened by the co-incident movements. 

^ of armies in Syria, Egypt, and India ; nor yet by the 
negociations at Rafladt and Selt^ : .a fcene of poUticaF 
intrigue bearing fome analogy to the wide ^nd YariQii& 
field of a6tion. 

The time that was neceffary for the arrangement of 
fo many materials into a plan, not entirely difpropor-i 
tionate to our ufual dimenfions, and for the coryeftioji.of 
errors, by recent and undoubted information, will,^ we; 
truft, afford not only an apology for being fomewhat, 
later in the publication of this volume,; than was. pro- 
mifed in our laft ; biit ajSbrd a new proof of our eameft 
defire, by all nieans, to render our work as corapletfe 
and fatisfaftory as poffible. On the whole, our en-i 
gagements to the public, with regard to the tinie of 
bringing up this work, which had indeed fallen. greatly 
behind, have been now fulfilled. It may he faid that 
we have now very nearly overtaken time. It Ihall be 
our care to keep ^ an equal pace with tbisi in future; 
though at a due diflance. The Annual Regifler is 
not addrefled to the famjB curiofity th^t thirfts after 
newfpapers, but to curiofity of a higher order : that of 
feeing plans and fyflems unfolded by events ; and thefe 
events, from new relations and combinations, deriving 
not only a degree of novelty, but greater interefl and 




For the YEAR 1799, 



H I S T O R Y 

OF . 

E U R O P E. 

CHAP, f 

A general h'iew of the Year 1799. — Hazardous Situation of BiWHapcrte, 

in ccnfi^quenc^ of the DeJltttStitm of the Frcfich Fleet. — Prefent State 

of Efsyjit, — Mamvialukes. — Bet, s^-^^Arahs^^-^fcxts.^^ Greeks . — Cophts,^^ 

Ju^rce, Land and Afarine, under the Co?nma7td of Buonaparte. — P'anvjts 

Curex of Buonaparte, — Means of mainiairnng the Army, ~^ At id cf recruit* 

ing and prt/crving it, — Buofiaparte rcfpeCis. himfclf, and gives Orders to 

his Officers to re/ped, the Prejudices of all the Egyptians.^-Uis ProiUtma" 

Hon to the People of Egypt.^^At great Pains to propagate, in all Maho^ 

metait Countries ^ a Belief of his Venerationfor Iflaumijm and the Prophet, 

'^'^Treaclxry and Punijhment of the principal Sheick^ or^hcreef, of Alex* 

MTtdria, — llndciitO{irj (f Buonaparte to blsnd and harmonize the French and 

ike Egyptians, — Meajurcs taken for the Acccmplijhment (f thai Defgn.^^ 

Grand FjpJI at Cairo, nn the Antiivcrfary of the French Republic. — Great 

Ceremony ai the anmtal opening of Die Grand Ca?ial of Cairo, — Liberality 

of Buonaparte to the Egyplians^^^Ujeful In fitutions. -^Government of 

Egypt attempted io he aJfimHated to tJie new Gi^vemment in France, ^^ 

Nc tables, -^Departmeni9,'^ And a general Aj^cmbly^ or Divan, in Egypt, 

^^DifficuUy of operating and producing (my pf-rmane*:t CJscnge in the 

Minds of Barbarians, ^^Jealoijies of the French, ^^Dif^Ofitcnts.^^Mur* 

Voi.XLI. [B] murs. 



fnursM'-'And tn/ume^tlans^^-^Pariituiar/y at C^iro, — This, with the 
othcrst fubdited, — j^ general Amne/ly. — Monrad Bey defcaied,,uitk great 
Lofs, — -And forced to retreat to the Mountains, — Tlic French, under the 
Command of Dtffais, in PoJJeffioti of the hep, Part of Upper Egypt* 

THE year 1799 exhibited a 
ftrange ptdurc of the world 
turned upfidfe down: the fubUme 
Porte at war with France, and in 
confederacy with Ruflia and Great 
Britain ; the Turkifli banners united 
with thofe of Ruflia and Auilria ; a 
nation of profefled pbilofophers fra- 
ternizing, or attempting to frater- 
nize with the votaries ot Mahomet ; 
the Roman catholic religion, with 
Inftitutiorrs therewith conne^ed, 
perfecuted by a power formerly one 
of its main fupports,- but, on the 
other hand, patronized by fovereign 
princes, fons of chnrches heretofore 
its zealous adverfaries ; * a great 
and iiludrious nation, once fo highly 
diftinguiftied by a devotion to the 
K'omi(h faith, as well as political 
power, valour, and a fenfe of ho- 
nour, in clofe alliance with infidels, 
and the murderers of a royal family, 
connefted with their own, by ties 
iif blood, by political treaties and 
rnterefts, and s long intercourfe of 
mutual and courtly politenefs. Nor 
was the iituation of the Spaniards 
fefswhimiical than it was deplora- 
ble. They dreaded the power of 
thoir ally ;' and their only (afety lay 
in tlje viftories of their enemies. 

The deRrudion of the French 
fleet, which cut off Buonaparte 
from any certain and effectual fup- 
port fiom France, or any of her 
<tonquercd add dependent flates. 
Mi him in fucn an ilblated flate, as 
thole in whicH great commanders in 

former times, when wari was lefs 
complicated than now, have volun- 
tarily precipitated themfelves, by 
burning their own fhtps, in order to 
fliew their troops that there was no 
retreat, and that they mufl perifli 
or conquer. In this new and trying 
fituation, his condu6l became an 
objedl of more intereft and curio- 
fity, with ingenious minds, than ever 
it had been,, in the mod rapid car- 
reer of his fucoefs and vidlory. The 
circumdances in which he was now 
placed were univerfally. admitted 
to be pregnant with danger. ' At- 
tention was every where awake to 
the meafures and contrivances that 
would be fuggefled by genius and 
fcience, or to the refolution that 
might be prompted by defpair. 

But, in order that a tolerably juft 
idea may be formed of both the ad- 
vantages and difadvantages under 
which the invading army laboured 
in Egypt, the enemies they had to 
encounter, and the means that pre- 
fented themfelves for encountering 
them, it may be neteflary to recall 
to the minds of fome of our readers, 
a view of the prefcnt ftate of that 
ancient and celebrated country. 

It was not with the Mamroalukes 
and Arabs alone, that the French 
general had to contend, but with 
the climate, endemial diflempers, 
and the ufual perfidy of barbarians, 
united with the malignity of a proud 
and illiberal fuperliition. On the 
other hand, as there were certain 

• The dlilikc of the Greek church to the Pope's and the Weftcrh chtirch, was formerlf 
fo great, that one of their patriarchs declared pQblicly, lo a Romifli legate, that he 
wfwld raciier kc a turban, than ibe p6pe*s lianb on the great altar of ConftanttnopJe. 



crflfivTOon principles and paflions kept By jls ancient kings of three 

Vfbich united great numbers of the hundred thoufand men, eKecuting 

natives and others in hoftility to the pyramids, the labyrinths, tlie 

Buonaparte, fb there were circuin- grottos of Thebes, the lake Moeris, 

iUnces alfb which divided them vaft canals, obeiilks, temples, and 

agaiii0 one anothel* ; while the pompous palaces. But although 

common weaknefs of human nature^ the reports by travellers, of Egypt, 

prevailing over fentiments of reli- being even at this day a moft deli- 

g\on and clutv> fubje6led them to cious garden be unanimoully repro« 

various arts of corruption, and thus bated, by all the French who nave 

tended baturallv to draw them over fpoken or written on the fubje6l, 

to the fide ot the moil powerful iince their late expedition thither, 

party. the moft intelligent and obfervant 

Egypt IS commonly reckoned to admit, that the extent to which the 

be about 500 miles in length, and happy influence and dominion of 

160 in breadth. The borders of the Nile, by mcAns of induftry and 

the Nile, from Abyffinia to Grand art, may have been carried in times 

Cairo, form a narrow valley, which, pafl, and yet carried in times to 

iwith lefler vallies or openings into come, very much farther than at 

the hilly country, and the deferts prefent, from the banks of the river 

-on either fide, is called the Upper, over the arid defart. As a heavy 

and the whole country watered by counter-balance to thefe natural ad- 

the Nile from ihencc downward, vantages, except in our winter, and 

the Lower Egypt. The two grand the latter part of tfie autumnal 

branches of the Nile, which part at months, the heat of the climate is 

Grand Cairo, together with the oppreflive to all who are not ac- 

Mediterranean, into which thA^v fall, cuflomed to it. The winds are 

form a triangle, called the Delta, of. fometimes of fuch extreme heat and 

which the ocean is the bafe, the aridity, that their influence proves 

two branches &f the Nile the fides, mortal. During the time thefe laft, 

and Cairo the apex, or head. A the ftrects are delert/jd, and the in- 

£reat portion of this part of Egypt, habitants almoll blinded by drifts of 

befiog enriched by the overflowing fend, fo fubtle, that they infinuate 

of the Nile, is extremely fertile, themfelves into tlie clofeft apart- 

•No country in the world is more ments : fo, that from this enemy 

pienteoafiy ftored than Egypt »vith there is no fuch thing as a perfe^'Hy 

com, rice, fleib, fi(h, fugar, fruits, fecure retreat. The vermin that 

vegetables, and oil. The Delta infefl- this land, to iirangers parti* 

produces oranges, lemons, figs, dates, cularly, is intolerable. And, inad- 

aimonds, and plantains in the great- dition to all thefe evils, it is fre* 

e/i abundance. The extent of this quently vifited by the plague. 
iamoat country, that is, of the part Since Egypt (eli under the doml- 

ofii now inhabited, does not fcem, nion of the Turks, it has been 

at firft fight, to corrcfpond with oftenfibly governed by a pacha, or, 

the descriptions which have been as we pronounce the word,, 

IqH by the ancients of its twenty who refided at Grand Cairo: but 

fhoo^nd towns and cities, feveral whofe authority. Cor a long time 

nulUot»* o^ inhabitaats, and armies pall, has been more nominal than 

[ B 2 ] real. 


real. The balhaw was, in facl^ little fach : nor did the circum (lance of their 
more than a (ign and memorial of having ever been in a ftate of flavery 
the refped formerly paid, and ftill preclude them from any degree of 
profeifed, by all Muffelmen, to the preferment, even that ol bey, which 
eidell fon of , the propluet. Under was the chief; who was choien freely 
the ba(haw there were inftirior go* by a plurality of voices in a foil 
vernors, under various defignations, council of officers : (o that the beys, 
in the different provinces, but the elevated to power, neither by the 
•ppwer of the fword was in the accident of birth, nor the pariicular 
hands of the Mammalukes. A fmall favour of any fovereign prince, but 
jiumber of Janiflaries indeed was re- in fomc degree at leafi, if not chicf- 
tained at Cairo, and a few other ly, by their own merit, were, for 
places in the fervice of the Porte, of the mod part, men of fuperior ti^* 
which they held landed poiTeffions, lents and unquedionable courage, 
in return for their fervice. In Up- The. Mammal ukei were all of them 
per Egypt, there were fome Arabs brave, even to excefs. In the bat- 
whopaia tribu te to the grand (ignior, tie of the Pyramids, tlie iffue of 
or made prefents to the balbaw : whic^h gave the French a fcpting 
and in the Lower Egypt, there in Egypt, and of which fome notice 
were fome villages in the poileffion has been taken in the 1a(l volume 
of ilieicks. But the real govern- of this work, they had the teme- 
ment or fovcreignty of Egypt was rity to rufti in between the com- 
pofleiled by the Mammalukes, ori- paded and fquare battalions of the 
ginally foldiers of fortune, but who Fsench army ; and there meet 
paid very little regard to the con- their &te. They, to a man, re« 
ditions on which they held their iufcd quarter, and fought to the 
power and property. They came lafl, fometimes when defperately 
originally from the mountainous and mortally wounded. They were 
countries, between the Black Sea accuftomed, from their earliefl 
and Caucaius, and their armies years, to a dextrous management of 
were (lili recruited by boys from the fined and mod fpirited liorles in 
thofe countries, and other youth, the world. They were armed with 
the children of Chridian flaves fwords and pidols, muHcets, and 
brought for fale to Grand Cairo, lanoes. Their wealth and ilate 
The Jaws of Mahomet enjoin great difplayed in their arms, drefs, and 
compaffion and tendernefs for fkves, equipage. Their habitations and 
and nothing is conddered as more houfchold furniture were wretched, 
pleadng and meritorious in the It was their manner iqceHantly to 
fight of God than their total eman- wheel round about an enemy in his 
cipation. The condition of the front, flank, and rear, ancl to re^ 
young flaves, who fell into the treat as he advanced, unlefs they 
hands of the Mamnmlukes, was perceived an. advantaae, or were 
certainly among the gentled Ipts of under a neceflity of coming to 
flavery. It was. the road to for- clofe action, while anotlier divifion 
tune. They were brought up by of them hung upon his rear, and 
the Mammalukes in the fame man- endeavoured lo furround and cut off 
ner as their own children, aiKl came, detached parties, wherever they 
10 tinie, to be aimed contider«d«s could fiad aa opening. The genp* 


Tal fpirit of their warfare, like that an end of the matter. So tRat on 
of the ancient Scythians and the the whole the difputes among the 
Arab*, was, to cut off fupph'es, and Mamma lukes were not of fuch an in-; 
harafs and deftroy their enemy by veterate nature, as to pre vent a ready 
repeated attacks, according to op* union ap^ainft a common enemy, 
portunities. But in different cir- There were about 10,000 Mam- 
^umftance«, their courage, as might malukes clothed in one uniform, and 
be expected, wa« more or lefs im- which were at the difpofal of go- 
petuous and daring. vernment; or rather that of the Beys, 

The bey 5 were not all of them> who feem to have confidcred them- 
without exception, of Chriilian ori- felves as forming, in fome refpedls, 
gir, as has been commonly fup- a kind of republic. But, hefides 
pofed. Of late year^ the annual thefe, each Maminaliike kept on 
naraber of (laves from Georgia^ foot, or could eafily ralfe bodies of 
Mingrelia, and Circaflia, has been men among his own vaffals. 
greatly diminilhed. In 1762, five There were in Egypt, bcfides the 
of the beys were of Mahometan mihtary and predominant cafle of 
defcent: and from the caufe juft the Mammalukes, a great number 
mentioned, the proportion of the ofArabs, Jews, Greeks, and Cophts, 
Maliometan to what we may call who were Chriftians, and the de- 
the ChriOian beys, has probably fcendent^ of the ancient Egyptians. 
become greater. The Bedouin Arabs were attached 

The number of tire beys, origi»- to the Mahometan faith, and hofiile 
nally fbur-and-twenty, by the en- to ftrangers : but neither abH^lutely 
croachments of the more powerful proof againft the power of money, 
over the vreaker, had been reduced, nor the u<ual influence of a career 
it is (aid, to eighteen or twenty: of vi6^ory amongfl barbarians. 
but on that point the accounts vary. After his firft fucccfl'es, the re- 
Thcy had frequent quarrels with duftion of Alexandria, Rofetta, 
one another, but thefc did not lead Damietta, and Cairo, and, above 
to foch ferious and obftinate con- all, the battle of the Pyramids, there 
lefts as has been imagined. They was ground for hope, that many of 
did not draw the whole of their re- the Arabs might be drawn over to 
ibarces, whether of actual pofrcffion the fide of the conqueror. The 
or credit, and many thoufands of Jews, as ufual, were at the fen^ice 
uno(}ending people, into the vortex of the heft paymailcr ; not to make 
of protracted war, but quickly fct- any account of the refentmcnt they 
tied their difputes by pitched en- rouft have felt at the treatment they 
counters ; in which they were ac- received from the Turks and other 
compani^ and joined by the fmall MuHelmen. The Greeks and the 
corps of their refpe^ivc body- Cophts> though greatly humbled in 
guards. When the combat was their minds, as in their fortunes, 
over, the conqueror returned im- and the 'latter debafcd aim oft to 
mediately (o the capital, where brutality, by along fcries of tyranny 
moft of the bafhaws refided. The and oppreffion, might yet be rouzed 
vanquiflied- party returned alfo thi- by kinder treatment, and belter prof- 
Ih^, in a few days thcreafler. If pe6is, to a fenfe of natural dignity and 
he fell in battle, another bey was .freedom. The clouded profpods of 
ciiolen in his fleud; and there was Buonaparte were therefore, on the 

[ B 3 ] whole. 


yffhole, brtghtene$l vp by gleams of appearance of the Britifli fleet>with 
j|)ope, fufiicient to call the powers wonderful oelerity. 
of his inventive and adive mind into The fird care of the general was 
full exertion. to provide' for the fupport of bfs. 
The land-forces on board -Buona- iroops^ and the prefervatjon of their 
parte's fleet, when he took pofleffion health. The Egyptians, by nature 
of Malta, infantry, artillery, and a fofl and timid race, were naturally 
cavalry, amountea to near 40,000. ^flruck, after the arrival of the 
Four thoufand were left to garrtfon French, with terror. They fliut 
that ifland ; but, in return, fome themfetves up in their own boufes, 
thoufands of the Maltefe failbrs and and concealed whatever they had 
foldiers joined him, as volunteers, in fit for being uied as food. So that 
hh expedition to Egypt. And the for feveral days the French were 
battle of Aboukir, which ruined the forced to fubiiil on their own naval 
fleet, contributed to reinforce the ftores. But when the apprehen- 
army. To the 36,000 that remain- fions of the natives weie removed, 
cd, after leaving a gairrifon in Malta, by* the good difcipline of the French, 
be added the volunteers .of that the markets of Alexandria were 
place, under the defignation of the fupplied with all (brts of proviiions, 
Maltefe legion : and the mariners, in the greateft abundance. The 
who efcaped from the wrecks of Delta was fully fufiicient to fapply 
the fleet, to the number of 2 or all neceflaries, which could be con- 
3,000, under that of the nantical veyed to the French magazines, by 
legion. There were, on board the the Nile, or by canals. The old 
ihips of the line, frigates, and canal that conveyed the waters of 
other veifels df war, in the port of the Nile to Alexandria, with other 
Alexandria, about 4,000 men. The canals, were cleared and repaired. 
crews of the tranfports amounted to Wind-mills were conftrufled for the 
2,000, and thofe of a flotilla, equip- grinding* of com, the -only mills 
pqd on the Nile, to 1,500. So that known to the natives being hand- 
there ftill remained, at the difpofal mills, and here and there mills 
of the French commander, a force, wrought by oxen. The want of wine 
land and marine, of near 50,000 wasfound capable of being fupplied 
men. The land force was difpofed by a fpirit extraflcd from dates, 
along the courfcof the Nile, as far And the Egyptian infti^ute, formed 
as Salachier, at the entrance of the on the plan of that of France, had it 
defert. Here a ftrong fort was in charge, from the commander- 
raifed with great expedition. The in^chief, to inquire whether Egypt 
old caille of Cairo commanding that Hid not furniih a fubftitute for hops 
great city, whofe population has for tlie making of beer. At Alexan- 
been calculated at 400,0Q0, was dria, and Grand Cairo, boards were 
repaired, or rather rebuilt and inftlluted for inquiring into the beft 
flrengthenod, according to the rules means for the prevention of conta- 
of modern fbrlifieation. Redoubts gious tiifionipers, and in general ibr 
"were caft up in other places ; and preferving the health of the (eamen 
the entrance into the harbour of and fbldiers : among the firft fruits 
Alexandria was dei'ended by for- of which was the cleaning of thtOi 
xnidabie batteries, raifed, uii the and oLher cities from many lmpiirt-> 
*4 lies. 



ties, and a recoinincndation of the 
hath, with dire^iions for uiing it, to 
the French foldiers. ' At Cairo, a 
theatre was ellabliflied for the 
amufemerif of the French ; ajid 
muuc was introduced on all occa- 
fions- But, in fpite of every effort 
of this kind, the French army mufl 
be diminit'hed by tlie accidents of 
war in the procefs of time, and that 
pot very long, and by natural deaths 
and difeafe moulder a>vay at lafl to 
nothing, unlefs it (hould, from time 
to time, be recruited by frefli 
fupplies of men. Buonaparte,there- 
fore, in imitation of the Romans, 
and of Alexander the Great, whofe 
exw^mples were dill before him, de- 
termined to arrange, under his iland- 
ard, the inhabitants of the country, 
ivhich, as yet he had over-run, and 
that only m part, rather than con- 
quered. He allured into his fervice, 
by liberal pay and the profpe6l of 
plunder, corps of Arabs and Greeks, 
and even a company of Janifiaries. 
The fons of the Mammalukes, who 
had fallen in battle, or fled from 
the country, above eight but under 
fixteen years of age, as well as 
thofe of their (laves, white or blact, 
he brought ir>to the- demi-brigadcs 
U) fapply the place of the French 
drummers, and pJayers on the iifc, 
whom he placed in the ranks, as 
fuGlcers* The young Mammalukes, 
Jrom fixtcen to twenty-four, were 
incorpormted with the oattalions. 

The predominant paifions of the 
inhabitants of Egypt, were religious 
bigotry and (iiperiiit^n, and a jea- 
loufy and indignation againfl any 
degree of fanoibarity with their wo- 
men* Buonaparte, therefore, deem- 
ed it necedary to inflrudl and cau- 
tion his army on thefe two import- 
ant and delicate fubjefls. In a pro- 
ciaaiatioD, dated at head-quarters, 
po j}9«rd the L'Orient, June 22, 

1798, after declaring the objedl of 
the expedition, which was, to pro- 
mote the general interefls of civili- 
zation ana commerce, and humble 
the naval power of England, and 
conridenlly prom King, after feveral 
fatiguing marches, and fome hoflile 
encounters, complete fuccefs, he 
toid them, that the people, among 
whom they were going to live, were 
Mahometans ; the firll article of 
whofe religious creed was, that 
" Tiiere is no God, but God, and 
Mahomet is his prophet." Do not 
contradid them, faid he. Condu^ 
yourfclves towards them, as we 
nave done towards the Jews and 
the Italians. Shew relpc<3 to their 
muftis and their imans, and the ce- 
remonies prtTcribed by the Koran ; 
as you have fiiewn to the rabbis and 
tiie bifhups. Cherifli the fame fpi- 
rit of toleration for the molqiies 
that you have entertained for the 
convents and the fynagognes, for 
the religion of Mofes, and of Jefus 
Chrifl. The Roman legions pro- 
tc61ed all religions. You will find 
here ufagcs different from thofe of 
Europe. You will reconcile your- 
fclves to them by cuflom. 

Tiie people of th^ land into 
which we are about t^ enter differ 
from us in their mode of their treat- 
ment of women : but, in every 
country, he who offers violence to 
tlia women is a moniler. Buona* 
parte proceeded next to warn them 
againfl giving way to a fpirit of 
plunder. " Pillage, which can 
enrich only a very lew, rcf)c6ls dif- 
honour on the wholes it dries up 
our refources, and converts into 
enemies thole whom it is our inter- 
eil to have for friends." In coiichi- 
fion, he reminded them that the 
city they were going to attack was 
built by Alexander, and that grand 
recollect i6ns, fitted to excite tlif 

[84] emulation 



emulaiton of Frenchman, would frequentl)^ applied to the Snb?iiTie 

be recalled to their rtiinds at every Porte to demand the puniflirnent of 

'ftep. At the fame time, orders the beys of Egypt, who opprefled, 

were IfFued tliat ev.ery individual of with their vexations, the merchants 

the army who thouid pillage or fleal of France ; but the Sttblime Porte 

fliould be fhot; that the piinifliment declared that the beys, an avarici- 

of death (hoiild alfo beinfli^ed on ous and fickle race, refuftxl toliften 

every individual of the army who to the principles of juftice ; aiiff, 

fiiouJd impnfe contrihtitions on not only, that the Porte did not au- 

town*!, villnges, or individuals, or thori^ thcTe infults, hut withdrew 

fliould ^commit extortions of any their prote6iIon from the perfons by 

kind ; and that, when any indivi- whom they were committed ; the 

daals of a divifion fliould have com- French republic has refolved to fend 

xnitted any diforders in a conntry, a powerful army to put an end (o 

the whole divifion, if the offender the exactions of the beys of E^ypt» 

ihonld not be difcoNcred, fiiould he in the fame manner a< it ha$ been fe- 

jefponfible, and pay the fum nereilh- veral times compelled, during the 

ry to indemnif)' ti:e inhabitants for prcfent century, to take thefe mea- 

the lofs fuflained. lures againft thu brys of Tunis and 

Nothing but neceifaries for the. Algiers. You» who ought to be the 

fokliers, hofpitals, tnxnfports, and maftersof the beys, and yet are kept 

artillery, was to be put in requifi- alCairo, without power or aiithority. 

tion; and, when once the requifi- You ought to regard my arrival with 

tions were made, the objects requi- pleafure; you are, doubtlefs already 

red were to be put into the hands apprifed that I come not to attempt 

of the different admin iflrations, who • any thing againft the alcoran or the 

fhould give receipt^ for them, and fuftan. You know that the Fren<fi 

receive others from thofe to whom nation is the only ally which the 

they fliould diftribute them, and be^ iultan has in Europe. Come, (hen, 

accountable tor every thing. Thus, and meet me, and curfe along with 

in no cafe, could officers or foldiers me the impious race of the beys.'* 

receive dire6tly the objeds requii-ed. On the fame day, the general- in- 

While Buonaparte was anxious chief, afluming the air and charac- 

to reftrain his ofhcers and foldiers ter of a true Muflblman, addrefled 

from giving any offence to the peo- a proclamation to the people of 

pie of Egypt, he was farther foli- Egypt. As it fervesto difptay the 

citous to gain tbeif forbearance and o£ira6ter of the Egyptians, as' well 

good will by the ftrongeft profef- as that of Buonaparte, it may be 

fions of regard for both their reli- acceptable to the * reader that it 

gious fentiments and civil interefts, .fliould be inferted here, at full 

endeavouring to pcrfuade them length, rather than receive a tinc- 

that they and the Great Nation ture of any other mind, even by, 

could have no other than the fame abridgement. It is a CAirious fpe- 

objefls in view, the fame friends, cimen of that nwral artillery with 

and the fame enemies. In a let* which Buonaparte, ^'becommg all 

ter to the bafliaw of Egypt, June things to all men/* propofed to 

SO, he fays, *' The executive di- fpread the power of the French re- 

reAory of the French republic have public over the world. ^ In the 

5 gracious^ 


name of God, mod merciful and govern, and the people will be hapr 
gracious : there is no god, hut only py. You had once great cities, 
<»ncGod: he has riOt any (on oral- large canals, much trade: who has 
fociatc in his kingdon:). The mo- deflroyed them, but the avarice, in- 
men! deftined for cbaftiiing the jullicc, and tyranny, of the Mam- 
beys, long impatiently expcdted, malukos? 

has now come. •' Cadis cheiks, imans, tcher- 

" For a long time, the beys who badjios, tell the people that we are 

govern Egypt have infuited the the friends of true MuflTelmen. Did 

French nation, and opprefled their we not deftroy the pope, who faw 

merchants with exactions. that it was necclTbry to mnke war 

** For a long time, tliis heap of againfl the Mallei men ? Did we 

na\r?, purchafed in the mountains not deftroy the knights of Malta, 

of Caucafus and Georgia, have becanfe thofe foolilh men thought 

tyrannized over the faireft part of that God wiflied war to be carried 

the world. on againft the Miilfelmen.? Have 

" But God, upon whom all de- we not been, at all times, the friends 

pends, has directed that their em- of the grand feignior, (may God 

j':re fhould ceafe. acromplifh his vvifhes!) and the foe 

•• Inhabitants of Fgypt, when of his foes? The Mammalukes, 

the beys tell you I come to deiiroy on the contrary, are not they ever 

your religion, believe them not: revolting aj^ainfl the authority of 

anfwer tlu-m. that I come to rclcue the grand fe'gnior, whom they ftill 

t^erightsof the poor from the hands refute to acknowledge? Thrice 

«f their tyrants; and that the French happy thofe who are with us! they 

refpec^, more than the Mammalukes, fliall profpcr in their fortune and 

God, his prophet, and the Koran, rank ; happy thofe who are neuter! 

*' Tell them that all men are tltey will have time to learn, to 

eqnal in the eyes of God. Under- know us, and will be with us. But 

fianding, ingenuity, and fcience mjfcrable, thrice- miferable thofe 

alone, make a diiierence between who ftiall arm f«)r the Mammalukes, 

them ; and what wifdom, what ta- -and fight againfi u;; ; (here fliall be 

Ient«, what virtues, diftinguifli the no hoj>e for tiiem, they fliall pe- 

Mammaiukcs, that they Ihouid have rifli ! 

cxclufively all that renders life fweet Article I. All places which (hal! 

and pleatant ? be three leagues diilant from the 

" Is there a beautiful woman > route nf (he French army fliall fend 

fhe belongs to the Mammalukes. one of their principal inhabitants to 

Is there a handfome flave, a fine the general, to declare tfiat Uiev 

hcrfe, afinehoufe? they belong (a fubmit, and will hoifl tiie Fren-h 

the Mammahikcs. flag, which is blue, white, and red. 

" Is Egypt their farm ? let them II. Every viljac^e which il;all arm 

lliew the leafe whi<^ God has given againfl the Fre.ich army dial! be 

fhefD. But God is juli and merci- burned to the grfMind. 

ful to an his people. All the Egyp- III. Every village which fhall 

tiansare entitled to the pofleflion of fubmit to the French fhallhoift the 

all places. The wifcft, moft en- French flag, and (hat of the 8ub- 

i'ghtened, and moft virtuous, will lime Porle, their all v. 

IV. The 


IV. The chieks, cadis, and imans^ 
lliall continue to exercife their ref- 
pe6liv€ fundions: each inhabitant 
Ihall remain in bis lioufe; and pray- 
ers fliall continue as ufual: every 
one (hall return thanks to God for 
Ihe de/lru6lion of the Mammal ukes. 
Glory to the fultan; glory io the 
French army, his friend ! ciirfes to 
the Maroroafukes ; and happinefs to 
the people of Ejrypt I" 

To the fame effed, but with the 
l)revity of a conqueror, Buonaparte, 
after he was maHer of Cairo, ad- 
dreffed the bafliaw and the people 
of Cairo. He confirmed, when 
xnafler of Egypt, by means of the 
* iignal vi6lory which bis array had 
gained, bis former declaration, to 
preferve to the bafliaw of the grand 
/eignior his revenues and appoint- 
ment ; and begged of him to aflure 
the Porte that it would fuffer no 
kind of lofs, and that he would take 
care that it flioufd continue to re- 
ceive the tribute heretofore paid to 

Buonaparte not only declared 
himfelf a difciple and friend to Mar 
hornet, but, by means of his 
emiflaries, as well as no obfcurc 
hints in meOages and letters to dif- 
ferent parties of Muflfelmcn, infi- 
nualed, that he was acquainted 
with their inward thoughts and de- 
fjgns, and endeavoured Io propa- 
gate a perluaiion tliat he had betyi 
adlually and cxpreHly commiflioned, 
by the prophet, to red ft, repel, and 
^Aertfirovv, the tyranny of the 
beys, to reform certain errors and 
abufes and to promote juftice, 
mercy, and piety; the great ends 
of tiie Alahometan and only reli- 

He . was care Ad to pay homage, 
r.n ever) occafion, to the prophet. 
By his dciire, and arcon.iing tp his 

example, the Freoph officers and toU 
diers were in the habit of aililling 
at the great feftivals and ceremonies 
in honour of the prophet. The 
whole army took the tone of out- 
ward refped for Ifmaulifm^ 

In a few days after the fedudion 
of Cairo, accompanied by feveral 
of hi$ principal officers and feveral . 
members of the Egyptian inflitute, 
he went to fee the grand pyramid, 
called Cheops; in the interior of 
which he was attended by feveral 
muftis and imans. In a curious 
and intereiling converfation, whicli 
took place between himfelf and 
thofe religious charaders, on thijs 
occafion, Buonaparte fudained his 
part fo well as to imprefs on their 
minds, at once, a refped for his 
own nnderflanding and knowledge, 
and an idea, at lea ft for a time, that 
he entertained a refped for the faith 
of Muifelmen. Having faluted the 
ftrangers ^nd fat down with tliem, 
in tlieir manner, on the ground, lie 
faid, " God is great, and his works 
are marvellous. Here is a great 
work accompliflied by the hands of 
man* What end had he in view 
who couftruded this pyramid ? '* 
One of the prieils anfwered, " It is 
the work of a great king of Egypt^ 
called Cheops, who wiihed tliat his 
afhes might not be difturbed by fa- 
crilegious intnifions.'* *' Cyrus, the 
Great," replied Buonaparte, "gave 
orders, that his inanimate body 
fliould be expofed to the open air, 
on purpofe that it might be the 
more eafiiy and completely difToI- 
ved, and oe re-united to the natu- 
ral elements. Dont you think that 
he did much better ? What think you ? 
one of the muftis bowing his head 
faid, " Glory to God to whom all 
glory is due." Buonaparte added, 
'* Honour to Allah," (who was the 




calipb tliat gave ordors for the open- 
ing of ibis pyramid^ aiid difiurbing 
tJie ailies of the dcad.^ The raufli 
and imans made anfwer, " Accord- 
ing Ip fome, Mahomet, the cum- 
n.ander of the faithful, who reiga- 
ed, many centuries ago, at Bagdad; 
but, acconling to otJiers, Haroun 
at Refdiid, who fancied, that he 
ihould tindtreafores in it; but when 
thofe whom he had fent had enter- 
ed this apartment, as the tradition 
is they found nothing but mum- 
mies, with the following infcription 
on the wall, written in letters of 
gold, •' The impious commit ini- 
qaity without fear, but not with- 
out remorie" Buonaparte apph'ed 
a proverb, well known' to the per- 
fbns with whom he now converfed, 
** The bread tliat is taken by vio- 
lence filU the mouth of the robber 
with gravel." 

It was not only in Epypt that 
Buonaparte laboured to propagate 
a belief of his attachment to Muf- 
/elraen and the Sublime porte. He 
fcnt letters, to this end, to different 
agents of France, in different parts 
of the Turkifli empire, and one 
written, in Arabic, to the fliereef 
of Mecca, to whom he entrufted 
another to their friend, Tippo Sul- 
tan. This letter was received at 
Judda, early, firfi of July, J 799, 
ai;d thence forwarded to the Holy 
C:ty. But Buonaparte, who pol- 
fdied much difcernment, was at 
great pains to.ftudy charaders, and 
who varied his tone according to 
that of the perfons whom he ad- 
drefled, feeined to confider the 
hiorophant of Mecca rather as a 
fXfliik-dl prince, concerned for the 
proifpcritv of hia place and people. 

than as a devotee to the religion 
of Mahomet ; he told him, that 
every thin^ was quiet at Cairo and 
Suez,' and between thole places, 
apd peace eilabliAied among the 
inhabitants; not a iingle Mamma- 
luke oppreffor, he faid, remained 
in the country, and the inhabitants, 
without dread or fear, employed 
themfelves in weaving, cultivating 
the ground, and other trades, as 
formerly. Tlie duties on merchan- 
dize were now the fame as they 
were prior to their being raifed by 
the Mammalukes; the merchants 
had every ailiHance granted them ; 
and the road between Suez and 
Cairo was open and fafe. He 
therefore requefted of the (hereef to 
affure the merchants of his country, 
that they might bring their goods to 
Suez and (ell them without dread 
or apprehenfion, and might pur- 
chafe, in exchange for them, fuch 
articles as they might wifli. 

It is impoffiblq to alcertain the 
degrees of faith that was repofed in 
diflerent places, and by difl('rent 
perfons, in the religious profeliions 
of Buonaparte. Perhaps they wrrtj 
wavering, and different at ditlercnt 
times in tbe fame perfons. The 
prefence and authority of Buona- 
parte, and his literary ilaff, it' wc ' 
may borrow a metaphor from arms 
to arts, as well as military, no douf)!, 
detracted fomewhat from the con;.- 
jSlimehts which were paid to hju:, 
and them, by the mufti and itn^uix 
with whom they met and conveift J, 
as he had done beioro, witli tir: 
priefls at Rome, on fundry ocra- 
fions: yet they might prol)ai)iy l><: 
imprefled with a temporary inn- 
viclion of his fi ncerity, until they 

• The ancient Egyptians believed that the foul never wholly i>rfouk t!ic? body, w' \i 
ary part oi it hung, or v/as held together. 

•  ' compT'j 



fcompared liis profefTions with that able corrcfpondence with the Mam- 

rpifit of domination, and worldly mah)kes, and. On the fixth of Sep- 

iiUeref! and advantage, whxh ap- temher, condemned and executed. 

J>eared in tliQ tenor of his condinfl. His head, with a label of his crime, 

A like ohfervalion may be made oti was carried through the flreets. 

t^eftain teftimonials which were gi- This acl of feverity was fitted in- 

Vch in fav6nr of the French general, deed to infpire tern^r J but the per- 

hy MufTelmen, and others, parti- fidy of K(jraim would eafily be for- 

tularly a letter from the nolablos of given bv MufTelmen, while his 

Cairo, on the arrival of Buonaparte, death mi^rht be followed by the 

to the flierf'ef of Mecca, giving an ufual confcquences of martyrdom, 
account of his refpc6t for the lau- of . The tafk undertaken by Buona- 

the ptophet. There vVaS more Hn- parte, to amalgamate the prejudices 

^ferity prnbabiv in a hymn, com- nf the ^Tnhometans with the pre- 

})ofcd by tlie nnifii of the Cophf^> ter.fions of the French, was difTicult 

dhd chaunted iti (life gr:ind mofque almoft beyond Example, and even 

frifCairo, on the twenty third of July, more arduous than that of Mahomet. 

\i\ celebration of the arrival of Biio^ The plan purfued by Mahomet wa< 

lidparte in that city; who, at t!ie great, bat fimplc. The fpirit of it 

tottfihiand and under the pn.'to^l ion was terror: the inftruments or 

bf Allah, had come at ll.e head of means of executing it, great and 

the brave Wartiors of the Wef?, to fimplc alfo ; God, war, and fate. 

fbctoUr the opprelled, and drive It was a more complicated, and a 

t)lll the bevs with their Mamma- nicer undertaking to mingle terror 

tukcs: It fs conceived in the moft with reafoning, the rights of man 

bijautiful ftyl6 of eadern fimphVity, with the privileges or rather pre- 

and gives no menn idea of either rogatives of MuiVelmen, and the 

the fentimrnts of the mufti of the fubmifiion of the followers, to ftran- 

Cophts, or his tafte in compoli- gers, at beft otdy dubious friends id 

tioh. the prophet. Of the manner in which 

That the exprcflions of refpeA Buonaparte fet about to accomplifh 

for the French gencra!-in-chief that defign, fome idea may he 

Vverte liot always voluntary and fin- formed, from a view of a French 

ter&, were it a matter that needed fcaft at Cairo, on the twenty-third 

jthy proof, would be placed, beyond of September, the anniverlary of 

tlouDt, by the condud and fate of the French republic, 
kbraim, fliert*ef of Alexandria, wfy. On the fetting of the fun, Sep- 

after fwearing fidelity, with the tember twenty-fecond, the feait waji 

tnufti and principal flieicks of the announced by three falutes of artil- 

irity of Alexandria, * to the French lery. The c<^mmencement of the 

repablitc. Was convi£led of treatbrt- feaft was proclaimed at fun rifing 

• The fignikruries o^ thcte to the declaritlon oF fic'elity (hew how natural it is for dU 
rclijcionjfts (except, perhaps, the ancient polythcifts) ro affe^ heavenly- mindednefs 
and an indiflerenee to the tttings of this world : the focr Sufc'man^ muttt of Muiiki^ tbeftor 

fhrabim ei £oarge^ chief of theSe^ Hamtte; the f nor Mahottidel Me{f$ra\ the poor Atmed^ 
<kc. The titles betlovved on ChrlHian prelates did not arlfe immediately from fenti- 

ments of religivn> but from the dignity and confcquencc accruing to them from fecular 



the next morning, by three dif- of each divifion, who fell in the (|6l 
charges from the whole of the arlik of delivering l'y:vpt ffora the yoke 
Jery; that of all the different divi- ofthe Mamnj;ilukea. 
fionsof the army ; that ofthe park} As foon as ail the troops bad afr 
an'l thzi of the wiariiie, or flotilla, on feiiihled, aiu) v ore drawn up on tliia 
the Nile. Immediately the generole place ot Ell  rtiiiicr, the command- 
was beaten through the whole city, er-in-chief, .-j* < djupanicd hy his ftjii^' 
and all the troops, in the highefl ofilcers, th* ji-'nerals of divi(jonS| 
order, appeared under arms, in the the commilT.i \-jTencTal, the comr 
place of Klbecquier. In this place nii(lkrie« of ^^nr, and of ciyil admi':\ 
a circle had been traced of two hunt- nillrations, aJtiils and mon of icis 
rired tatiioro« diameter, of which ence, the kiava, or Turkifli officer, 
the circumference was formed hy next in autlioiity to the balliaw, the 
one hundred and five columns, de- emir Hadji, and the members of the 
corated with three-coloured flags, divan, (of which we fliall pr(jfently 
bearing the names of all the departf give fome account) both of Cairo 
ments. Thele pillars^ were united and the provinces. The comniandr 
bv a double row of garlands, em- er-in-chief, with his fuito, ieatefj 
h^t^matical of the unity and iiidivifi- themfelves on the platform that rajj 
bihly of »ll the parts i)f the French round the obelifk. Superb carpet^ 
repobiic, covered the mount on whi< h it 
One of the entries into the circle fiood, Tlie mufic of the d.fferei)^ 
was decorated by a triumphal arch, demigrades (Iruck up warlike 
on which was pourtraycd the battle inarches, and patriotic ^ir^^i ar)4 
of the Pyramids ; the otJier by a fongs of vi61ory, 
portico, above which were placed The troops, after going tlirougl* 
feveral Arabic infcriptions. Of their exercifes with great readineii 
thefe there was one as follows ; and precifion, came and arrange^ 
'' There is no God but one Qod, and themfelves around the obeli (t: ; 
Mahomet is his prophet J* when a proclamation, by the come 
In the middle ofthe circle, there mander-in-chief, tor the difcipline 
wa^ratfed an obeliik of granite, of pf the army, and the good governs 
the height of feventy feet. On one ment and well being of Egypt 
of its faces was engravenr, in letters read aloud, by the actjutant-gener^J. 
of gold. To the French republic, afm,7: It was lillened tQ with the moft 
on that oppofite to it« To the expul- profound filence, and followed by 
Jttm of the Mammalukes, ann. 6. Op repeated cries of viw la republique, 
the coUaterial fides, the^e two in- A hymn was performed at the ocr 
fcriptions were tranflated into Ara- cheRra, and the troops filed off^ 'm 
bic. The pedefial of the obeliik perfedt order, before the general-in- 
was em belli fhed with bc^ reliefs; on chief, who returned with his com? 
the adjoining ground, feven altars pany to his quarters. The whole 
in tile ancient fly le, intermixed with pf this company, with fevcr^l 
caodleflicks, fupported trophies of Turkifli officers apd Arabian chiefs, 
arms, fannounted with three-co- who had come up during the exhir 
lomed flags, and civic crowns. In bition, were invited to (dinner a^ 
the centre of each of thefe trophies, the general's houfe ; where a fiwp- 
tbtre was a lifi of thofe br^yp nien, tuous table was provided, of oi^e 



hundred and ddy covers. Tlie farrounded the place of Elbecqaier. 

French colours were united with The intent of this entertainment, it 

theTurkifli, the cap of libertj was wil] readily be perceived, was, to 

placed by the fide of the crefcent, imprefs the minds of the Egyptianfi 

and the rights of man by the Koran, with a fetifc of the power, art, an<i 

The gaiety of the French was tem- magnificence of the French nation, 

pered with the gravity of the Turks, and of their refpe6t for Muflelmen; 

The Muflelmen were led to their and good-will towards all the Egyp- 

own choice of meats and drinks, and tians. Nor was it by profeflions 

exprefled great fatisfaflion with the alone, that Buonaparte (ludied to 

attentions that were (hewn them, gain the attachment and confidence 

J^fter dinner, feveral toads were of the people among whom, accord* 

drank. The commander-in-chief ihg to his own phrafe, the French 

gave, for a toafl. To the three hvn- had come to dwell, but by anions. 

dredlh year of the French repMic, In order to pleafe the people, and 

One of his aides-de-camp. To the difpel their apprehenfions of (ome 

icgijkttive bodies, and the executive unknown impending calamities ; 

dirt&ory, Mong(?, prefident of the the opening or the canal of Cairo, 

Egyptian inftitute. To the perfe&ion was this year accompanied by even 

of the human vtidcrpmiding, and the greater ceremony and pomp than« 

advancement of knowledge. General ufuaL On this occafion the general 

Berthier, To the expidfon of tJte diflributed confiderabic fums, in 

Mammalukes, and the profperity of alms, among the poor, and gave 

the people of Egypt, Other toaHs an entertainment to the notables of 

were given, but thefe were the Cairo. In like manner he gave a 

chief. Each toafl was received confiderabic fum for defraying the 

with unanimous plaudits, and fuit» expcnfe of a magnificent feaft, in 

Able aii^ of mufic. Patriotic cou- honour of the birth^day of ^\\e pro- 

plets, fung by the foldiery, concluded phet. Having, on that occafion, 

this civic feafl. declared himfelt the proteflor of all 

At four o'clock, foot and horfe religions, he received, from the 

races began, and the prizes were Muflelmen, the nnme of j^li Buona- 

adjudged to the vi6lors, who were parte* But the overt-a61, by which 

borne in triumph around the circus, he mod fignally difplayed regard to 

At theclofe ot the day, the whole the grand fcignior, the head of 

of the circumference of this was il- Mufi^Imen on eartii, was his per- 

iaminated in the mofl brilliant man- roitting all the Turkifh veifels tn 

tier. The pillars, the intermediate Alexandria, as well as all neutral 

garlands, and the triumphal arches veffels, either to remain or fet fail 

were hung with chryflal lamps, for Iheir refpeflive defiinations, at 

which produced the happiefl effect, their plcai'are, and fetting free and 

At eight o'clock, there was a beau- fending to Confbmtinpple, on board 

tifoi dilplay of fire- works, accom- thofe veffels, with a letter to tlie 

panied, at different intervals, by dif^ grnnd vizier, fraught with many 

charges of mufquetry and artillery. prof*'flions of regnrd and even 

A confiderabic number of Turkifh fubordination to tlie Porte, the 

ladies enjoyed the fped^acle from the Tiirki lb (laves, in number of three 

Wiudow^ and tops of the faoufes that haodf^d, whom he had found at 




Malta. He made prelents to 
Turks, Greeks, and Arabs. He 
patronized (tri6l juftice between 
man and man : he gave free pa(^ 
\i^e and protection to the pilgrims 
p)i;ig to and from Mecca, and en> 
coa ra^ed all kinds of commerce. O n 
the fitth of Augudy when in purfuit 
of Ibrahim Bev, he had the good 
fortune to fall in with different par- 
ties of Arabs, w^ho had taken a great 
part of a caravan, on its return from 
iJecca. He fent the pilgrims and 
merchants, under a proper efcort, 
to Cairo. 

He found a number of prsedial 
flaves whom he encouraged, and 
endeavoured to raife, by hone, to 
induftry, and the dignity ot men, 
by giving them lands to be culti- 
vated on their own account. He 
gave equal rii^hts of inheritance to 
ail the children of the fame parents. 
He improved the condition of wo- 
roen, by gtvine them a certain por- 
tion ot their huiband's goods, at 
their deceafe, and the right of dif- 
jx>fing of it. He encouraged mar- 
usL^es between his foldiers and the 
fjatives, and endeavoured to re- 
ftrain polygamy. He eftablilhed 
frhools for the inftnidilon of the 
yonng French, Cophts, and Arabs, 
in French, Arabic, gt^ography, and 
mathematics. He was a friend to 
Ihew?, feftivities, games, and other 
ciirertions ; in all which he wiflied 
tfie French and the natives to min- 
gle togetlier. And he fubmitted, as 
A problem, to tJie inftitute by what 
internments and airs, the minds of 
tticfe hft, might be the moft. readily 
and effe^ually imprefled through 
the power of n>u fie. 

By his orders, ilFued about the mid- 
dle of September, a general aflembly 
was to be held, on or before the 
twelfth irf" Oft ober, of all the nota- 

bles throughout the fourteen pro- 
vinces, into which Egypt is divided. 
Deputations from each of thefe pro- 
vinces were to form a general coun- 
cil, or divan, for the government 
of the nation at the capital. Grand 
Cairo. Each deputation was to 
conlifl of three men of the law, 
three merchants, and three fheicks, 
or chiefs, of Arabs. The French 
generals, commanding the different 
provinces, had it in charee to 
choofe the perfons who fhoulcT form 
the aflemblies of notables, in tlie 
particular provinces, out of thofe 
perfons who had mofl influence with 
the people, and were the mofl dif- 
tinguifhed for their knowledge, their 
talents, and the manner in which 
they had received the French: They 
were charged to take fpecial care 
not to name any perfons for no- 
tables, who had declared agaihfl 
the French : but to take a note of 
their names, and tranfmit them to 
the general-in-chief. A rcgifler- 
office was efbblifhed for titlei to 
edates, and other deeds that might 
be produced as evid'^nce. The 
members of the divan allowed libe- 
ral falaries, and every meafure was 
taken that might tend to reconcile 
the Egyptians to the government of 
their new maflera. 

In parfuance of the orders of the 
general, deputies from all the pro- 
vinces of Egypt, adembledat Cairo, 
on the eight of Odober, and held 
their firfl fitting under the title of 
the general divan. In this affembly 
Monge and Barlholet performed tile 
functions of commif&ries on the part 
of the French. The h&iiiiy of 
the Turkiih drefs, the gravity o*" 
the perfons who wore Bierr., and 
the numerous domeflics in thcu- 
train, confpffed to (bed on iiie j^e- 
nerai divtn an air of roftj*o(!y. Tiv3 


16] AN^NUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Arabian chief, Abdalla Keaftaori/ t^ inveterate and unohangcabte. 

ivas chofen proficient. The only Neither the grand divan al Cairo, 

bufinefs tranfa^ed in the divan was nor the fubordinate councils an* 

the palling into !aws, or the giving fwered ^he- (anguine expectations of 

confent to the decrees of the ge- Buonaparte. Murmurs ofdifcontent 

heral. were (bon intermingled witli the 

But this (hew of freedom couJd deUberations of the national aflem- 

fcarcely be expe^ed to irnpoic on biy of MuQclmen. Every iniiova- 

the weakeft minds. Befides the fion, it was generally agreed, though 

prcfence of the French commiflion- not atfirft refolutiily expredcd, was 

cfrs, and the manner of the appoint- contrary to theKoran^ which had 

inent of the notables, there were forefeen and provided for all cafes, 

other circumftances which brought worthy of confideration. Thcfe 

the fubjeflioii of the Mudelmen dill murmurs did not elcape the vigi- 

inore forcibly to their recollection. lance of ihe French commander. 

Orders had been given, that tlie who had his (pies in every place, 

whole of the inhabitants of Egypt and was informed of every thing 

ihould wear the three-coloured that palled. He endeavoured to 

6ockade; that all the Egyptian vef* preierve peace and good order, by 

fels (called germes) navigating the meafures of prevention. Out of the 

Nile, (hould Ikoid the three-coloured numbers of iixlividuals wlio were 

Aag. And this flag was flying from followers, and employed in various 

the great pyramid, the pillar of fer vices of the government and ar- 

Pompey, and the loflicft minaret of my; and all tlie Europeans, of what- 

the cadle of Cairo, and the highed ever nation, refiding at Cairo, he 

tfjinaret of all the places of note in formed, about the beginning of 

the fourteen provinces. To the October, ten companies of national 

members of the divan alone it was guards, not to be employed as re* 

permitted to wear, by way of dif- gulars, but to occupy and maintain 

tin6lion, if they cliofe it, three- certain appointed pofis in the city, 

. coloured (hawls on their flioulders. on any announced emergency. 

A government refembling, as near It was not long before the infur- 

^s circumftances would admit, the re6!ion apprehended buril forth, 

form of the French republic, was On the twenty-fixth of that months 

Organized throughout Egypt. A immenfe crowds, armed with fpears 

land-tax was impofed on all the and (harp flones, allembled in and 

villages in all the provinces. And around the grand mofque, and every 

a tax on houfes in Grand Cairo, other mofque in Cairo. Thcfe were 

and other cities. the fortrclfes in which they were to 

Though it has been an eafy mat- make their ibnd, and firom whieh 

ter to produce fudden e^c6ls on the to make their attacks. A fecret 

minds of barbarians and femi-bar* correfpondence was eflabliflied be- 

barians, it is extremely difiicult, by twecn the Mahometan priefU and 

any powers of reafoning.or improve- the Mammal ukcs ; fome of whom 

ments, however beneficial, to pro- were c(M)reafed in diflerent houies^ 

duce any permanent change in their« in the garb of women. General 

fyfteps of thinking; which, in .pro- Dupuy, at the head of a regiment 

portion to the paucity of their ideas, of dragoons, repaired to the grand 


H t ?i T O k Y O F E U k O P fe. [It 

l^oHine, to diTpcrfe the miilllfucle infur^ents was calculated, bv the' 

that vras every moment increafing. French, at five or fix Ihoiifaiid men : 

lie was furioufly attacked, and that of the French themlelves, in 

morfally wounded. Not a few of killed and wounded, was ftateJ by 

l.h iren were killed. The reft car- them not to have exceed a hini- 

rfed back the goncral to his cpiar- dred, in killed and vvbiinfUrd. And 

ler<, where h-:* died in a few hours this lofs, it was alio llafed, was 

t!:ereaftef. Tlieajarm beint^ ^jiven, owing to a fiiower of hcv.vv fiones 

t!.'* whole of the French were ini- thrown on the French, from the 

mediately under arms. The gene- tops of houfe^. In this a/fur the 

ril ^T>vc orders for a battalion to Greeks, at C'airo, took a decided 

r^anh againft the grand mofqne, and aclive part on the fide of the 

\>nere the Turk? w rre adembled, French. Some of thcni took up 

to tJie number of eight or ten thou- arms in their cauli?, while its ifllie 

t.^r.d. Thev were fumnioned, but wa^ yet dubious : a grea tern umber, 

d^'cidedlv refofed to furrendor. The after it was decided, vVere active in 

Citadel then fired on the city, par- the dilcovery of fugitives. All the 

linilarlv the ^^rand mofqae, into prifoners, whom they brought to the 

'VMiich ihere fell fcveral bombs, ex- different military ftations in Cairo, 

citin;^: terror and defpair; Other and who were found guilty on e\ i- 

battalion^ -were fent againfl the dence, we may prefume not very 

other mofques, in the avenues and fcrupulous, were put to death. The 

approaches to which the Turks were difguifed Mammalukes, conformably 

a 'tacked, and driven back into the to a former decree> underwent the 

niofques. The doors of thefe were fame fate. Several parties of the 

fttfced by the French, who made a infiirgents retaining their arms, en- 

dreadfui flaughter. But the Muf- deavoured to eCcape death by a pre- 

filmf^n, though defeated, were not cipate flig:U ; but thefe untortunatv^ 

\et conquered. The place of the nuMi were alfailed by double terrors, 

fiain wtis fupplied by new comba- While they were purfucd by general 

tant>, and the contcu was prolong- Danourt, at th.t? l^'ad of a body of 

cd. This was a lefrible day, and cavalry^ they were met in front by 

ftarcely was thbit which followed the Arabs of the detart, who are 

lefs bUifxiy. Not a Turk who was equally hoftile to rdl ftrangersTurksy 

arjned with fo much as a club, or a Eurojiean?, and E«^\ ptians, and 

<'one, cfcaped with I ifc.*' The Turks, fomednies parfies of their own na- 

cn their part, aiTafEnatcd every in* tion ; nil firangers not of their owi? 

dividual, or imall party of French, trib-. They aie always on horfe- 

uhom they found in the ftreets. back, and live in the midll of th« 

They burlt into the houfes of the dcfart. Tiieir ferocity is equal to 

French, and plundered them ; and, the wretched life they lead, expofed 

:( any European domeftics were for whole days to the burning heat 

f>'!nd, they were put to the fword. of the fun, without a drop of water 

S'.me traces of the infurredtion re- to drink. They are perfidious, and^ 

TTinined till the twenty-third ol'Oc- maintaining a conflant tlru^rgle for 

f-iber: towards the evening of which the maintenance of tli^ir own exiil* 

J <• fit V be;yafi to refume tlK* appear- ence, are bat litilc {lUceptibie ot 

' ' ■• . t ir^nquillif V. The lof; of tl.e humanity and compaflion for oIIht.^. 

\JL.K1L ' [CJ' The/ 


They f^refent the moft hideous pic- 
ture of barbarians that can be con- 
ceived. The unhappy fugitives 
from Cairo, hemmed in between 
fuch euemiesj and the avenging 
French, had no retreat. The fate 
of the whole was ruin, da very, or 
death. Buonaparte, having inflidl* 
ed fevere, though in his circum* 
fiances perhaps not unneceflary, 
puniAiment, publiAied an amnefty 
to all peaceable peoples and held 
the fame language of conciliation, 
and affeded confidence, as ufuah 

While the infurredion was brew- 
ing at Cairo, the French arms were 
employed in the fupprelfion of plots 
of iefs moment, and in fubduing 
open refinance in other places. 
Scarce a day pafled without fome 
ikirmilhing between the French and 
Arabs. At Sombat, capital of a 
diftridt of Gambia, the inhabitants 
aflaflinated a detachment of French, , 
conAfting of one half of a demi- 
brigade, and a part of a regiment 
of dragoons. On tlie thirteenth of 
September, tlie village, by orders 
of « the . generals Dugua and Ver- 
dier, was burned. About the 
fame time there was an engage- 
ment at Mitcamar, between the 
Arabs and the troops under ge- 
neral Murat, in which the former 
were completely routed. On the 
night between the fifteenth and 
iixteenth of September, the French 
garrifbn of Damictta was attacked 
by a number of Arabs, joined by 
infurgents from feveral neighbour- 
ing provixxres. The generals Viai 
and Andreoffi attacked them in 
their turn, at their head-quarters 
in the village of Schouarra, litua- 
ted within cannon (hot of Dami- 
eita. The Arabs, to the number, 
as Ibted by the French, of about 
ten thottfand, were ranged in one 

line, extending from the Nile to. 
the lake Menzales. The numbec 
of the French did not exceed five 
hundred. Fifleen hundred of the 
Arabs were killed or drowned, in 
the inundation of the river, and 
in the lake. The village Schou- 
arra was taken, and committed to 
the flames. Columns of light 
troops fcouring the country, be* 
tween Damietta and Manfoura» 
puniftied the chiefs of the re- 
volt. On the feventh of 06lober 
the divi(ion qi the French, und^c 
general Deflaix, who, having dri- 
ven tlie Mammalukes before, had 
pailed ibme weeks in the neigh- 
Dourhood of the cataracts,, in fearch 
of the ruins of Thebes, defeated 
Mourad Bey, at Sediman, in Fay- 
oum, a province of Upper Egypt. 
The French had been greatly ha^ 
railed on their march by the troops 
of the bey, who endeavoured to 
llraiten the quarters of the French, 
and cut off their provifions. At 
day break they found themfelves 
in front of the army of the bey, 
five or £x thoufand flrong, com- 
pofed of nearly an equal number 
of Mammalukes and Arabs, and a 
corps of infantry, which guarded 
the entrenchments of Scdiman ; 
where there were placed four 
pieces of cannon i general Deflaix 
formed his infantry into a (quare 
battalion, which he flanked with 
two finall divifions of two hun- 
dred horfemen each. The Mam- 
malukes and Arabs, afler long he- 
fitation, formed their refblution, 
and charged a fmall platoon on 
the right, commanded oy captain 
Valette, with horrible cries, and 
the greatefl valour; and, at the 
fame time, the rear of the.fquare. 
They were every where received 
by the French with the greatefl 



cooheA. The chafleurs^ compofing 
the platoon, prefented their bayo- 
nets, aod referved their fire till 
the enemy were within ten paces. 
The barbarian cavalry were no 
lefs intripid. They advanced im- 
petuoofly in front of the French 
ranks. Afker firing, and throwing 
dieir prflola and nmfkets at the 
beads of the French, they, rufhed 
on into clofe adlion with their 
fpears and fabres. Some of them, 
whofe horfes were killed under 
tbcm, crept along upon their bel- 
lies, in order to be under the 
bayonets, and cut the legs of their 
enemies. Bat all was in vain : they 
were obliged to fly. The French, 
notwithfianding^ the fire of the 
tour pieces of cannon, which was 
the more to be dreaded, that 
t^ir ranks were deep, advanced 
10 Sedtraan ; and the entrench- 

ment, cannon, and baggage were 
immediately In their pofTeflion. 
On the fide of the united forces 
of the Mamroalukes and Arabs, 
three beys were killed, two wound- 
ed, and four hundred of the flower 
of his troops killed on the fpof. 
The lofs of the French was, by 
them ftated, to be thirtyrfix killecf, 
and ninety-fix wounded. 

Here, as well as at the battle 
of the the Pyramids, the fol- 
diers made a confiderable booty. 
There was not a Mammaluke on 
whom they did not find from 
threeto five hundred Jouis. Mou- 
rad Bey retreated to the gorges 
of the mountains of Tajain-ra/i, 
to take care of his wounded, and 
recruit his army. And thus Def- 
faix was lefl in pofleffion of tho 
bed part of Upper Egypt. 




C H A p. IL 

The French keep their Ground in Egypt. -"^Yct many Canfis remain cf 
Alann. — Means nfcd by Buonaparte, for obviating or encountering the/e.'-'^ 
jin AUiance, offenjtve and dc/enfivc, between the Turks and Rujfiatts* — Ex* 
pcdition of the French into Egypt. — Obju^s of this atowed^'-^Or probable, 
— Preparations for the Expeditioft, — Difpofitifffi of the Troops. — jind 
March, — Oppofed by Mamtnalnkes, Arab^, Samaritans, and other Syrian 
Tribes, — Battle of El-Arifch^^^El-Arifch taken by tlve French. — Progrcjs 
of the French Army to Gaza. — Of which it takes Poffeffion without Refif- 
tance.*^And of Jaffa (the ancient Joppa), after a dcfperaie Refi/Jance. — 
Importance of JaJ'a. — Letter from Buonaparte to GhezMir, Bajhaw of 
St. John d^Acr^. — Ghczzar's Anfxi^r. — March of the French A rn^ along 
fhe Roots of Mount Carmel. — Towards St. John d^Acte^'^^Dcfcription and 
Hijlory of Acre. ■^— French encamp before. Acre. -^ And opcti Trenches 
agaiitfi ii. — Prcjeflt combined by the Britijh and Turkijh Governme^Us, 
for a general A flack on Buonaparte, by Sea and La;nd,-*~-A French Flotilla^ 
uith Battering-ca?inon, Ammunitiont and Stores, taken by Commodore Sir 
Sidney Smith. — Breach effeQed in the Wall of Acre. — Repeated Ajfautls 
ef the French, on Acre, 'repulfed**^Immenfe Midtitudes qffemblod on the 
fwrrounding Hills, waiting for the Ijfue of the Conteft, with a Determina" 
Hon to join the f'ldors, — Circular Letter from Sir Sidney Smith to Hie 
Princes and Chiefs of the Chrifliaiis of Mount Lebanon*^^Their friendly 
Anfwer. — Sallies from the Garrifon of Acre.'^Account qf Ghezzar Ba* 
fhaw. — Dtfcoinjiture and Retreat if the frefieh from Acre, 

NOTWITHSTANDING the Avav ivas uncontronled, fare by 

deftradlionofthe French fleets thofe defultory ^qd predatory in- 
aiid that all reafonable hopes of ^ carfions of the Arabs who often 

timely fupport from the fquadrons moled the beft eflabhfhed govern-* 

atGenoa, Toulon, and Corfu, were ments. Buonaparte had ftrength- 

crtt off, by the irrefiftible power of -pned hia army by the vf rtcks of the 

the Englilh in the Mediterranean^ navy, and by recruits of different 

the French had now eflabltdicd nations in Egypt. All the impor- 

themfelves in Egypt. Their domi- tant flatiohs were occupied by the 

nion mi^ht be lapped by peftilence French. Taxes were impofea and 

and diieafe, or (liaken and fub- col lotted. Horfcs and camels, as 

verted by external aggreffion ; and well as provifions for the army, 

this the rather, that fiiey were fo were fupplied in abundance. And 

completely humbled at fea ; but, new forlrtfl'es, rifing in divers 

hvtr the iiihabitauts of Egypt; their places^ iljcngthened liie bands of 



Ahe invaJers, by their genuine im- ing him a prefect, gave him irj 
portaiicc, and alio by ih^t air of charge, as a paHenger, citizen Beau* 
iovereign power which they car- champ, with difpatches to the Porte, 
Tied to the imaginations of the containing afiurances of the fincere 
hij.jihled MuHelnien. Yet many cir- defire of the French nation to hVe 
xTiimfrances of alarm continued to with the Porte on the ufual terms 
iig^'tate the mind of Buonaparte*— ^ of fri.endthip. At tlie fame tim^j 
Ti)e extenfion of the French arms he dated, in the letter, the grounds 
extended alfo the fphere of hofti- of complaint which he had againfl 
Jitv and refiftance to iheir povvi*r. the bathaw, Ghezzar, who had 
C»hczzir Oglou, the balliaw of St. given a cordial reception to Ibra*- 
John ri'Acre, had allenibled a great him Bey, with about a thoufand 
iJ^rce, the dettination of which, in Mammakikes, nfter he had been 
the prefer) t circumftances, could not driven out of Egypt into Syria- 
be coihtful^ The balhaw of Damaf- Finally, he dated, that the punifh- 
Ciis, un, \va% in hiotion. Multitudes ment which he might find it neceC- 
«)1 Arab-; mij^ht be induced to join dry to inflid on that ba(haw, ought 
the enemies of the French. The ap- not to give the Porte any uneafi- 
poarancc of a great force in Egypt, nefs\ liuonapa/te, Ibrefeeing every. 
or on it-j confines, might awaken the thing that would tend to give of.- 
courage, with the refentraent of the fence to the Porte, had already dif- 
inhabitants, and overturn an autho- patched an ollicer to Gl.ezzar, by 
rily not yet confirmed by the Japfe fea^ with a letter, alFuring him that 
ot time, the abatement of preju- the French nation was defirous to 
dice*, and the change of habits, live at peace, and preferve friend- 
M'hiL thefii dangers were threa- fliip with the grand feignior. But 
tentd in the eaft, fartiwr attacks he inn (led tlmt Ghezzar (hould di(^ 
were to be apprehended, and new jnifs Ibrahim, witii his Mamma- 
<t>mbi nations, again/t the French in luke$. Ghezzar, who, in his milii- 
Larope. tary preparations, had acled by 
Among the (hips which lay in orders from the P.orte, njade no 
ihc harbour of Alexandria, at the anfwer to this letter from Buona* 
arrival of the French, was a large part^:, but fent back the officer who 
vcfieJ, belonging to the TurLiih carried it, and put tlie French at 
government, q( that kind called Acre into irons. 
caravaU^ feiit to bring home thje Tlie fpirit and fubfiance of thcfe 
asmual tribute. It was the tiaie difpatches, from Buonaparte, very 
IV hen the Turkifli iliips p{ com- emphatically mark tlie advanced 
me/ce uAially fet fail from Egypt ; decline and degradation of the Tur- 
and the caraval received orders kifli empire. Such infoience and 
from government to return, with contempt, however^ one would iroa- 
the other veflels, to Conftantinople. gine, mpft have tended rathci^ to 
Buonaparte aiTured the captain vf provoke the refentment and re- 
the veilel of the friendthip of the venge of the Turks, under all tJieir 
FVench ; defired that he would political weaknefs, 11 ill retaining a 
bear witnefs at home, that the Tur- proud and haughty fpirit, thqn to 
lifii, a« well as tiie French flag, conciliate even Llie appearance ftf 
was BvitiK at Alexandria ; and, giv- acqiii<;fcencc and connivance. Ye^ 
^ * ^ j[C3] Buo- 


Buonaparte, no donbt, knew how 
to eflimate the fpirit of the Porte, 
which, under the difadvantages of 
ignorance, anarchy, and the ferpor 
of old age, would have, perhaps, 
come to fome accommodation with 
the invaders «f Egypt, rather than 
Bazard an appeal to arms, if the 
divan had not been encouraged and 
Ipirited up, by the vi6bory obtained 
over the FrAich fleet, near Abou- 
kir, to form an alliance, ofl'enfive 
and defend ve, with the'£ngli(h and 

Buonaparte, fufpe^ting that fuch 
an alliance would be formed, and 
that, in this cafe, a combined ope- 
ration would take place againft 
Egypt (an attack on the iide of 
Syria, and an attack by fea), refol- 
ved to march into Syria, cHaft ife 
Ghezzar, and deftroy the prepara- 
tions made for an exp^tion againd 
Egypt, rather than wait and re- 
ceive the combined attack appre- 
hended on the coaAs of that coun- 

This plan of military opera- 
tions, our readers may probably 
recolle^^, is exa6lly in the fame 
fpirit with the mafterly and bold 
condu6t of Buonaparte, during thfe 
blockade and Ciege of Mantua, in 
1796, when he marched rapidly 
againft an Auflrlan army, which 
had turned the lake of Garda, and 
was intended to form a jun^ion 
with general Wurmfer. If the 
French army, which covered Ihe 
iiege, had waited their lipproach, 
aad given them battle near Man- 
tua, a fortie from the garrifon might 
have, probably, decided the adion 
in favour of the Aufirians ; there- 

fore, Buonaparte, with his covering 
army, advanced to a very oonfider- 
abie difhince, northward, beat the 
Auftrian army, and returnedi and 
carried the iiege of Mantc^. 

It was the intention of Buona- 
parte, if the Porte (hould ft ill re- 
main quiet, in the midft of all this 
invasion and interference in tlie 
Turkifti dominion and government, 
afler be had driven Gnezzar from 
his government of Acre, to have 
complimented the grand feignior 
with the nomination of a new ba- 
fhaw : a determination, it may be 
obferved, by the way, which leads 
to a very probable conje6ture, that 
he entertained fome ideas of ex- 
tending the power and influence 
of the republic, under a fbew of 
homage and refpe^l for the fublirae 
Porte, in the fame manner that the 
Englifh Eaft-India company (eized 
and kept pofl^flion of different ter- 
ritories, in the name of the mogul. 
In Afia, a few victories often lead 
to exteniive ' dominion and empire. 
If fuccefs fliould attend his arms in ' 
Syria, the glory of his name, by 
attracting, as uiual, numerous war- 
like, but barbarous tribes, to a vic- 
torious ftandard, might prepare the 
way for his march to Conftantino- 
ple, and even Vienna. In the de- 
fig n, declared by Buonaparte, ' of 
anticipating a ftorm ready to fall 
on Egypt, there is nothing impro- 
bable ; and it appears to be pretty 
certain, that the end in view was 
not limited, as was fuppofed by fir 
Sidney Smith,**^ to the treafures a- 
mafled by Ghezzar Bafiiaw. 

Buonaparte having, by a proper' 
difpofition of his tndops, and other 

* In his letter to rear-admiral Blanket, commanding the Britifli fquadron in the Red 
Sea ; and to John WUfon, cfq. appointed^ by the governor and coancil of Bombay^ 
agent to the £aft-IndU company. 

' precautions 



precnttioiM of a political nature, 
provided for Ihe internal qaiet of' 
£g]rpt, as well as (ecurity againfl 
incorfions by the Arabs of the de- 
&rt, towards the end of January, 

1798, gave orders to general Al- 
meyros to embark provifions and 
Aores, for the army of Syria, to be 
conveyed, by the lake of Menzales, 
to the port of Tinch, and from 
thence to be carried, by land, to 
the village of Cathich. The ar- 
tilleiy, tliat had been employed in 
the iiege of Alexandria, wa$ put 
on board three frigates, which were 
to cruize off Jaffa, and to maintain 
a commm:iiGation with the army. 
Camels and males were provided 
with extraordinary expedition, at 
Cairo, for carrying the light artil- 
iery, ammunition, and provifions, 
of which, the moil bulky, as well 
as the mod neceflary article, vfA% 
water. The army was parted into 
ibur divifions: one under general 
Kleber, one under general Reenter, 
one under general Bon, and one 
under general Lannes. The ca- 
▼airy was commanded by general 
Mourat, the artillery by general 
Dommartin, and the engineers by 
general Cafiarelll.* A junction was 
iormed, on the fourth of February, 

1799, between the divifions of Kle- 
ber, and the advanced guard of 

Regnier, nnder the command of 
general Grange, at Cathich ; from 
whence they proceeded to LarlHa, 
otherwife called El-Arifch, a village 
pleafantly iituated on the river Pe- 
neus, and the feat of a Greek arch- 
bidiop. as well as of mofques for 
the votaries of the Mahomedan re- 
ligion. El-Arifch was carried, by 
general le Grand, with the bayo- 
net The barbarous Arnautes and 
Maugrabins, who defended it> took 
refuge in the fortrefs, but with fuch 
precipitation, that, in barricading 
the gates, they fliut out two hun- 
dred men, who were put to tJic 
fword, or made prifoners. 

Scarcely was the bloc^kade of El- 
Arifch begun, by Regnier's diviiion, 
when a reinforcement of infantry and 
cavalry, efcorting a convoy of provi- 
iionsfor the defenders of El-Arifch, 
appeared in fight of that village, 
and encamped on a rifing ground, 
covered by a very deep ravine. At 
that' moment, general Kleber came 
up with the advanced guard of his 
division. General Regnier com- 
municated to him the defign he 
had formed, of turning Ihe ravine, 
and furpriiing the camp of the 
Mammalukes in the night. Kleber 
entirely approved this projcft. The 
attack was made, ana iucceeded. 
The camp was carried, and the 

* Tbe eflfcdive force of the army, deflined for the Syrian expedition, is thus dated 
by ftocral Berthier i 

^ The divifion of Kleber 2>349 men 

m- Pitco of Bon >>449 

Ditto of Lannes 2,924 

Ditto of Regnier a, 160 

Cavaby attached to the different dividons . . 800 

£]igineere 340 

ArtiUery . . ,. • i>335 

Guidesi on foot and on horfeback .... 40b 

Dromcdartet 8S 





porps of Mamma] like cavalry cat village of Pale ft iiic, as tlicy got oui 
jri pieces, or taken. A mmiber of of the clefart, and f(om whence they 
hoiTes, camels, lioic"*, and provi- difcdvcred the cultivated plains oi 
fions, and the uJuJe of the con- Gh'/a, , 

voy, fell iiUo the hands of (he The French army had now fuc- 
Frcnch. Tv\o beys wciHj kilit'd on cceded in tnwerfing eighty, leagues 
the field of halllt^.' Tjie two other of the mod dry and barren part 
divifions of the army, wliJi Cue ar- pf the defart ; ior, the inhabitants 
tillery, formed their junclion a ftw of El-Arilch, as well as thole of 
days thereafter. Buonaparte, him- Cathich, enjoy only a few fpot.<% of 
felf, with, his t;/flr/-;;/^yt>r, and all rong v'ultured ground, and a few palm- 
guard, who had fet oi>l. from Cairo trees near their wells: all around . 
on the tenth, arrived at ILl-Arifch is a dry and burning fand. The 
oh the feventecpth of February. In afpecl of thjj pJiins of Gaza was 
liis march acrofs tliQ defart, he loft the more plea nng and recreating to 
leveral men and a number of horfes, the fi^ht, that they appeared bor- 
through bad provllions, and the dgred by mountains, which render- 
.want of water, a !^ well as h^ the cd the profpe6l fimilar to that of , 
?ittacks of the Arabs, who never European countries, witlioiii leaving 
ccafed to harafs Iilm. . the tifefome monotony of Egyptfan 

The main arniy, tlais aiTembled, plains, and of thgile parching lands 
t0(*k a pofition before El-Arifch, on which uniformly fill the air with an 
the eigl)tecnth of February. Buo- annoyino:, infuflcrable du/1. 
napartc orderc^l (>iie of the towers Alxlallah BaQiaw, with a thou- 
of the cafile to be cannonaded, nnd^ funtl cavalry, and fifty thoufand 
a breach b'j;npj i;on made, he fi)m- Naploufuins, lay encamped in the 
moned tlie ))hue to fiirrendor. The h*nghls of K^)rfum. After haraf- 
garrifon wns c(imj>ored of Arnaules fir,g the Frerjch army, attempting 
and Maiij^rabins, all rude barba- to take it in flank, and tu enianjilc 
rians, vvitl.out leaders, uninformed it in the mountain.?, l.c was beat 
in any of the principles of »ar ac- back, forced to raife Jiis camp, du- 
know'edged by civl!!ac-'d iialions. ring the night of the twenty-fourth. 
Their ardwcr was, that they were and fell back upon Gaza; ugainft 
•willing to come out pf the fort, whit h place the French proceeded 
with their arms and baggage, as it to march on the twenty-fiflh of Fc- 
was their wifli to go to Acre. Buo- bruary. T4ie iortrefs of Gaza being 
iiaparte, ai^xious lo fpare the efl'u- evacuated bv the enemy, was taken 
iion of his foldlers' bl(;od, delayed pofielhon of' by the French, witli- 
the afliiult. But at length, on tjie out reliftance. In Qiiza, tluyj found 
twentieth of February, the garri (on a very feafonable fupply Wprovi- 
furrcndercd, on condition of bein^r lions and milithry llores. The In- 
permitted to retire to Baydat, by habitants having gone out, to meet 
the defart. A number of the Man- Buonaparte, the cily was treated 'u\ 
grabins entered iiUo the Fieuch a friendly umMner. * 
feryice. On tht? twenty^ninth of February, 

On the twenty-fourth of Febru* the main army began to n-iove lo- 
ary, the hcad-c]narters of the aruiv w.uds Jaffa (t)ie ancient Joppa), a 
hairchcd to Kaii-jouiiLl<, the firll fca-poiL on llic coafi of I'alcitine. 



S#e!tween which and Damietia, alon^ 
I lie tea-coail, the ivhole is defart 
iiiid wild. Here, pilgrims priy for 
permiffion lo vifit the Holy Land. 

This city is furrounded by a wall, 
wltlioul a ditch, and defended by 
ftrong towers, provided with can-» 
nnn. Trenches were opened, bat- 
teries were erected, and a praciical 
breach was made in the wall. Nqt- 
\Nilhf!an(iing two defpcratc forties, 
and every exertion on the part of 
i'<o garriiun, about iuur thoufand 
ilfon^, the principal tower was 
idkfn, and the greater part of the 
have garri fon was put to the 
I'.vord : witli a view, no doubt, of 
ftrikin^ terror into Other parts of 
Palcfiine, and wherever Buona- 
p.irle migh't direct bis march.— 
A[K)ut three hundred Egyptians, 
uhoefcaped from the aflault, were 
lent back into Egypt^ and refbrted 
to iheir iarailics. Tjie French 
found, ID the towers of Joppa, ten 
pieces of cannon, and about twen- 
ty )r4<li(lcrent iiegc - piece?, either 
i:u:j or brais. 

Buonaparte^ having made himr 

Wf mafter of the towers of Joppa, 

<>idefed die inhabitants to be fpared. 

About fifteen froall trading veflels 

were found in the harboiur. The 

t <->uqueft of Jaffa, according lo the 

r^|>ort of fir Sidney Smith, coll the 

Frencli above one tiioufand men. 

Buonaparte then, formed a divan, 

compoied of the principal Turks 

• »f Ine town. He alii) gave orders 

for taking every ncce(T;iry meafurq 

for the deferipe of the place. Jaffa 

provwl a iituatipp of tho lughcft 

importance to the army : it became 

the port, and the cntrtpU, o( every 

thing that was to come from Da- 

inii iia and Alexandria. From JiiQa, 

Jijunaparte wrote the following 

letter to Ghezzar Badiaw, dated 
the ninth of March : 

" Since my arrival in Egypt, I 
feveral limes informed y^a, that 
I had no defign to make war againft 
you ; and that my urily objed was 
to expel the Miimmalukes. You 
returned no anfvvcr to the overture 
which I made you. I announced, 
that I detired that you would drive 
Ibrahim Bey from the frontiers of 
E^ypt ; but, initead of that, you 
fent troops to Gaza : you formed 
there large magazines, and gave 
out, that you intended lo march 
againft Egypt. You, indeed, began 
to put this plan in execution ; and 
you threw two thoufand of your 
troops into the fortreCs Arifch, 
which is only fix miles from the 
frontiers of Egypt. I was obliged, 
tlien, to depart from Cairo, to di- 
ic^, in perfon, the war which you 
fcemed to invite. The difrricls of 
Gaza, Ram ley, and Ja/Hi, are al- 
ready in my power. I have treated 
with gcnerofitv fuch of your troops 
as furrcndered at difcrction, but I 
have been fevere towards thofe 
who violated the rights of war. 
In a few days, I fliall march againll 
Acre. But why Ihould I go] to 
deprive an old man, with whom I 
am not acquainted, of the few re- 
maining years of his life ! What 
are a few miles more of territory, 
in comparifon of thofe which I 
havc'already conquered ! Ax\A, as 
God grants me viclory, I will, like 
him, be clement and njorciful, not 
only towards tlic people, but to- 
wards the great. You have no folid 
reafon for beinp; my enemy, fince 
you were that of the Mammalukes. 
Your government is loparatcd from 
that of Egypt by the didrifls of 
Gaza, Ramley, and impnflable 



marches. Become my friend, be Plxenicians, and afterwards Ptofe- 
the enemy of the Mammalukes and mats by the Greeks) was, by the 
the Eiiglifti, and I wiJl do yoa as French, called St. Jean d'Acre, on 
mnch good as I have done yoa account of its being the residence 
liurt ; and I can ftill do you more, of the knights of Jerafalem, which 
Send me a fhort anfwer, by fonie they defended againft the Saracens, 
perfon inveded with full powers, It is the lafl and taofi fouthern 
that I may know your views. He city on the Phoenician coaft. It 
needs only to prelent himfelf to my ivas a confiderable place, (6 early 
advanced guard, with a white flag ; a^i the Ifraelitifh judges, fince we 
and I have given orders, to my fiaff, find that the tribe of Afher conld 
lo fend ynu a pafs of fafety, which not drive oat its inhabitants. AAer 
jon will find here annexed. On being in the poifeflion of the em- 
the twenty- firfl of March, I fliail peror Claudius, it fell into the hands 
march againfl Acre ; I muft, tiiere- of the Turks and Arabs, who kept 
fore, have an anfwer before that it till the holy war, when it was 
day." retaken by the Chriflians, in the 

The verba! anfwer of Gheazar year 1104-. The Turks took it a 
was, '* I have not written to vou, lecond time, under Saladin. It was 
becaufe I am refolved to hold no wrcfled from them a fecond time, 
communication with you. You mliy in 1191, by Guy, king of Jero- 
narch againfl Acre when you pleafe. falem, Richard L king of EnHand, 
I ftiall oe prepared for you, and and Philip, king of France, ft was 
will bury myfelf in the runis of the then given to the knights of St. 
place, rather than let it fall into John, who held it, about one hun- 
your hands." dred years, with great bravery. 

The army marciied to Zetta, But a dtfpute, concerning the poA 
vnder the tower of which it palled feflfion of it, among the Uhriflians 
the night. On the fixtecnth, they themfelves, gave an opportunity to 
encamped at Sabarieu, afler extri- fultan Melech Seraf, with an army 
eating themfelves from the narrow of one hundred and fifty thoufand 
panes of mount Carmel, on the men, to reduce it again under the 
plains of Acre. A divifion of the Ottoman yoke, in the year 1291. 
army, under general Kieber, march- The greater part of the inhabitants 
cd again fi Catflfa, which the enemy fled, for refuge, to the iiland of 
abandoned at their approach. On C)prus. Acre was immediately 
the feventeenth, late in the even- entered and plundered by the 
ing, they arrived at the mouth of Turks, who made a horrible flaugh- 
the little river of Acre, which is ter of thofe who remained in the 
at the di (lance of about fifleen hun- cit^, rafed its fortifications to the 
dred fathoms from the fortreis. ground, and deflroyed ail its nobie 
The night was employed in con- edifices, as if they could never 
flrufling a bridge, over which the take fufficient revenge upon it, for 
whole army palled, at break of day, all the blood it had cofl them, or 
en the eighteenth. fulficiently prevent fuch flaughters 

The city of Acre (anciently caf- for the future. It was in this city 
led Accbo by the Hebrews and that our Edward I. then a pnnce, 




received & woand with a poifoned 


Acre, by its excellent fituatlon, 
feems to enjoy all the advantages 
to be derived from Tea and land, 
being encompaflcd, on the north 
and eafi fide, by a fpacious and 
fertile plain, on the weft by the 
Mediterranean, and on the ibuth 
by a large bay, extending itfelf 
from tfaat city to mount Carmel. 
Thele advantages pointed it out as 
a fit entrepot for coninierce, to Fac- 
cardino (not improperly called the 
great), chief of the Drufes, who, 
towards the end of the fifteenth 
century, threw off the Turk ifli yoke, 
fortified Acre with additional tow- 
ers, and, alfb, that it might be 
inaccelTible to the Turkifti gallies, 
depodted large mafTes of ftones in 
the deeped parts of the entrance 
into the harbour. Without the har- 
bour, in the bay, there were roads 
where vetfels lay at anchor, and to 
and from which the commerce witli 
Acre wa^ carried, in lighten;, or 
boats. The Drufes,* like the Arabs, 
maintain an independence, almoft 
total, on the Ottomans. Their fub* 
miffion lo (he Porte is rather nomi- 
nal than real. Tribute, very irre- 
guJarty paid, is the only proof or 
l^^mbol of fubjedlion. The Marco- 
nites, a feci of Chriftiatvs anciently 
diitingaitbed by the appellation of 
Nef^ofians (a term well known in 
ccciefiaftical hiflory), live among, 
and, indeed, form a part of the 
Drafes. The Marconitc Chriftians 
have, in ihe present day, a college, 
even in the Vatican, in Rome, 

where there is a (bciety for propa- 
gating and cheriHiing all feels of 
ChriiHans acknowledging the Ro- 
man-catJioIic religion. The Mar- 
coniles, in external matters and 
ceremonies, are the fame with the 
ancient Syrian church ; in articles 
of belief, or fpeculation, the fame 
with the Romifh. In the times of 
Faccardino (who carried on a cor- 
refpondence and commerce with 
India, as well as the Grecian iflands 
and Italy), the moft opulent and 
commercial, and, indeed, the mofl 
accomplilhed, noble-minded, and 
princely family in Europe, was 
the Medici, who gradually arofe, 
through the ufual gradations in de- 
mocracy, to the fovereignty of Flo- 
rence, and the dependent difiricis, 
under the names of the great dukes 
of Tufcany. Faccardino paid a viiit 
to Cofmo de Medici, at Florence : 
he was received, at the court of 
Cofmo, with tlie moft elegant ho(^ 
pitality, and returned to Syria, and 
St. John d'Acre, accompanied by 
all manner of artifts from Italy .^- 
Bridges, high-ways, palaces begun 
(though, unfortunately, not finifh- 
ed), improvement in navigation 
and fortification, and agriculture 
and commerce, as well as fome 
approaches towards literature and 
fcience, in Syria, were the effects 
of the vifit, paid by Faccardino the 
great, to Cofmo de Medici. — Soon 
after the death of Faccardino, Acre 
fell again under the dominion of 
the Turks. 

On the eighteenth of March, the 
French army, having eroded the 

* The Dnifes inbjibitio(p the woody, as well as mountaioous parts of Syria, Libanus 
(or Lebanon), and Antitibaaus, &c. claim their defccnt from the crufaders that went to 
conqaer the Saracens, and take Jerufalem. They profcfs themfclvcs Chriftians, are ene- 
mies of the Turks, and have their particular princes, called emirs. Faccardino was tho 
clHcf of chr DmCeS) or emir. 



little Tiver of Acre, encamped upon 
an infulated eminence, that was 
roar to, and parall.l with llic Tea. 
On the twentieth, the trenches 
were opened, at ahout one him- 
<ired and tifty fathoms from the 

A proje^ for a general attack on 
Buonaparte, by fea and land, had 
been concerted between the Bri- 
tiOi and Turkifli governments. A 
defcent was to be made, by the 
hnCimw Ghezzar, on the frontiers 
of r.gypt, on the fide of the defart 
of S^ria. Ghezzar was to be fup- 
ported by an army, which was to 
inarch acrols Alia mhior, from Da- 
mafcus ; and the combined opera- 
tion of thefc armies, from Syria, 
was to be favoured by a di\erfion, 
lo\vards the mouth of the Nile, by 
Alourad Bey, who, though forced 
to retreat before the advances of 
the French, was yet in confiderable 
iirength, anci would be joined by 
bodies of Arabs. It was to diredl 
the execution of this plan, and to 
contribute towards its exccutioh, 
by maritime co-operation, that fir 
Sidney Smith had left Portfrnouth 
m the preceding autumn, on board 
the Tigre, of eighty-four guns, and 
failed tor the Levant, where he 
endeavoured to haflcn the prepara- 
tions for this campaign in I^gypt. 
Commodore Hood continued to 
bk)ck up the port of Alexandria, 
and the mouths of the Nile. He 
had experienced the impraciicabi- 
lily of burnin;:; and deftroying the 
fleet of Iranlportj^, and French fri- 
fiptes, without a debarkation of 
iroop*; confiderable enough to at- 
tack Alexandria. Sir Sidney, jn^ 
ibrmeil of the tirlt movements of 
Buonaparte, rmI<*:ivoured to detain 
him, by making attempts on Aiex- 
Hjulria, whicii he bombarded; with- 

out farther injury to the French 
than finking two tranfnorts. 

In the mean time, Ghezizar 
fent timelv notice, of ihe ap- 
proach of Buonaparte, to fir Sidney 
Smith, on whom the command of 
the BritiHi naval force, in the Ar- 
chipelago, had devolved, after the 
departure of commodore Trow- 

Sir Sidney, on the 7(h of Marcli, 
1799, proceeded towards the coatl 
of Syria, and, on the eleventh, ar- 
rived before Caiffa. On the fif* 
teenth, he fleered for St. John 
d'Acre, to concert meafnres with 
Ghezzar, having got the ftart of 
the enemy by two days, which he 
employed in making preparations 
for the defence of the. place. 

* On the fix teenth, about eight in 
the evening, after a chace of three 
hours, the commodore, fir Sidney, 
took, off the cape of Carmei, the 
whole French' flotilla, *under the 
command of Eydoun, chief of dr- 
vifion, laden with heavy eanjion^ 
ammunition, platforms, and other 
articles, neceflary f<)r Buonaparte^s 
army to undertake the fiege. This 
artillery, confiftmg of forty- four 
pieces tvas- immediately mounted 
on the ramparts of Acre, again ft 
the lines and batteries of the ene- 
my, as well as on gun-veflclji. The 
laiter were employed with, the 
greatefl fuccefs, again (( the enemy's 
fire. The nature of the ground, 
liowever, permitted the French to 
carry their trenches within half a 
inuiket-Uiot of the ditch of tiie 

The French, on the thirtieth of 
March, having elU'^led a breach in 
the wall, on tlw riorth-eaQ part of 
the town, einh*nvoured to take it 
by aflault, but were vigorqufly re- 
pulfed by the garrifon, \vitii cwjfi" 



H»»nibl<? lof*. The ditch was filled 
vf'wh d^ad bodies. Xhe troops of 
Ghe^if afterwards made three 
luccef^ftil li>rtie5. The objedl of 
(he Jail was to deftroy a mine, 
which the enemy had conftrucled 
ttnder the covered way, to the* 
northward, in order to fili up the 
diich, near the breach. The Fng- 
Jilh took charge of this enterprizc ; 
and, while tsvo thonfund Turks 
took charge of the lortie, they 
ji.'mped into the 'mine, and, finding 
that the works were not quite 
/iniflied» tore down the fupports, 
and defhroyed the whole con fi ruc- 
tion. After this, an uninterrupted 
fire wa^ kept up, from the fortrefs 
of Acre; the artillery being Icrved 
by Lnglith and Turkilh artillcry- 
inen, who had fet ont for Acre, 
from Conllantinople, on the fifth 
of March* Thcle men were placed 
under the immediate command of 
cokmei Phelippeaux, the chief en- 
gineer in the piace, to whofe coun- 
cil*, plans, and unwearied exer- 
tions, the fafety of Acre, and the 
important confcqnencctj that fol- 
lowcd» were, by the moft intollir 
^nt part of the Anglo-Turkilh i^ar- 
Tifan, princi|ially attributed. A«? 
tlie town of Acre ftands on a red- 
angular point of land, in tiic form 
of a fqtiare, of which two tides 
are wailied by the fcni, the Britilh 
fliips in the bay of Acre, were 
enabled to contribute the protec- 
tion of thA- guns, to the ^arrifon, 
and to the working parties, de- 
tached from tho(e (liips, who were 
employed in throwing up two ra- 

Yeh'oes, or half^moons. Thefe, fak- 
ing tiie enemy's neareft approaches 
(advanced within ilone*s cafl, in 
flank),- coniiderahly impeded his 
operation*:. The ejicmy liiving 
nearly made a hirljTemeiit on the 
crown of the g!aei«, and min-d th(^ 
tower form i II g the inward aj^gle 
of the town-wall, which is com- 
po(ed of curtains and fqiiare tow- 
ers, after the manner of the twelfth- 
century, Buonaparte, who had trr>n(- 
ported the cannon he found at 
Jaffa, and effedled a breach (m the 
Iburteenth day of tlie lici^e, a^. 
tempted to fiorm» btit was re- 
pulled. Repeated atluults were 
equally iinluccvrsrul. 

It was judged to he tlie hrii 
mode of defenc^e, by the garrilJ^ii, 
to make frequent forties, in order 
to keep the enemy on the defen- 
(ive, and to impede the progre!? 
of their covering- works;. 

Agreeably to the plan of opera- 
tion already mentioned, and in thi* 
execution of which Giiezzir was 
very active,*" a number of M unmat 
lukcs, who had ibl lowed Ibrnhi'i*. 
into Syria, the janilUries of D:w 
malcus, troops from Ale})po, M.iu- 
grabins, and ollier^^, advaiiced witli 
an intention of joining the Arahs 
and Naploullans (inhabiting the an- 
cieut Samaria), and attacking tf.e 
Frencli army at Acre, on one fide, 
while the troops of Ghezzar, fup- 
ported 'by the fire of tlye Britifh 
ftiips, ftiould attack them on the 
otiier. Neither a detaclmieiU of 
Kleber's diviiion, under general Ju- 
not, which had taken port at Na» 

Ijid m his maniieltoei; lo la.ce up arms ai;;iiiiit lue jiiIki?is. iic gave o«i, inai luc 
Frerch were or<ly a handful cf nitn, and v^ithout ariillcry ; tiMt he was Jupportcd by 4 
fo'fmrfahle for uc from England; and th.K, in ordsr 10 cxurm'.iurc the rolythrills, they 
fi*i oily 10 mafcr their appear an wt. 



zareth and Safiat> in order to watch 
and oppofe the progrefs of the ene-* 
my, and cover the fiege of Acre, 
nor the remainder of that divifion, 
under Kleber himfelf, fent for his 
fupport» were found adequate to 
that object. General Junot, fur- 
rounded and attacked by nearly 
three thonfand cavalry, was forced 
to fall back upon Cafl^-cana. Kle- 
ber had, on tne eleventh of April, 
reached Sed-jarra, within four miles 
of Cana, when four thoufand Tur- 
kifb and Arabian cavalry, fupported 
by four or five hundred foot, com* 
ing down from the hills, furrounded . 
tlie French, and were preparing to 
citarge them. Kleber attacked the 
village of Sed-jarra, and routed the 
Turkilh cavalrv, which fled acrofs 
the Jordan. But by this time, or 
wilhin a day or two thereafter, the 
whole Syrian army, having pailed 
the Jordan, in different divisions, at 
the bridge of Jacob, and at that 
of £l-mecana, encamped on the 
plains of Fouli (the ancient Efdre- 
Ion), where Ihey formed a jundion 
with the Samaritans, or Naplou- 
£aas. The united army amounted 
£pom fifteen thoufand to eighteen 
thoufand men, and (as was com- 
puted by the French generals), to- 
gether with the armed inhabitants 
of the country, by whom, as is 
iiftial in Afia, they had been joined 
in their march, and afler their ar- 
rival in the plains of Fouli, to 
above fi>rty thoufand. At the fame 
^ime, Simon, the commandant of 
the partv of French at Saffat, had 
been obliged to retire within the 
. tort, where lie was attacked by the 
enemy, who attempted to carry the 
.place, by fcaling it. Thev were 
repulfed, with ^reat lofs, out the 
French flill held it in a flate of block- 
ade; with very little of either am* 

munition or provifions. Buona- 
parte, informed of thefe circom- 
fiances, by general Kleber, vrho, 
at the fame time, intimated his 
intention of making an attempt to 
get behind, and furpriee the ene- 
my), immediately determined to aft* 
tack at all points, and come to a 
decifive engagement with a multi- 
tude, by whom he might be at- 
tacked and harafTed, at their plea- 
fure. He gave orders to Murat, 
general of brigade, to leave the 
encampment before Acre, with a 
thoufand infantry and a regiment 
of cavalry, by K>rced marches, to 
feize poffeflion of Jacob's bridge, 
to fall on the befiegers of Safiat, 
in rear, and, having raifed the fiege 
of that place, to join general Kfe- 
ber. This p^eneral, retarded by the 
difficulty of the roads, and the de- 
files through which he had to pafs, 
could not reach the Syrian camp, 
till about two hours after fuo- 
rifing. The enemy, warned of his 
approach, by their advanced par- 
ties, from the heights of mount 
Hermon, was quickly on horfeback, 
and marched forward, as &r as the 
village of Fouli, which they occu- 
pied with the Naploufian in&ntry, 
and two fmall pieces of cannon, 
carried on the backs of camels, 
Buonaparte, leaving only two di- 
vifions to keep the trenches, and 
carry on the fiege of Acre, with 
what remained of his cavalry, after 
detaching general Muratto Jacob'c 
bridge, the divifion of Bon, and 
eight pieces of artillery, hafienc»i 
to the relief of Kleber. Having 
marched from Acre on the fifteenth 
of April, he reached and took pofi 
on the heights of Saffuria, in the 
evening of that day, and, on the 
next morning, at day-break, march- 
ed towards Fouli, along the Gorges 



of Ibe Samaritan mountains. From 
the laH eminence that he had to 
pafs, he &w Efdrelon, or Fouli, 
and mouiit Tabot : and, at the foot 
of tJiis oioantatn, general Kleber in 
clofe adioD with the enemy. The 
general had drawn up his men, in 
nuraber two thoiifond, upon (bine 
ruins, where he had depofited his 
baggage, and where he maintained 
a refi fiance to twenty thoufandca- 
^"^^ly, by whom he was nearly fur- 
lounded. Buonaparte formed his 
troops into three fqiiare bodies, of 
which one was cavalry, and made 
j>ropei difpofitions for turning the 
enefny, at a great clillance, and cut- 
ting off thsiir communication with 
taeir camp, as well as their retreat; 
and, with the afiiftance of general 
Murat, deflroying or overthrowing 
I hem in tJie Jordan. The cavalry, 
with two field-pieces^ were fent to 
take the enemy's camp ; the infan- 
try proceeded to turn. their army. 
When it had advanced within (he 
diiiance of half a leag'ie of Kle- 
ber» Buonaparte difpatched, for his 
fupport, the general Rampon, with 
a demi-brigaae, and general \^ial, 
with another, to cut off their re- 
treat towards the n;ountains of Na- 
ploufia ; while be him(e)f ordered 
his foot-gaides to lead him to the 
proper places, for intercepting their 
retreat to their magazines at Je- 
nina. The enemy, tlien, for the 
fuii time, b^an to perceive, that 
the approaching forces were French- 
men. Their great mafs of cavah j^ 
was tfarov\'n into diforder. The dil- 
charge of an eight -pounder an- 
nounced the arrival of ttie French 
io Kleber, who, thus aflifted, 
charged ibt Ttirkifii cavalry with 
t^'bavonet, and attacked and car- 
ried IJie village of Fouli. The cne- 
PJ/, peiceiv'ij\g tbstt they were cut 

off, both from their magazines zxii, 
camp, were flruck with conflema- 
tion. They thrcMv themlclves be- 
hind mount Tabor, and, having 
gained, during the night, the bridge 
of Gize.l-mccana, retreated towards 
Damalcus, in great diforder, a&d 
with great lofs. 

In the mean time, general Mara* 
had furprized the ton of the gene- 
ral of Damalcus, at Jacob's bridge^ 
had taken his camp, putting al(, 
who had not fled, (o the fword^ 
railed the fic^e of Safliit, and pur- 
faed and ha railed the enemy's re- 
treat ff)r Icveral leagues. Alurat* 
h tx'ing left a party to guard the 
pol't of Jacob's bridge, and throwa 
proviiiorts into the caftle of Saffat^ 
on the Icventccnlli of April, took 
polietiion of the fort, fituatcd oa 
the lake of Tiberias, where Ju; 
Ibund a year's ammunition and pro- 

The column of cavalry, fent Xq 
attack the Syrian camp, under tlifi 
command of the adjutant-general, 
le Turcq, had completely furprized 
it, taken five hundred camels, with 
tents, ftorcs, and provifions, kilkd 
a great number of men^ and made 
two hundred and fifty priloners, 
Buonaparte gave orders, that aH 
that was tbund in the villages o£ 
Nourcs, Jenina, and Fouli, (liouUI 
be deftroyed by fire and fword- 
After reproaching his Naploufian 
pri (oners, for h?wmg taken up amifi 
againft him, without provocation^ 
he retrained his vengeance, and 
promifed them his protection, jqd 
tiie condition, of their remaining 
quietly, in future, in their momw 
tain^;. The Io(s of the enemy, ac- 
cording lo their reports, on their 
return to Damafcus, exceeded five 
thoufand men. They coiild fcareely 
conceive, that, at the lame junfliifie 


82] * ANNUAL REGlSTElt, 179^. 

of time, they had been beaten on a 
line of nine leagues. With mih'tary 
combinations, on' plans of any ex- 
tent, thofe barbarians are unac- 
quainted : they are to be confider- 
cd. indeed, not as warriors but as 
hordes of robbers. 

General Klcber, with his divi- 
flon, ported in ditferent ftatfons, 
tras left to guard tl\e Jordan ; Buo- 
naparte, with the divilion under 
frcncral Bon, and the cavalry un- 
der general Murat, returned to the 
Camp at Acre. 

New works were puflied with 
fTcat vigour, on both fides. Frefh af- 
faults were made by the befiegers ancf 
forties by the beficj^ed. The French, 
on the twenty-eight of April, were 
encouraged by the arrival of three 
pieces of battering-artillery, 24- 
poundcr*;, brought to Jaffa by the fri- 
gates under the vice admiral Pernio, 
and f:x pieces nf eighteen, fent from 
Damietta; an', on the feventh of 
]\fay, the F- ;^lifli, by the appear- 
Ancc, in the hay of Acre, of a fleet 
of corvette^ and tranfports, under 
the comma ;^d of Haflan Bey. 

The aryroach of this additional 
itrenglh was the fignal to Buona- 
parte (or a moft vigorous and pcr- 
fevering aflault, in hope to get pof- 
fefllon of the town, before the re- 
cnforccment to the garrifbn could 
difcmbark. The gun-boats, being 
within grape dirtancc of tho head 
^ of the altackhig column, added to 
the TurkiQi mufketry, did great 
execution : /lill, however, the ene- 
my gained ground, made a lodge- 
ment on the fecond ftory of the 
«ort]i-eafl tower, tfie upper part 
hi'ing entirely battered d'»wn, and 
(i;e ruins of tho ditch forming the 
a (cent by, wliith ihey mounted. 
Day-light, on tiie morjiing of tho 
eight of. May, difcovcred the French 

(landard on the outer angle of thtf 
tower. The fire of the befieged 
was much flackened, in com pari fort 
with that of the b'cfie.^erSj and the 
flanking fire of the former, from 
the ravel ines, Wtts become of lefs 
eflhci, that the enemy had covered 
,themlelves in the lodgements before- 
mentioned ; and the approach to it, 
by two traverles, were i^w feen, 
compofed of fand-bsgs ana the bo- 
dies of the dead built in with. f hem, 
their bayonets only being vifiblc 
above them; Haflan Bay's troops 
were in the boats, but as yet oiily half 
way on the fliore. This wdsa mofl 
critical point of the contefl ; and an 
effort was neceflary to jifeferve lh<i 
place, for a (liort time, tiil their 
arrival. Sir Sidney, therefore^ land- 
ed the boats at the Mole; and took 
the crews, armed* with pikes, up 
to the breach. The entliufiaftic 
gratitude of the Turk", men, wo- 
men, and children, at the fight of 
fuch a reinforcement, at fuch a time, 
tvas not to be defcribed. Man) 
troops returned, with the very 
opportune reinforcement, to tli^ 
hreach, which was defended by a 
few brave Turks, whofe mofl Se- 
flru6live miffile weapons were hea- 
vy flones : thefe, ftriking the af- 
failants on the head, overthrew the 
foremoft down the flope and hnp^*- 
dcd the progrefs of the fefl. A fuc- 
ceilion, however, afccnded to the 
aflault, the heap of ruins between 
the two parties ferving as a breafl- 
work for both. The muzzles of 
their mufkets touched ore another 
and the fpear-head of the flandards 
were locked together. Ghezzar, 
hearing that the Englifh were on 
the breach, quitted his ftation, 
where, according to the ancient! 
Turk i Hi cuflom, he was fitting ur 
reward fuch as tliouIJ brirtg him ihd 



Iieads of <hc enemy, and diftribu* fire of the befieged browgbt down 

linjr roufktft-cartrldjj^es with his own numbers of them, and drew their 

hand. Theenerj^eticold man, com- force from the breach: the fmall 

ing behird, forcibly pulled them number, therefore, remaining in 

down, feying, if any harm happen- the lodgement, were killed or djf» 

ed to his Englifli friends all was loft, peried. 

This amii-able contefl, as to who The groupe of generals and aids- 
fliould defend the breacli, occafion- de-camp, which (hells, from (ixty- 
ed a ru(h of Turks to the fpot, and eight pounders, had frequently dif^ 
thus time was gained for the arrival perfed, was now afl'embled on a 
of (he firft body of Hafl^m's troops, mount, called Richard Coeur de 
If became necefT^ry to combat th« Lion. Buonaparte was diftinguifti- 
baihaw's repugnance to (he adniif^ ed in the centre of a femi-circle: 
ifion of any troops, but his Alba- his geftjculations indicated an inten* 
nians, into the garden of his fera- tion to renew the attack, and his 
^Ho^ become a very important poft, difpatching an aid-de-camp to the 
as occupying the terre-plein of the camp fhewed, that he waited only 
rampart. There were not above for a reinforcement. A little be* 
two hundred of the original thou- fore funfet, a maffive column ap- 
faodAlbaniansle ft alive. This was peared advancing to the breach, 
r:o time for debate: his objeft ions with a folemn ftep. The bafliaw'* 
were over-ruled.  A regiment, call- idea was, not to defend the breach 
ed the Chifflick, was introduced, this time, but rather to let a certain 
confifting of 100 men, armed with number of the enemy in, and then 
bayonets, and difciplined after the clofe with them, according to the 
European metliod, under fultan Se- Turkifh mode of warfare. The 
lim*s own eye, and placed, by Iiis French column thus mounted "the 
ordersjunderfir Sidney's immediate breach unmolefted, and defcended 
command. The garrifon, animated from the rampart into the baftiaw's 
by the appearance of fuch a rein- garden, where, in a very few mi- 
forcement, was now all on foot, and nutes, the braveft and mod advan- 
there being, confequently, enough ced among them lay headlefs corpf-- 
to defend the breach, lir Sidney es; the fabre. with the addition of 
propofed to the hafliaw to get rid a dagger in the other hand, proving 
of the objedls of his jealoufy, by more than a match for the bayonet, 
opening his gates to let them make The reft retreated precipitately ; and 
a &I!y, and then to tiake the affail- the officer commanding the column, 
ants in flank ; a requeft with which who, as afterwards appeared, was 
he readily complied. Orders were general Lanne, while he was man- 
given fo the colonel to get poHefHon fully encouraging his men to mount 
of the enemy 'i? third pmrallel, or the bi^each, was feverely wounded, 
/leareft trench. The gates were General Rambaud was killed, 
opened; the Turks ruflied out, but During this conteft, immenfe 
were driven back to the town with multitudes of fpe6tators, on the 
hfa. The fortie, however, had furrounding hills, waited only, ac- 
ihhgood effect, that it obliged the cording to the manner of Afia, to 
enemy to c'xpofc tliemfelves above fee how It would end^ to joia the 
ikir parafKJis; fo that Uie flanking viaors. 

$4] ANNUAL REGlStl^R, 1799. 

Sir Sitlncy Smith, 6oncei\^ing the 
ideas of the Syrians, as to the (Mp^ 
pofed irreftabihly of the French, 
in lift be chaiige^, (ince they had 
witnelTed the checks which the bc- 
fleging army daily met Irith, in 
their operations before the town 
of Acre, wrote a circular letter to 
the princes and chiof* of the Chrif- v 
tiaiis of moont Lebanon, recalling 
them to a fenfe of their duty, and 
engaging them to cut off the fup- 
plies from the French camp. He 
fent them, at the fame time, a copy 
of Buonaparte's impious prQcIama-* 
tion, in which he boafls of having 
o\*erthrown all ChrifHan eflabliih^ 
men (5, accompanied with a fuitable 
exhortation, calling tipon them to 
choofe between the fricndHiip of a 
Chriftian knight, and that of an un- 
principled renagado. This letter had 
all the effect that he could defire. 
They im media tely fent him two 
ambaifadors, proieding not only 
friendfhip but obedience ; affuring 
him that, in proof of the latter, 
they had fent out parties to arrcfl 
fucli of the mountaiiieci's as (hould 
be found carrying wine and gun- 
powder to the French camp ; and 
putting eighty prifoners of this de- 
fer tpt ion into his hands, and to be 
at his difpofah Buonaparte's ca- 
reer larther northward was thus 
effe^ually (lopped by a warlike peo^ 
pie, inhabiting an impenetrable 

The Turkifh Chifflick regiment 
made a frefli Jally, the next night, 
the ntnth of May, tlic lieutenant-* 
colonel^ Soiiman Aga> being deter- 
mined to retrieve the honour of the 
r^in>ent by the punctual execution 
of the orders he had received, to 
make himfelf mailer of the enemy's 
third parallel, which he did moft 
etfcdually: but the Iwpetuofity of 

a few carri'^d thetn on to the recomf 
trench, where they loft fome , of 
their ilanda'rds; thougli tliey fpiked 
four guns bcfurc their retreat. K!e- 
bcr's divifion, inflead of mounting 
the breach, according to Buona- 
parte's intention, was thus obliged 
to wafte its time and ftrength in re- 
covering their trenches ; in which, 
tifter a conDifl of fome hoars, it 

A flag of truce was now fent 
into the town, by the hand of an 
Arabian dcrvife, with a letter to 
the bafhaw, propoiing a ceffatioii 
of arrti's, for the purpofe of bur\- 
ing the dead bodies, the ftench from 
which had become intolerable, and 
threatened the exigence of every 
one of the armies on fcoth fides; 
many having died delirious within 
a few hoiirs after being f^ized with 
the firft ^ fymptoms of infe^tion^ 
\Vhile the aniwer was under con» 
iiderationi a volley offliot and (hells 
on a fndden announced an a/TauIt, 
which, however, the gnrriibn was 
ready to receive, and the aflkilants 
only contributed to increafe the num- 
ber of the dead bodies in qneftion, 
** to the eternal di (grace of the ge- 
neral" fays fir Sydney Smith,." who 
thus difloyally iacrificed them." 
Sir Sydney faved the life of the 
Arabian dervife, who had come 
yfritb tlie ftag of truce, from the 
effe^s of the indignation of tlie 
Turks, and took him off with 
himfelf to the Tigrc, from whence 
he fent him back to the general 
with a melTagey which made the 
army afliamed of having been 
cxpofed to fuch merited reproof. 
It muff have been extremely pain- 
ful to fir Sydney, whofe hu- 
njanity was equal to his extra- 
wdinary intrepity and bravery, and 
who l»d exerted himfelf, with 




fitcc^fs to {brien the fete of the 
French prifoners at Conftantinople, 
to beliold the Tniiltiptied horrors 
which were committed •under his 
inrpeclion, and thefe under the uni- 
ted (lags of the Sublime Porte and 
of Great Britain. The French 
wounded and pri (oners were maiTa- 
cred by the Turks, in cold blood. 
A<i they have a (avage fatisfadlion 
themfelves in flaughtering their ene- 
JTi/e?, and even their women and 
children, they place nq faith in ca- 
pitulations, and think the only way 
to be fecure againft any future at- 
tat^ks from their prifoners of war is to 
put liiem tu death. They bound two 
and two of tliem together, having firft 
cut off their heads, in one fack, and 
threw them into the fea. It is 
uiicerlain, whether this invention 
was borrowed by the Turks from 
the French, in their war in La 
\'end^, or by the French from the 

All hopes of fnccefii having va- 
nifhed, the enemy had no alterna- 
tive left but a retreat, which was 
put in execution on the night be- 
tween the twentieth and twenty- 
firlt of Alay, after a (iege of lixty 
days. It has been already faid, that 
the enemy '« battcrir>g train of artil- 
lery, amounting to twenty - three 
places, fell info the hands of the 
i^ngh/li cruizers. Their howitzers, 
and the medium tweive-pounders, 
originally conveyed by land with 
grejt difficulty, and fuccefs fully em- 
ployed to mnke the fir ft breach at 
Acre, iverc embarked in the coun- 
try-vefleJs, at JafTn, to be conveyed 

coafi-wi fci togetlier with the worft 
among the wounded, which embar- 
laifed the march of the army. This 
operation was to be expeded : lir 
Sidney Smith (the Britifh commo- 
dore), therefore, took care to be 
between Jaffa and Damietta, before 
the French army could get as far as 
the former place. The veficls being 
hurried to fea, without feamen to 
navigate them, and the wounded 
being in want of every neceflhry, 
even water and provifions, ther 
fleered flraight to his majefty s . 
fliips, in full confidence of receiv- 
ing the fuccours of humanity : in 
which they were not difappointcd. 
He fent tliem on, to IDaraietta, 
where they would receive fuch far- 
ther aid as their fituation required^ 
but which it was out of his power 
to give to fo many. Their cxprel- 
-fions of gratitude (lir Sidney re- 
Jatcs), to the Englifli failors, were 
mingled with execrations on the 
name oP their general, who had, 
as they faid, cxpofed them to peril, 
rather than fairly and honourably 
renevv the intercourfe with the 
Englifli, which he had broken off 
by a falfe and malicious afiertion, 
that the Englifli commander, fiY 
Sidney, had intentionally cxpofed 
the prifoners, ho , had forzj^erly 
taken, to the infection of the 

The French army had not long 
begun to retreat, when it was ha- 
raiTed in rear by the Arab.^ (a party 
of whom came down to the boats, 
and treated the Englifli flag with 
every token of union and refpedl). 

• We cannot, noiwith (landing all that has been advanced by one of the parties, but 
furpendour final judgement, rcfpcding the real caufe^ or, periin)>s, accidental clrciim- 
ftances, or miftake, that may have led to the renewal of hoillliiics aj^ainit the Engliih, 
w^rilc the mcflVngcr for a truce was yet in their handi, nnd heCre an anlwcr was jtiven. 
Tdc narrative of B«rthicr, and a Utter of Buonapart4*5, afcrilcs Uir blame to the gar- 

[ D 2 ] wliile 


while the van cdlninn, in its 
march along the beach, was fe- 
Vcrely annoyed by rowing gun- 

Khniael Bafbaw, governor jof Je- 
nifalem, entered the town of Jaffa 
by land, at the fame time that the 
Erglifh fquadron brought their guns 
to bear upon it by fea.* The plun- 
der and maflacre of the helplefs in- 
babitant.s, begun by the Naplou- 
iians, was flopped by the united 
efforts of lihmael Bafhaw and the 
Engliflj cqmmodore. The Englifh 
ilag, re - hoifted on the conful's 
hoafe, and under which the baftiaw 
qf Jerufalem met fir Sidney, ferved 
as an afylum for ail religions, and 
for every defcription of the furvi- 
ving inhabitants. Two thoufand 
cavalry were difpatched, to harafs 
the French rear. But this, after all 
the lofTes it had firffered, and difad- 
vantage,s under which it laboured, 
returned, on its Aeps, from an un- 

fortunate and difaflrous e?:peditioni^ 
to Grand Cairo, where the genius 
and good fortune of Buonaparte 
found early occafions of retrieving 
the difaffers he fuffered from Ghez- 
ZBT' Bnfhaw, f at St. John d'Acre, 
by new triumphs oVer internal com- 
motion and foreign agrreflion. In 
the courfe of his retreat to Cairo* 
Buonaparte- took fignai vengeance 
on all the villages and towns in 
which affaiUnations had been com- 
mitted.on his troops, or where his 
convoys had been interrupted. — 
Many of them lie ordered to be 
reduced to afties; carrying away all 
their camels, cattle, or whatever 
provifions they pofiefled, for the 
ufe of his army. He vifited all 
the forts on the Egyptian fide of 
the defart (having previoufly de- 
molifhed thofe on the fide of Syria), 
diredied new works to be con- 
flruflcd, and garrifoned the mod 
important with troops. 

• Thefe arc thewords of fir Sidney Smith. But wc prrfumc, that he meant to hy 
onl/i that the fliips were brought to a ftation from which the guns might be made to 
hc9T on it by fca. There was no refiAance made by the inhabitants of Jaffa : and, as 
for t^ie French, they had taken to fiight, after having laid the town under a contribution 
of one hundred and fifty thoufand livres, blowing up the fortifications, and throwing 
the attiHery into the fea, and alfo punifliing the villages which had harafl*ed their con- 
voy, during the fiege of Acre. 

t The following account of this bafiiaw is given tinder the authority of general Ber-. 
thler*s Journal : and farther, we fay, not for the ctedit to which it is entitled. Our 
readers will, perhaps, difccrn In it a char.i£leri(Uc trait of the French nations ; a defire 
ef degrading a powerful opponent, to facilitate conqucft, and to elevate their own cha- 
ra£^er in the ftime ratio in whicli the otlier fink?. " Achmet, furnamed Ghczzar (which 
Signifies ttitchtr)^ is a difgrace to hOman nature, and is regarded as a moniler of fero- 
city,4ven among the moil barbarous people of the eafl. This chieftain has filled his 
terriiDrJcs with monuments of cruelty, i:nheard of till hi^ time. He has caufed feveral 
of his wiveb to be flayed, on the mofl frlvclous pretexts. He caufes the men, he wifhes 
to chaftife, to be loaded with irons. He cuts off, with his own hands, the heads of his 
confidents. He cuts off nofe, ears, hands, and feet, fi'om the mofl trivial fufpicions. 
He makes thofe, whodifpleafe him, rot alive, to the very head. He encourages the rob* 
bery and peculation of his ofiicers, In order to feize and ftrangle them, for the wealth 
they bavc amafled. He had been appointed, by the grand feigmor, faalhaw of Egypt 
aiid D&maTcus, as well as of Acre.** 





'Account of the Sie^r of ^Acr<^,hy the EnglifJi. — And hy the Vrench Com^ 

manders Derno/iO'tj/i of For is. — Contributicris, — The French Army re- 

enters the jycfart. Camps of the Arabs bunted. — Arrival of the French 

Army at Cairo. I^^lfs of the French Army in the Syrian Exp^dition.-^ 

Internal Diffali^Ji^^ion and Co?n?nntion in Egypt. — And new Attacks 
Vireatcntd on the C^-c.f and Fruuiier, — Obfervations on the different Rc^ 
fiorts of Sir Sid^icy Smith and General Berthier. — Proceedings cf Bnona* 
parte, after his Return to Egypt.-— Tne MammalukL's, furprizcd in their 
Camp, betake themfelves to Flight. — A Turkijh Army, fupported by a 
FUit, advances again/l Aboukir^'-'—Pofition pf the Turks at Aboukir. — 
And of the Sgnadron. — Diff)ofitiv7i of the French Army, for an Attack on 
tht Turks.^^Battle of Aboukir, — -Gained by the French, — Declarations 
hy Buonaparte.-^" Buonaparte, amidjl all his Proceedings-, military and pT)- 
hticat, pays conflani Attention to the Interejls of Commerce, Arts, and 
Sciences, — A Detachment of the French Army occupies Suez, — fourney to 
Sue2f by Buojtapartc* 

OF the immediate circumftances 
or caufes that anduced Buo- 
iMiparte, on the tvventy-firfl of May, 
to abandon the, fiege of Acre, as 
Trell as the means and mode in 
which he effedted liis retreat, the 
acco«nt given has been no other 
than very general, though thefe 
point*, particularly the lail, excite 
a iively cariofity in ail who are, in 
the leaft, acquainted with the na- 
ture of military operations. The 
reports of the Englifh commanJant 
at Acre, and the French general, 
on thefe fubje6ts, are widely differ- 
ent. Sir Sidney Smith, in iiis dif-* 
patches to the Britifti government, 
ftatcs, that all fabordi nation among 
the French troops was at an end, 
and that the grenadiers refuted any 
more to mount the breach, in the 
"walli of Acre, over the putrid bo- 

dies of their unburied companions, 
as well as thofe of their enemies. 
The utmoft diforder, he fays, was 
manifefted in their retreat ; and the 
whole track, between Acre and 
Gaza, flrewcd with the di*ad bo* 
dies of thofe who had funk under 
fatigue, or the effc6t of wounds.-— 
Buonaparte gave out to liis army, 
and to the world, that he was un- 
willing to witfte even a few days 
longer, in the liege of Acre, though, 
in that fliort Ipace, iiie baf)?aw 
might havi" been tiiken in the mid/l 
of his palace. T!ir. bravo int-n that 
he muil hiive loft, were neceliary 
ibr m(3re inipC'rtnnt operations. Jle 
Imd acconjplilliud his orij^inal de- 
iign, of giving an tflcctual chedc 
to Ghezzar, and preventing «ii in- 
\'alion of Egypt on the inle ok 
^wh. It had always been his iu- 
' [ D 3 ] te^ilion. 


tentlon, he faid, at the proper fea^ 
foil, to return to Egypt, in order to 
oppofe and defeat any operation 
that might be combhied at Tea, and 
which might probably take place 
early in July. With regard to the 
retreat, general Berthier, in his nar- 
rative, affirms, that the French army 
retreated, from Acre, in periecl 
order, afler deflroying an aqueducl 
of fevera! leagues, which fupplied 
Acre v/ilh frefli water, a.^ well as 
burning all the magazines and har- 
vcfls in it : of all the fick and 
wounded, the narrative flate««, not 
a Frenchman was left behind. A 
fire in Acre was kept up to the 
laft. The troops moved off in per- 
fect filence, with their baggage, in 
the belt order. After the whole 
had parted, . the bridges over the 
river of Acre were cut down. A 
fcody of troops, left to protect the 
workmen employed in that fervicc, 
• had orders not to leave the river, 
vntil two hours after the whole 
of the troops Had palled over. The 
Turks and Englilli continued to fire 
on the French lines, during the 
whole night of the twentieth and 
twenty- lirll of May. On this lall 
day, the army arrived at Cantoura, 
where an immenfe quantity of ar- 
tillery was thrown into the fea. 
Twenty pieces, with the lick and 
wounded, were fent by fea to Jaffe. 
Orj the twenty-rfecond, it refted all 
jiight on the ruins of Cefarea, and, 
on the fifth, arrived off Jaffa, where 
it remained for three days follow- 
ing, and took vengeance on the 
neighbouring villages, that had 
ihewn themfelves hollile, carrying 
away all their grain and cattle. 
The fort ifical ions of Jaffa were de- 
3nolift;ed, an6 all the artillery of 
the place, which was iron, thrown 
into* the fea. Thclick and wound- 

ed were fent on to Egypt* part by 
fea, and pjirt under proper convoys 
by land. A contribiixion was levJjcid, 
from the merchants,.of one hundred 
and fifty thoufand livrcs. On ll>e 
thirtieth it reached, and on the 
thirty -tirft departed from Gaza, 
The fort of this place was blown 
up. Three of the principal and 
richefl inhabitants, with whofe con- 
duct the French were dilfatisfied, 
were fined in a hundred thoufand 
livres. On the lirll of June, it 
came to Kan-Iouanefle, and, on the 
thirteenth, entered into the defart, 
followed by a confiderable quan* 
tity of cattle taken from the ene* 
my, and dc^figned for the provifion 
of El-Arifch. The defart, between 
this place and KanJouanefle, a fpace 
of eleven leagues, was inhabited by 
Arabs, who had niade frequent at- 
tacks on the French convoys. Se- 
veral of their camps, by order of 
Buonaparte, were burned. The 
French carried off a confiderable 
pumber of their cattle and caroels, 
and f^t fire to what little harveft 
was here and there found in this 
barren defart. On the third of 
June, they halted at El-Arifch, 
where Buonaparte left a garrilbn. 
He raifed new w*orks, for the de<« 
fence of the fort, which be fur* 
nilhed with ammunition and pro- 
vifions. The army, in croffing the 
defart between El-Arifch and Cat- 
hich, a journey of twenty -two 
leagues, though in different and 
fucceffive di virions, fuffered greatly 
from thirft. From Cathich, where 
the army refled on the fourth of 
June, Buonaparte went to recon- 
noftre the port of Tinch, and the 
mouths of the Annufarragi. Ou 
the fixth, tlie divifion of Klcber 
marched to Tinch, there to embark 
lor DiiiDietta.-The rcll of the arnu* 



procecfeJ from Catliich, by Sali- that quarter, with the dcfign of 

bich, toCatro^ where it arrived on protedling a defcent either at the 

the fourteenth of June. tower of the Anates or at Aboukir. 

The Freucharmy, in the expidi- Symptoms of revolt, which had for 

tion to Syria, loft about fcven hun- fome time appt!arcd in tlie Lower 

dfed men, v\ho died of difeatb; Egypt> had lately been hel*;htciH*d 

(ive hundred killed ; and about one by ^ re|x)rt of the death ot Biu>!ia« 

thousand eight hundred wounded; parte^ and the total defeat of. his 

of whom ninety-eight were obliged army; which alLewated the iriiuU 

to undergo amputation: nearly the of the chiefs, in whom the general 

whole of the other wounded were had been induced to rcpofc con/i- 

healed and rejoined their refpedive deuce. In a word, while intornal 

companies. This is an abitract of di(iatisfa6tions and commotions tccjk 

Benliier's narrative. place in Egypt, every thing on Uie 

If the French general wafted a frontiers and in the ncighboiiring 

greater part of hw troops m the countries indicated a great plan of, 

ficge of Acre, apd in eroding and attack on every part of it; while 

re-croiling thedefart, than has been Ghezzar Bafhaw occupied the ar- 

pubHflied to th^ w^orld by general vny in Syria. The proper lealon, 

Berlhier, ftill tJie projeclcd invafion too, for re-crofling the defirt, and 

of Eg)'pt, on tlie fide of Syria, was re-embarking from Syria, was ncar- 

fruftrated by the fevfcrc check in Jy expired; and, on tlic whole, fhr? 

whidi the French army liad kept leiiton {^ the; year and the acJnai 

Cr^kezzar Bafliaw, and by the repuhe circuiufiances of affairs rendered it 

Ml the army of Damaicus. prudent, on the part of Buonaparte, 

But, while the enemy was held to raife the ii'^gci of Acre, and re- 

dit h'dy within the walls of a town, turn, on his ficps tor the protcrlion 

or defeated in the field, in one quar- of his infant colony, menaced ofjiial- 

ter, they had coilrctctl dilJcirtnt ly by internal difcord and foreign 

bodies, and indicated a difpolition aggrelTion. 

to make frcfh attacks in others. A The army engaged In the Syrian 

Britifli fquadron cruized in the gulph expedition amounted to one hundred 

of Suez: an Anglo-Ruifian fqiia^ and twenty-nine ihoufand four hun- 

dron» of about a hundred (ail, with d red and thirty-five men; of which, 

a large body of trc»ops, he. was in- in four months), (even hundred died 

formed, was on Its way for the c{ a ft by difeale, (the nhigue racing, at 

of Egypt. He was apprifed, atthe that time, iiv Syria); five hundred 

iame time, by general D5.'liaiv, that killed in battle; aiwl about one! hou. 

the Mammal ukes, in Upper Egypt, fand wounded, ninety of whom 

had<!<:d their forces : the one underwent amputation. The \oU 

party intending to join Ibrahim of the Turks and Englifh he rates 

-Bey, who had lallen back to Gaza; at fcven thoufand men, in killed, • 

Uie other, under Murad Bey, to wounded, and prifv)ner>; be(i(les 

defcend by the Fi\oum, and gain forty pieces of cannon and Mfty 

ihe paifss of the Jakes of Natron. fianH of colours taken in the coiirlc 

Jt was, probably, ihe intention of of the expedition into S)rlu. 

the latter to form a junction with a Neither the hilLs of the Fr<Mich, 

iwd) of Arabs already allcniblcd in during the litge of Acrc';5 or <m 

[D4] ' dujir 

40] ANNUAL HEGISTER, ,1799. 

their retreat and return to Fgypt, and palpable, not only fo every 
according to this report of Ber- officer, commiflTioned and non-com- 
thier, given in the face of the army, miflioned, but to every private in 
can well be fuppofed to be extreme- the whole French army. It is far- 
ly inaccurate and wide of truth, ther to be remarked, on this quef^* 
On the other hand, it may be ob« tion, (hat fir Sydney had not, at 
ferved, that the account which is that time, formed, by any means, 
given of tlie main defign of the a juft eflimate of the mind of Bug- 
expedition, by general Berthier, naparte; and, confequentIy» that 
was drawn up after his retum (o he was apt to miflake his viewss, 
Egypt, and may not, improbably, and tlie motives by which he "was 
have been warped, in fome mea- a6luated. In/lead of giving his il- 
fure, and bent, in order to corref- luftrious antagonift credit for found 
pond with the courfe of events, judgement and uncommon abilities^ 
iut, even on this fuppofition, we in a letter to admiral Nelfon, he 
tnuft. acknowledge the good gene- fpeaks of " Buonaparte's impati-> 
ralftiip and addrefs of Buonaparte, ence and precipitation, which," he 
It was of great confe^uence, ef. fays, " led him to commit fuch pal- 
pecially in a country where almofl pable errors as even the common 
every thing depends upon the opi- feamen could difrem : he feemed 
3)ion that is entertained of the per- to have no principle of a6tion but 
fonal powers, fortune, and dcftiny, that of prefling forward :" and ho 
of the commander, that a report adds, " Two attempts to airadinatc 
iliouid go forth, and prevail, tliat me, in the town, having failed, re- 
nothing had happened but what courfe was had to a mod flagrant 
Buonaparte had forefecn, and for breach of honour and of war:'* which, 
lyl^ich he had provided. as already mentioned, was pofitive-* 
In weighing oppofite teflimonies, ly denied by the general- in-chief 
every reafonable and candid judge and the other French officers, 
conliders the means or opportuni- There is fomething in the, manner, 
ties poflelTed by the reporters, and in which our Chrijiian Knight (a 
alfo the motives they might proba- name in which fir Sydney juftly 
biy have had, either to declare the glories) fpeaks of Buonaparte, con- 
truth, or to conceal oc difguife it. trary to the ufual courtefy with 
The views of Buonaparte, both in which knights and gentlemen of 
forming and rafing the fiege of the army are wont to treat one ano- 
Acre, were, undoubtedly, better ther: while he pretty plainly ipfj- 
known to hirofelf than to iir Sydney nuates, in favour of himfelf, that 
Smith :. and, however he may have the enemy had little hopes of fuc- 
ieigned or concealed his views in cefs, as long as he was perfonally 
undertaking the fiege, the real fafe. It would, indeed, be invidi- 
caufe or circumflance that induced ous to mingle little foibles with the 
a neceOity. of rafing it could not praife juftly due to the amiable as 
podibly nave been concealed or well as heroic qualities and actions 
glortecl over, and far IcTs wholly offir Sydney Smith : if otherwile not 
omitted; if that had been the real necefihry in balancing his ideas and 
caufe which is cfTigncd by fir Syd- rcpoi ts with ihofe of Buonaparte 
ney. It mufl have been notorious and general Berthier. 

• It 



It will nol efcape obfervation, that 
iue courage and perfevcrinvr refolu- 
tion of ilie belieged are greatly in- 
hanced by the fuppofition, that the 
French grenadiers, after fuch a bril- 
liant carter of uninterrupted .con* 
Qoeft, Ihongh animated by the pre- 
fcnce of Buonaparte, were yet fo 
Ttacymtixnidatedby the efforts ofthe 
;amfon as to difobey the pofitive 
irdcrs of their commander. Far* 
^er ftill, neither the condudl of 
he French foldiers, before nor af- 
fer the fiege of Acre, gives the 
^t countenance to tlie allegations 
oBr Sydney Smith. The proceed- 
iig of Buonaparte, after his return 
thm Syria, in Egypt, are, indeed, 
i complete refutation of the reports 
nade by fir Sydney, of the moft 
iprrible loffes and difafters fuffcrcd 
ly the French army. Time, the 
g'and critic and judge of hilloric 
eiidcnce, will, no doubt, bring all 
thifti points, concerning which, 
lone cloubts roay be entertained, 
• ^>r the prefent, to the cleared light. 
Bui, as it is painful, and indeed 
Icarrely. poflible, for the human 
mind to perfevere long in the ec^ui- 
Jibriim of perfeft fiifpenfe, but 
muft lean io one fide on every fub- 
jft£tf we have anticipated the dici- 
fion of lime by a few palpable ob- 
if^rvations and undeniable rules of 

The various feeds of difcontent, 
j^aloafy, and refentraent, that pre- 
vailed among different tribes and 
t.dHes of men in Egypt, during 
tUe abfence of the commander-in- 
ciiicfand flower of the French ar- 
my, in Syria, threatened an erup- 
*iun into open infurredion and re- 

volt.* Soon, however, after his 
return, all things were reduced to 
tlieir former fiate of tranquillity. 

But, ideas of reconquering Egypt, 
as Buonaparte had forefeen, were in- 
fpired into the counciK of the di- 
van, by the vidory of lord Nelfoi), 
and the confequences naturally re- 
fulting from that event; and alfo, 
what Buonaparte probably did not 
forefee, the brave and fuccefsful de* 
fence of St, John d'Acre. 

Immediately upon his return to 
Cairo, from the Syrian expedition, 
Buonaparte direded his attention 
to the formation of different corps. 
He foon put the army in a flate to 
march to new comoats. He had 
dcHroyed one part of the general 
plan of attack, combined between 
the Porte and England, and he every 
moment expe^ed that he would 
have to attack the other parts. 

He was informed by general De(^ 
faix, as already mentioned, that 
the Mammal uke^, in Upper Egypt, 
had divided their forced ; that s 
part had proceeded to. the pafl'es of 
Sababier, with the intention of 
joining Ibruhim Bey, who had gone 
back to Gaza; and that Murad 
Bey defcended, bv the Fayoum, ta 
gain the pafles on the lakes, of Na- 
tron. He was of opinion that it 
was the intention of the latter to 
form a jun6lion with a body of 
Arabs already afl'embled in that 
quarter; but that general Deftaing 
would difperfe them with the move- 
able column under his command. 

General * Le Grange, with a 
moveable column, left Cairo, on 
the tenth of July, and arrived at 
Sababier, where he furprized the 

• An emi04ry from Africa, calling himfclf the angel, El M.-dlii, 
A'koran, wa^ otte o( the principal a^^ents of fcditton. Mc dcxlaitKl, 

I, anno'.mccd in the 

li*'jntu, Oibrts, «nd cannon»> of the French could have no «ffc:t on his folio Arrs. 



Mammalukes in th«ir camp. They 
Iiad icarcely time to elcape, and 
abandoned all iheir baggage^ and fe- 
ven hundredcamels. Fifty of their 
horfes were taken. The Mamma- 
lukes fled into the defart. 

General Murat, with another 
moveable column, received orders 
to proceed to the lakes of Natron, 
difpcrfe the Arabs coIle<^ed tJiero, 
iifcond the oijera lions of general 
Deflaing, and cut off the retreat 
of Murad Bey. General Murat 
arrived at the lakes of Natron, took 
a Kialchef and thirty Mammalukes, 
who were purfued, along w'lih fome 
Arabs, by general Dellaing. Mu- 
rad Bey, when near the lakes of 
Natron, learned that the French 
were there, and made a retrograde 
movement. On the thirteenth of 
July he refted near the pyramids of 
Gizeh, on the fide of the defert. 
In the beginning of July, a Turk- 
i(h army, under Midiapha Bafliaw, 
ftipported by the Anglo-RuHian and 
Turkifli fleets, advanced again ft 
Aboukir, the bulwark of A lexan- 
dria and Kgypt. The Turkifli 
troops, under Mudapha, and thofe 
on ooard the united fleets, were 
computed fiom thirty to forty thou- 
fand men. On the eleventh of Jiv- 
ly, Seid Muftapha Bafiiaw anchor- 
ed, with all his forces, in Ihf road 
of Aboukir. On* the fifteenth, 
they cflfedted a landing, without 
oppofition ; and an attac:k was im- 
jnediately made on (he cadle and 
redoubt. After a heavy cannon- 
ade, which was continued from ten 
in the morning till three in the afl 
temoon, the redoubt ceafcd to fire, 
and offered to capitulate : but the 

Turks, heated by the battle, would 
liflen to no propofals: they fcaled 
the redoubt and cut in pieces tho 
whole garri(bn, amounting to ftreii 
hundred tncn. The French in the 
caille, four hundred in number^ 
fearing a fimitar fate^ furrend^red 
prifoners of war. 

Buonaparte, informed by a letter 
from Alexandria, that thi3 Turkifli 
fleet, of a hundred fail, had an- 
chored at Aboukir and indicated 
hoftile intentions againll Alcxaiv 
dria, having made the proper diA 
pofitians lor the defence ana peac^ 
of Upper f gypt and Cairo, aid 
alfo for keeping up the communici- 
tion between Cairo and Alexandria, 
moved with the main Army from 
Rhamanie, and, on the twenty- 
third of July look a pofition et Bir- 
ket. The head-quarters were fixed 
at Alexandria. The miners weci 
fcnt to Leda to dig wells : fprin^s 
were difcovercd, and the wtll-j 
formed and guarded. Three bafta* 
lions of the garnfon of Alexandria, 
under tlie command of general 
Deflaing, were ordered to recon- 
noitre the enemy, take a pofition, 
and fee wells cleared at midway 
between Alexandria and Aboukir** 
Buonaparte empbyed the morn in or 
of the twenty-lourth in viewing the 
fortifications of Alexandria, and i|i 
preparing every thing for attacking 
the enemy at Aboukir; where, ac- 
cording to the report of fpies and 
reconnoitering parties, Muflapha 
Bafliaw, commanding the Turkifli 
army, landed with about fifteen 
thoufimd men, a great quantity of 
artillery, and a number of horfes, 
and was engaged in erecting forti- 

* We have noticed, in this fkerch, thofe attentions toweU$$ bccaure this is as grcn 
a point in warfare, io hoc countrie$, as the eflabliflimcnt of^orcs and m>sazlncs in other 

, fications* 



ficalions. Ill the afternoon, Buo- 
T\aparle left Alexandria wjlli the 
mam army* ' ^vanccd parties heing 
lent to various pofts, in different 
directions, and took a pofition be- 
tween the wells of Alexandria and 
Aboukir. The army began to move 
forward toward Aooukir, at day- 
break, on the twenty-fifth of July. 
A brr^dier-peneral, with two fqua- 
droos of infantry and a hundred 
dromedaries, was ordered to take 
a potilion between Alexandria and 
the army, in order to oppofe the 
Arabs and Murad Bay, who were 
every moment expeded to arrive, 
with the defign of joining tlie Turk- 
ish army, and in order to prelerve 
the communication with Alexan- 
dria. A divilion of the army, 
which bad proceeded to Rofetta, 
was direfled to take pod, by day- 
break, at the extremity of the bar 
of Rofetta, at Aboukir, and near 
the entrance of the lake of Madie, 
in order to cannonade fuch of the 
\-eCel5 of the combined fleet as 
in:ght be found on the lake, and to 
harafs the enemy's left. 

The firft line of the Tuiks was 
polled about half a league in front 
of the furt of Aboukir About a 
hundred mpn occupied a mount of 
iaod, defended on its right, towards 
the fea, by entrenchments, and 
fup ported by a village at the dif- 
lance (if about three hundred loifes,* 
which was occupied by one thou- 
fjnd two liundred men and four 
pieces of cannon. The lefl was 
upon a detaclied fand-hill, to the 
left of the peninfula, and about 
fix hundred toif&s in front of the 
firft line. This pofition was very 
badly (oriified ; but the Turkifh ar- 
my occupied it in order to cover 

the moft plenlifu! wells of Abou- 
kir. Some gun-boals were ftation- 
ed fo as to protedl the fpacc between 
this pofition and the fecondline; 
which was alfo occupied by two 
thoufand men, provided with fiic 
pieces of cannon. Their fecond 
pofition was about three hundred 
toifes in the rear of the firft village; 
their centre, at the redoubt which 
they had taken from the French; 
their right, behind an entrench- 
ment extending from the redoubt 
to the fea, a fpace of about a hun- 
dred toiies; their left was pofied 
between the redoubt and the fea, 
on fome low fand-hills and tlie 
fi^ore, commanded by the fire from 
ti:e redoubts and the gun-boats. 
In diis pofition, there were about 
feven hundred men and twenty-two 
pieces of cannon. About a hun- 
dred toiliss behind the redoubt lay 
the village and fort of Aboukir, 
occupied by nearly one thoufand 
five hundred men. The train of 
the bafhaw, who had the chief com- 
mand, confifled of eighty horfemen. 
The fquadron came to anchor in the 
road, about a league and a half 
from the (liore. After a march of 
two hours, the advanced guard of 
the French came in fight of ^tlie* 
Turks. Thcfe being attacked by 
the French with the bayonet, re- 
treated towards the villarye. Two 
fquadrons of cavalry and a platoon 
of guides, on horfebacfc, cut ofi' 
their retreat, and killed or drove 
into the fea this body of two hun- 
dred men, of which not one efca- 
ped. The fame divifion of tho 
French army then marched upon 
the village, which formed the cen- 
tre of ther fecond line, and turned 
it, while another corps attacked it 

A toUe Is a French mcafure of one f^ithomi or fix feet. 



in front; The whole fecond line, fabrcs and piftols : for every Turk: 

including the village, was carried, carries a mtifket, two piftols in his 
J'he French cavalry killed ^many girdle, and a fabre. A French re- 
with Iheir (abres, and drove many giment at length reached the en- 
into the Tea. The reft made their trenchment: but the fire from the 
efcape to the redoubt, which form- redoubt, which every where flanked 
ed the centre of the fecond pofition. the entrenchments, where the ene- 
This fecond pofition was very my again retired, checked the co- 
fliong, the redoubt being flanked hmins. The Turks, notwithftand- 
by a ditch of communication, which ing the dreadful fire from the viN 
fecured the peninfula on the right, lage, darted from their entrench- 
as far as the fea. Another ditch of ments, to cut off the heads of the 
the like kind ft retched along on the dead and wounded, that they might 
left, to a fmall diftance from the receive the rewards which the 
redoubt. The remaining fpace was Turkifti government beftows for 
occupied by the enemy ftationed on the encouragement of this bar- 
the (and-hiils and in the batteries, barous cuftom. Another corps o£ 
In this pofition the enemy had from the Prench was fent to advance^ 
8,000 to 9,000 men. for the fupport of their friends, on 
M'hile the French troops halted the Turks. They leaped on th« 
to take breath, the general-in-chief parapet, and were foon within 
ordcreH fome pieces .of artillery to the redoubt. Another party of the 
l>e planted in the village, and along French ruftied forward upon the 
the fliore, on the left. A fire was Turks at the charging ftep. Gene* 
opened on the redoubt, and the ral Mu rat, who commanded the ad* 
rig lit of the Turks, The French vanced guard of the French, and 
cavalry, on the right of their line who followed and fupported every 
attacked the enemy's left, which it movemont of his countrymen, and 
repeatedly charged widi great im- whofe coolnefs on this day could be 
petuofity, cutting down, or driving equalled only Iry his military talents 
into. the (ea, all who came in their and virtues, feized the momeiuk 
way. But they could not penetrate when the redoubt was attacked* 
' beyond the redoubt without being tt> order a corps of infantry to 
put between its fire and that of the charge, and revcrfe all the Turkifti 
gun-ooats. Hurried by their bra- pofitions, as far as the ditch of the 
very into this terrible defile, they fortof Aboukir. This-movcment.was 
felJ back at each charge, and the executed with fo much impefuofity» 
Turks made a ftand with frefli and to opportunely, that, at the 
forces on tlie dead bodies of their moment the redoubt was forroci, 
companions. A relnlorcement uas this column had already reached its 
fent of ii:fantry. The Turks at this /ieftin^^ficm, and entirely cut oft' the 
infiant made a fally. The heaiis of reircat ot theTwik-; to the fort of 
tlje hoftile columns n)ugl)t body to Aboukir. Confuled and terrified, 
body. TheTurksendcavrmied, by they ik)w fouml every v, here only 
their fuperlority of bodily lircngth, the. aod deatli. The ca- 
to wrcft the bayonets from the valry cut tlitm down with their 
French ; they flung their muflvcis fabres. They believed that they 
behind them> and fuught with their had now nortifourle \ci\ but to t\y 



tot^iefea; into wliich fix or feven " The general-in-chief, wlfhing 
Ihovifand precipitated themfelves in to give a mark of his approbation 
total defpair. Muftapha Bafhaw, to the brigade of cavaJry of general 
cooiTDander-in-chief, as above men- Murat, whidi coverecl itfelf with 
tioned, of the Turkifh army, was glory at the battle of Aboukfr, or- 
takeo, with about 200 Turks: 2000 ders the commandant of artillery to 
men lay on the field of baltJe. All fend to the brigade the two Englifh 
the tents, the equipage, and 20 piecef? of cannon, which had been 
pieces of cannon, (two of which fent by the court of London, as a 
were Englifli, having been prefent- prefent to Conftantinople, and 
ed by llie court of London to the which were taken in that battle. 
grand leignior), fell into the hands " On each cannon there fliall be 
of the French. The Englifh gun- engraven the names of the three re- 
boats faved themfelves by flight, giments compofing that brigade, as 
It was computed, that about 10,000 well as the name of general Murat, 
Tarks were drowned. The fort of and that of adjutant-general Roire ; 
Aboukir ceafed to fire : the garrifon there dial I be written round the 
was flrack with terror. touch-hole ' Battle of Aboukir.* 

A flag of truce was (bon followed The fecond declaration is dated, 

by the furrender of the fort of general orders, Augurt ift, Buona« 

Aboukir. Buonaparte, forefeeing parte, general-in-chief. 

thecertaintyofth is, retired, even be- " The name of Aboukir was 

ibre it took place, to Alexandria, fatal to all Frenchmen. The 25th 

At this place he ifTued the follow- of July has rendered it glorious, 

ing declarations, which it may not The victory which the army has 

be improper here to record : whe- gained accelerates its retorn to 

ther Buonaparte fincerely believed Europe. 

what he gave out, or meant, by " We have conquered Mentz, 

affcding to believe it, to pi-afliie and the limits of the Rhine, by in- 

on the fentiments and paiSons of vading a part of Germany. We 

his adherents, and thereby render have now recoriquered our eftablifli- 

them more docile and pafitve inftru- ments in India, and thofe of our 

ments of his future (chemes of ope- allies, by a fingle operation. We 

ration and ambition. Scarcely any have put into the hands of govern- 

thing that is done or faid by liach a ment the power to force England, 

man, is unworthy of a place in the notwithfianding its maritime tri- 

record of the times; and it would umphs, to a peace glorious for the 

be wholly unworthy of a Britifh republic. 

chronicler, whole countrymen op- *' We have fifffered much : we 

pofc, with fo great fuccefs, fuch a have had to fight enemies of every 

front, to all that can poflibly be op- kind : we have them fiill to con* 

pofed to them, to conceal or (liade quer: but, at length, the refult will 

the egregious merit of fo illufirious be worthy of vou, and we (hall merit 

an adverlary. the thanks ot pur country.*' 

The firfl of thefc declarations is The account we have given of 

^tcd. Army of the Eaft, general the battle of Aboukir, and t}ie 

otders, Jul/ 27. mar^h of the French to that place, 



IS extracted from the copious Joitmal > While the Frencli generals were 
of the Proceedingjt orBoona|)afte> buiied in quelling tumults and in- 
publiihed in the name of Berthier» furred ions, ere^in^ fortifications, 
but drawn «ip, or for (he moi^ part and preventing or repelling boflile 
we (hottid fuppofe didated, by Buo* invafions, Buonaparte formed a 
napartehimfelf; afappofitionwhich commercial company at Cairo, as 
derives additional probahilily fi-om welt )is a library ana an iniiitution» 
thifi circumHance, that we meet on the plan of France, for promoting 
with many phrafes and modes of arts, (ciences, and philofbphy. The 
expreffion, which appear prominent learned men, whom be* took with 
in the manifefloes and letters of him to Egvpt, were employed in 
Buonaparte. The very fhort determining latitudes, examining 
abridgement or abflradt we have the (late, and taking furveys of ca^ 
given of that Journal, is calculated nals and lakes ; in repairing canals; 
on Cach a tcale as might be intel- in examining and defer ibing plants 
ligible to ordinary readers, not and animals ; in mineralogic re- 
much converiant with military tac- fearches; and, what is nearly con* 
tics. We prefume that the military nc6led with thcfe, chymical expe- 
reader will derive, from a perufal riments; in making ofafenrations 
4>f that Journal, both amufemeAt geological, nofological, and niey- 
and inflrudion. Every movement teorological ; in drawing plana of 
is defcribed with an exa^lnefs towns, edifices, and various monu- 
whiobj to mofl readers would be ments of antiquity; in improving 
•dry and tedioufi. But that Journal agriculture; in ereding a chyn^ical 
feems to have another object, be- laboratory, founder ies, winci-milk^ 
£des thai of recording and juflifying and otlier ufeful works. Early in 
the commander-in-chief. Every December, 1798, a detachment of 
corp$> every individual of every 1,500 men, witli two pieces of can- 
Tank that eminently diiliixgaiflied non, under the command of general 
himfelf^ is mentioned with warm Bon, took pofleifion of Suez. Thi- 
appkiafe ; and thus the love of fame ther Buonaparte went himfelf, oa 
is inflamed by the certainty of juflice the 22d of December, accompanied 
being done to merits by an accurate by feveral officers, and men of ici- 
and faithful record. ence and learning', and efcorted by 
In the midfl of all Buonaparte's a corps of cavalry. Having forded 
cares and efforts for eflablifhing the the red-fea at low water, he viiited 
military power and, political autho- the fountains of Mofes, about ten 
rityofthe French republic in Egypt, leagues and a half from Sues, in 
he was not inattentive, but kept a Afia. Five fources contribute to 
vigilant eye on the great intrreits of form tliefe fountains, which (end 
the republic of letters and fcience : up to the top little monticules of 
to which untverial republic, with a fand. The water is very good« but 
)uft tsiiie of glory, he appears to fomewhat brackifh ; you difcover in 
nave been equally anxious to ap- them the vefliges of a fmall modem 
proi'e his condu^ on the whole, as acquedu€l, which conducted the 
either to the French nation, or the water to ciflerna on the borders o{ 
fttkrs^ thfi Fxendi democracy. the fea^ from whence it was taken 



1o Tappiy fliips. Thefe fountains there arrived four veflels. He thea 

are al the di fiance of three quarters fct out, and failing along the coaft 

ofalca^e from ihc fea. to the north, he difcovered, a( the 

Ih the evening he retorned to di fiance of two leagues and a halt* 

Suez, but the fea was high. His from Suez, the reuiams of the en- 

g'dlde loft him in the inarlhes, firom trance of the canal of Suez; which 

ivfiich he extricated himfelf with he purfued the length of four 

(iiifkuky, being up to the middie in leagues. In four days he arrived at 

Witer. HonareK where the remains of the 

Suez, if its magazines be confi* canal of Sucss are difcoverable at its 

dered, appears to hdve been the entrance on the cultivated and wa- 

CDlrcpot of a very conliderable com- tered lands of Egypt. • 

r;erce. Barges only can come into He purfued the line of the canal 

the port ; bnt a point of land that the length of fcveral leagues, and 

runs out a league into the (ea, and ordered citizen Peyre, an engineer, 

v,Iiich is uncovered at low water, to go to Suez, and to return with a 

and near which frigates can lie at fufticlcnt elcort, to take a geome- 

ancfaor, furnilhcd every poffibl* trical furrey of the cour(e of ihQ 

weans for ereciion of a battery, that .canal, by means of which operation 

niightprote^l the (hipping at anchor, was relolved the proWem of the 

aiid defend the coad. At Suez, the exifiCnce of one of the greatetl 

Arabs of Top canie ami folicilcd the and moil uleful works* in the 

friendfliip of the French, and ob- world. 

tained it. HvTe alfo Buonaparte It fliould not be omitted, unJer 

leceived a deputation of the monks iha of Buonaparte's care for 

of Mount Sinai. The pious Ceao- the republic of letters, to mention, 

bites brought htm the homblc oifer- that he eftabliihed a newrpa[)er at 

ingof the fruits of their mountain, Cairo, of wiiich Coftaz was the 

and prefcntcd to him the charter of editor, under tlx; title of tlie Courier 

toleraiicn given originally, and lign- of Fgypt. He alfo fet fcveral of 

ed by Mahomet, requcfting alfo the his learned men and philoibphers to 

proie^ion oi the^new conquerors: work upon an almanack, containing 

and Mahomet's cliarter was counter- five calendars, the republican caien- 

ligned by Buonaparte. dar, and the calendars of the Ro- 

He took a very detailed fun'cy miih, Greek, Copht, and Maho« 

of the town and adjacent coafts, metan cluu'ches. Jn fine, it may 

and ordered the conflrudion ofcer- be ob(er\'cd of Buonaparte, and ti 

tain works f<)r the defence of this is, perhnps, what mo ti happily dii^ 

important p^lt. For the eneou- tingui fnes his charadler, that there 

ragemeDt of commerce, he lowered never was any general, ancient or 

tlie duties paid to the Bafliawa and modern, it' we ought not to except 
Maramalukes, and for carriage of Alcxaiuier the Qreat, who fo hap- 

goods elcablifhed regular caravans piiy united the pro^cfs of arms 

from Suez to Cairo and Belheis. with tiie advanceiiitsnt of Icience. 
During his Hay of Uvo da} s at Swex 




Ohjef^ of the French Expedition to Egypt, '^Conneflion between France and the 
Sultaun of My fore, in India,'-^Lettcr from Buonaparte to Tippoo Sidiavn. 
•^Hqftilities againft the Britijh, in India, concerted between the French 
Government and T^ppoo,^^Emha[f}/ from Tippoo Sultaun to Zemaun Shah, 
King ofCabuL—^The Kingdoms ofCandahar and Cabul defcribed^^^Curious 
InJlniBions of Tippoo to his Ambaffadom. — Plans for hojiile Co-operalian 
hetxtfeeti Tippoo Sultaun and Zemaun Shah, againft the EngliJh,^^Ijcfter 
from Tippoo to Zemaun, — ZemantCs Anfwer — According xtith the W^flics 
of Tippoo.'^The tnvafion of India co?tcerted between thofe two Princes, pre* 
vented by the Vigilance Oftd political Addrefs of the Government ofBomhai/^ 
^^Britijh Army affembled on the Coq/l of CoromandcL'^lMterftom Tippoo 
Sultaun to Lord Mornington,'^un8ion betztecn the Nizam's Army and 
that of Madras. -^Th is united Army marches againft Seringapatam on one 
Hand^^-^WhUe the Malabar Army advances towards it on the other. '^^ 
Engagement between the Malabar Army and thai of Tippoo Suitautt,-^ 
fufiMion between the Bombay or Malabar and the main Army .-^^Tippoo 
abandons the open Country, and takes Refuge in the Fortrefs of Seringapa^ 
tam,T~*Seringapatam taken by Storm, — Tippoo Jlain.—^DiflinguiJhing 
Features of the Houfe of Hyder.^^AcquiJions obtained hy the Arts of Peace, 
contrqfled with theConqueJls obtained by War.~^Profperity of the Br%t\fh 
Settlement on Prince of Wales* s IJland^^-~The Magfiittdde, andi/tc Projpei^s 
prefenied by its natural Advantages, 

THE grand obje6l of the expe- 
dition, from Toulon to Egypt, 
iVas no other than \vhat was uni- 
formly avowed and declared, to give 
a blow to 4lie maritime grealncfs 
and commerce of England : and, 
among the various meafures purfued 
or fuggefted for this end, none 
feemed moreeffedual to the French, 
for the execution of their plans, 
than the formation of alliances 
\vith the native powers of India. 
One of the mof} powerful princes 
of that peninfula, needed not any 
excitement, but an opportunity 
only of joining in any confederacy 
that fhould yield a hope of re- 

covering the territories that had 
been torn from him, or wrecking 
his ranckling and implacable ven- 
geance againft the Englifli. That 
prince was Tippoo Sultafin, of 
whofe proceedings againft 4 he 
Britifti, and habits of conne6lion 
witli France, the readers of our 
former volumes want not to be in* 

The letter which was (ent to 
Tippoo, by Buonaparte, after he 
had gained a footing in Egypt, and 
which has already been incidentally 
noticed, is as follows: '^ Buonaparte 
to the moft magnificent Tippoo 
Sultaun^ ourgreateft friend. You 



have learnt my arrival on the (bores aggreflion, for which the fultami 

Xi\ the Red Sea, ^vith a numerous was declared to be fully prepared, 

and inviiicible army, wifliing to de- waiting with anxiety the moment 

liver you from the yoke of the Eng- when the fuccour Ihould enable h'm 

lilli. I take this opportunity to tef- to fatisfy his ardent defire of ex- 

tffy roy defire fr,r fome news relating pelling the Britifli nation from India. 

to your p<»litica1 fxtuation, by the The proclamation concluded by of- 

wayofMulcatti and Morea^ 1 wi(h fering encuuragjement to the fub- 

you would (end to Suez or to Cairo, je6ls of France, to enter into the 

an intelligent and confidential per- fervice of Tippoo Sullaun, on terms 

Ton with whom I might confer. The to be fixc.i by thu amballador then 

Mod High increafe your power and on the (pot. 

delhoy your enemies.^' ' The ambafTadors from Tippoo, ori 
This letter rauft have been highly the feventh of March, embarked ori 
gmtifying to the Sultaun, who had board a French frigate, with a force 
•Irrady, in the end of 1797, dif- railed in the name of Tippoo Sul- 
patcKed two ambafladors to the taun, amounting to alx)ut 200 men, 
rrench government in the Mauri- inclufive of feveral officers, and 
tios, or the Ifle of France, with arrived at Mangalore on the twenty- 
yfivym he had already maintained a fixth of 4pri!. 
fecret correfpondence. They em- At the fame time that Tippoo 
barked at Mangalore, and arrived was careful to aiicrment his own 
in that ifland towards the clofe of European eflablininient, he labour- 
January, 1798- They were received ed by all means alio to increafe that 
by the government with every cir- ofthe Nizam of the Dccan, although 
cumftanccofdiftinftion andrelpe^; in confederacy with the Mahraltas 
»nd, daring their continuance on and the Lnglifh. A plot was con- 
the ifland, were entertained at the • certed between the ful(aun and cer- 

{>ab]ic expenfe. They propofed to tain French officers, for gradually 
cry men to any prafticable extent, raifing the European force in tlie 
flating their powers to be unlimited, army of that prince, above his con- 
vriih refpedi to-the number to be troul, and for bringing over to ^he 
railed in the name of Tippoo fide of the Myforcans this force, t<>- 
SuICaun. gether with as many of the native 
A proclamation was iifued by troops as might be induced, accord- 
the governor-general of the Ifle of ing to the manner of the Aliatics, to 
France, in February, ftating that join the party prevailing at the mo- 
an embafly had arrived at the Ifle ment. The natural indolence of 
f^f France, with letters from Tippoo eaftern fovereigns, adlin^ in every 
Sttltaon, addrefled not only to the thing by delegation, and the mode 
government of that ifland, but to of fubfi fling the army by allotments 
the executive dire6tory of France, of land, and not by tJic dilburfe- 
propofing to conclude an olfenfive ment of money from a trealury un- 
alliance with the French, to fubfi- der tiieir own infpe61ion, co-ope- 
di^eand to fupply whatever troops rated to facilitate conspiracy; and 
the French mighi furnifli to the ful- above 1 0,000 Europeans, French 
dan, and to commence, again fl the and others, were incorporated, and 
BritfOi power in India, a war of began to take the lead, in the armv 
Vot.^LL [E] * . oi' 


of the Nizam, when this circum- c;in bring into the field at leaft 

fiance was difcovered to lord Ho- 120,000 fipjhting men. Zemaun 

bart, governor of Madras, by colo- Shah, tlierefore, a Mahometan 

nel Halcot, an officer commanding prince, naturally allied to Tippoo 

the military force in one of the com- Sullaun, by religious opinions, ha- 

pany'seflabliftimenLs in the north- bit;^, and that goo^-will which ufual- 

weftern parts of the prefidcncy of ly fuhfins between (overeign pow- 

Madrafl. ers, divided by the dominions of a 

About the fame time that thcBri- common neighbour, or which is the 

ti(h government, in India, were in- fame thing in politics, enenjy, was 

formed of the correfpondence be- a natural and formidable foe to the 

tween Tippoo and the French, and Britilh empire in India. A new 

the plot carried on in the army of barrier had, of late years, been 

the Nizam ; they learned alfo, that added to that of the Mahrattas, by 

an embafi)' had been difpatched to the rife and progrefs of the Seiks, a 

2^maun Shah, a very powerful nation bound together by a common 

Srince of Tartarean origin, and the religious fyftem, which prefcriBeil 

iahometan faith, on the northern every thing that was to be done in 

frontier of India, the fovereign of every eventual cafe, like the an- 

Cabul, the ancient Badlria and cient Jews, or the lords of the con- 

Candahar, the objed of which em- gregation, on the breaking out of 

bafty was, to encourage that prince the reformation in Scotland. But 

in his long-threatened invafion of the internal wars, inceflantly carried 

India. on between the Seik chiefs, might 

The kingdoms of Candahar and difable them from making a (uc* 

Cabul are l)oth extenfive and po- ccfsful refi fiance to the king of Can- 

pulous. They comprize all tlie dahar and Cabul, notwilhflanding 

countries fituated between the river their implacab'e enmity. The 

Indus and the fouthem extremities cunning and flu6luating politics of 

of the Cafpian Sea, and between the Malirattas were not to be rc- 

the eaflem confines of Periia, and lied on. That nation, befides, as 

great Bucharia, or the country of well as* the Seiks, was torn to pieces 

the Ufbeck Tartars, beOdcs Lahore, by inteftine commotions. 

and the celebrated province of Zemaun Shah naturally occurred 

Calbimire. Ahmed Shah was the as a powerful ally, and one not dif- 

fbonder of that empire, for fo it ficult to be gained, to fo inveterate 

may jnflly be callea, and of the and a6live an enemy to tlie EngliQi 

iUufhiotis family, or dynafly, of as Tippoo Sultaun. A fecret cor- 

the Abdallahs. Zemaun Shah, the refpondence between thefe Maho- 

prefent king, emperor, or abdal- metan princes was accordingi/ 

\ah, was the lineal defcendant of found, afler the deflni£lion of ttie 

Ahmed. latter, in hii palace of Seringapa- 

The natives of Candahar have tam. This correfpondence com- 

afways been reckoned amongfl the menced before the war between 

mofl hardy men ofAfia. The exadl Tippoo and the Englifli, which ter- 

population of Zemaun Shah's domi- minated in 1792; and the fame 

nions has not been atcertained. hoflile and ambitious views marked 

But it is an undoubCed hQ, that he it to its clofe. In a paper, dated 

I Marck 

iiiSTORY bi? EUROPE. [51 

M^rrK 1796, we find various in- 
JtrudioOT to the ambafiadors fent by 
TipjiX) 10 the king of Candahar, re- 
lating to iheir conduct and deport- 
iueiit ia their miflTion : their Aiite, 
tiieir expenfesj the pre fen ts to be 
ir.ade lo the chief officers of that 
prince* and the ceremonies to be 
obiened at their audience, or re- 
ception. On thefe particulars 
Tippoo appears^ according to Ori- 
ental ideas of the importance of old 
cuftoms^ to have laid great flrefs : 
" When the minifter fliall fend for 
you, yoQ will repair to Cabul, and 
take up your relidence at the place 
^vhich he may point out. At your 
intenricw with him, you will carry 
the letter and khetant (hofiorari/ 
^efs) with you, and prefent them 
to him in trays ; you will each pre- 
fent a hozzur of five ach medics, 
ai.d, according to the cuftom of 
that government, you will pay the 
proper compliments, and, ifitihould 
be cnflomary to fit down^ after 
Watting a little, and receiving the 
commamb of the- vizier, you will 
do fo; fbonid it, however, becuf> 
toroary to (land up, you will re- 
main l!attding ; then, taking the 
letter and drefs from the trays, you 
will pkce Ihefe at ibme di fiance in 
front ^f the vizier, and after the 
refpeds and compliments of the 
Sircar Khoodadaud, in the manner 
prefcrthed among the followers of 
the faith, voa will make many pro- 
feffions or friendfliip ; obferving, 
that all true believera are brethren! 
fcflt you will pay at the fame tim^ 
dae attention to the refpedlive ranks 
of the parties. After having coti- 
verled together^ you will reprefent 
that " you are Syuds^ the defcehd- 
Mtsof Fatimah;'^ that you have 

repaired to th^ prefence of hi* 
highne(s, and are ready to ob 'v h\s 
commands ; and that you entertain 
hopes, through his means, to be 
honoured with permilfion to pay 
your refpedls to Iiis majtiftv. 

" You will add! efi you'rfelves to 
him in this manner, and having, 
through the vizier, obtained admif- 
fion lo the prefence of his niajelly, 
Zeraaun Shah, you will place on 
the trays the letter, the dre(s, jew- 
els, and the faddles, and Chen pre- 
fent them in the manner wjiich the 
vizier may defire, and agreeably to 
ithe cuftoms and etiquette of the 
court : you will alfo, according i6 
the eflabliihcd forms of that court; 
offer the proper compliments, and ' 
ftand up, with your hands folded 
together. When yoii fliall receive 
an order to fit down, you will feat 
yourfclves accordingly, or whateveir 
may be the etiquette of the place^ 
you will be careful to obferve it. ' 

** Having thu^ paid your court, 
through the vizier, in the manner 
Vvhich is proper for ambafladors* 
you will reprelent, that you, ha- 
ving come a diflant journey froni 
the exalted prefence, have prefeqt-* 
ed youffelves before his majefiyj 
that many atfairsof ihnportdnce hav<^ 
been intruAed> whichi at 
his leifure^ you would reprefent t<a» 

In another paper there are iwo 
plans of co-opefation between Tip- 
poo Sultoun and Zeknaun Shah^ 
which the ambaffadors df this former 
were inf^ru61ed tb propofe^to thti 
latter. The firft project was, tbftt 
his majeily ihould remain in his ca^ 
pilal, and fend one of his m>b]emei!i» 
m whom he had confidence, to 
Delhi; with an army* That Ihh 

* Fatixaah wis the daughter of M«homet; 




perfon, on hts arrival there, fhould fubje6)ton> (he chiefs of (he neigli* 

tnakcf Uie neccOary arrangements, bearing country; The fecond year 

■and, after depoliiig the inlirm king, his maiefly ilioald fend, alfo from his 

..who had reduced the faith to the capital, a tinall army, at a rein- 

prefcnt (late of wcakneCs, fele6l forcement : 9o (hat the vizier, ap-^ 

nom among the family, fome one pointed by his majeAy as above* 

properly qualified ibr the govern- mentioned,, might proceed with (he 

ment. That this perfon Hiould re- chiefs of Hindoftan towards (he 

. main one year, for the purpofe of Deccan. Should tbofe infidel 

* iettling the ct>untry, and, taking Brachmans dired their power to 

with him the chiefs of (lie country, that quarter, the hands of the he* 

who- arc Raja-poots, and others, roes of the faith, in that part of (he 

dircd his flai)dard towards the Dec- world, (hould, by the grace of God, 

can ; to tliat tlie Brachmans, and be raifed for their qh^ftifement. I( 

others on the road, might come would be proper to enjoin the vi- 

forward, and prelent (herofelves to zier acting on his majefly's part, 

him: whilfl Tippoo himfclf, from (hat, after their extirpation, a place 

his quarter, with the aid of God, fhould be fixed for rendezvous, 

would raife the (landard of holy where to meet with the Ttppoo 

war, and make the infidels bow Sultaun, (hat the proper means 

down under the fword of the faith, might be adopted for the fettlemenC 

Af^er (hefe fbould have been facri- of the country. The ambaf&dors 

(iced to (he fword, and no longer of Tippoo were inflrufled to ;makc 

cxifl, (he remaining infidels would propolals to Zeroaun Shah to (he 

be nothing. Afterwards, the fet- above effedl, and (o requefl him (o 

element of the Deccan might be determine on whichfoever of the 

concluded in any manner that might (wo plans he migh( prefer, and (hh 

be na(uraUy agreed on. being done, fumifh (hem wi(h ft 

The fecond plan or proje6l, pro- written engagement accordinglv, 

poled by Tippoo SuUaun to Zemaun under his majefiy's hand and feal ; 

Shall, was, if his maiefly fhould be pleafed (e 

That if none of his majefly's cive both of them permiffioo, and 

a noblemen fbould be fufBciently in have the goodnefs to fend a confr- 

faisconfiflence, or equal to the un- dential perfon with (hem, they 

dertaking, and if his majefly fhould were to repair to (he prefence of 

be entirely at his cafe, with refpcfl their fbvereign, and liaving alio ob- 

to his country and government, he tained from him an engagement in 

.liiouki proceed in peribn, to Delhi, writing, correfponding to (he in- 

and, having made the necclTary ar- ilrument above alluded (o, (hey 

rangements (here, efbblifh one ofhis were to return with the confidental 

con5dental fervants* in the office of perfon above-mentioned, to the pre* 

the vizier, or miniflcr, and return fence of his majefly. But that, 

to hjs own ' capital. The peribn, fliould his majefly deiire one of 

who might be fcleded for the of!ice them to remain with him, one of 

of vizier, fliouJd be a man of addrcfs them fhould continue in attendance 

.and enterprize: (hat remaining a accordii^ly; and (he o(her proceed 

twelvemonth with his army at Delhi, with his majefly's confidental fer« 

be might be able to retain, under vant, to the Deccan^ and return 



with the writing from thence to the new moon, in order to eftablrfh its 
pfefcnce of his majeily. adnal appearance, the rd"pe6ted 
A letter was at the fame tixne Meer Hubbeeb Oo)la and Meer 
feijt lo Zemaun Shah, by the Ail- Mahomed Rezza, who are among 
<aun brmfetf. Af^er invoking the the higheft in rank in the Klwod- 
-Dttty and Mahomet, as ufual, in adaud Sircar, and are worthy of ad- 
the ctwrefpondence of perfons of miflion to the prefence, are now. 
t^r rank, he thanks God that he fent as ambafladors to your majcfty's 
had the iatisfadion to hear that his Imperial court, with letters, which 
o^jefty, the ornament of the throne, (according to the faying, " a letter 
t^ promoter of religion, and the is half a meeting/') may be confi- 
defboyerof heretics and oppreflbrs, dered as an invaluable fubftiliite 
onployed his whole time, and ex- for perfonal communication. In 
cried every ^olty, in the fupport order that I may be gratified, not 
of the enlightened religion. The only by obtaining accounts of your 
report of his majefly's piety, he faid, majefty's profperity, fuccefs, and 
had afforded him inexpreilible fatii- glory, but enjoy the pleafure of 
^ion atfid joy. In return for this, leeing your majefty, as. it were, by 
sear a hundred thoafand followers fubflitution ; and that ti)e founda*- 
of the faith, nay more, allembled tions of friendfhip and attachment, 
^wy Friday (the fabbath of the which are produ61ive of benefits, 
Maftehnen) in the mofques of the both fpiritual and temporal, may 
capital, and> after the particular he ilrengtlpi^ned and improved ; and 
wms of prayer, put up particular alio, that the perfons above-^men* 
fupplications that the Almighty tioned ma) have the honour to re- 
would render his majefty, the de- prefent to your majefty my fenti*. 
fender of the faith, fuccefsful and ments upon fome miportant fub- 
ridorious. Your majefty, Tippoo je^s, and the circuniftances of. the 
poceeds, muft doubtlefs have neen enfeebled condition of the faith in 
mformed, that my exalted ambition the regions of Hindofta^i, which I 
has for its objed a holy wfcr. The have intrufted to their verbal com- 
fruit of this juft deiign has been, municalton. But beftdes this, I 
that in the midft of this land of would propofe, if it -meets with 
heretics, the Almighty prote^s this your majcfty's approbation, that 
trad of Mahomedan dominion like two perfons of rank may conftantly 
the ark of Noah, and cuts fhort refide at your n>ajefty'.s court, to he 
the extended arm of the abandoned the channel of correlpondence, and 
heretic. The report of your raajcl- the means of improvmg mutual har* 
t/f zeal and piety render me, and mony aud attachment, 
ail the followers of the ^ith, moft Under the facred exhortation, 
anxious to open a peribnal and di- *' Beftow prefents among one ano* 
fed communication of fentiments ther." I beg leave to fend, by the 
with your roaieily ; but the obftacles perfons above-mentioned, a few of 
to this are uilly apparent to your the articles of this country, as is 
majefty ; ami therefore upon the due among thofe who are conneded 
principle (as laid down in the law), by the tics of religion : I confident- 
tlat it h fufficiciit that two perfons ly truft, that your majefty will gra- 
DiooU have the honour to fee the tify me by accepting them, and 

[E 3] honouf 


bonour the ambnlladars by admtt* mi nation of tbefe flmmeYefs tr}b<;«^ 

img the«i to t'hp prefence, and by with the ed^e of the fword ; fo that 

bearing what has been intruded to the inhabitants of thofe regions may 

their verbal communicatioo, and be reftored to comfort and repofe ; 

that yott will difpatch them back be therefore perfectly fat isfied in this 

again to this quarter with the ut- refpedl. 

moll CKpedition." *' With regard to your requeft, 

Tippoo alfb at this time wrote for deputing two perfons to refide 
letters to the principal minifters of at our court, with a view to ftrength- 
abdallah, full of compliments, and en the ties of friendship, we have to 
quotations from the Koran, recom* exprefs our acquicfcence. 
mending his caufe to their good •' We have fent a' few articles 
offices, and requeuing that they hereunder-mentioned, as a memo- 
would obtain admiflion for his am* rial of our regard, by your antbafla- 
baffadors to (he prefence. dors, who have explained to us the 

To Tippoo's letter Zemaun Shah raeffage with ytrhich you hs^d com* 

/ replied, as follows: "Your letter, miffioned them. 

replete with fentiments of friendfhip " Continue to gratify us, by com- 

and regard, exprefling your folici- municating to us, by letters, your 

tude for the propagation of the iituation and fentiments." 

fiuth, and extirpation of the aban- The Britith governor-general, m 

doned irreligious infidels ; inform- India, lord Morningrton, in a letter 

ing us, that in the mofques, after of the eighth of November, 1798, 

the conclufion of public worfhip, pointed out to Tippoo, tlie " daq- 

iiippHcations are made at the throne ger that would arife, from his con- 

of grace, for the increafe of our nedilon with the French, to his 

dominion, and the fuccefs of our authority, the tranquillity of his 

triumphant banners ; referring us dominions, the profpcrlty of his go- 

jfor a farther expofilion of your fen- vernmcnt, and the permaitence of 

timenLs to the verbal explanation of his religion.** Although it be evi- 

yonr ambafladors Syud Hubbeeb dent, that thfs paffage was applica- 

Oolla, and Syud Mahommed Rezza ; ble only (o the views of the French^ 

Unifying that you had fent a few yet Tippoo, availing himfelf of eveii 

prefents by the ambafladors, requef!* thjs fliadbw of a pretext, for roufing 

jog that two perfons of your Sircar the refentment, and tiniting the 

jnightrefide at oar courts and flat ing banners of Ifmaeltfm, agaihfl the 

other jnirticulars of friendfhip, ar- Englifh,- reprefen ted, that their hot 

rived in a mod aufpicious ieafon, file preparations againfl him, ' as 

«nd added new ardour to our mu« flowing from a hatred to his reli- 

iual friend(hip. gion, to the king of Cabul, the 

• "As the obje6! of your well-di- grand feignior, ana other Mahotne- 

te£led mind is the deflni^tion of fan chiefs and princes, f n a fecond 

the infiflcls, and the extenfion of letter to Zemaun Shah, dated on 

ifhcfaithof the prophet, pleafe God, the thirtieth of January, 1799, he 

we fliall focn march with our con- ftated, ''That' the Englifli having 

■quering ai'm y, to wage war with received intimation of the arrival of 

the infi'lcls and polvthei(i?», and to his arobaffadors' at his highnetles 

ftt^ thole i«gion^ irom the conta- courts and of tlie firm connexion 

-V " betweenL 


h'^iwen the two courts, had taken dcfecls in the enablifhment of th^ 

iimhruge; and, in concert with the Madras^anry, which, he perdeved, 

p<i!uheifts and turbulent taken up would render the afTcmoh'ng of a 

arms againft him, and had written force, equnl to offenfive movements 

thai they entertained a defign to againft Tippoo, a much more diffi* 

iubverl the Mahometan rehgion. cult mealure than he had appre? 

This relation of the correfpond- hended. 
ence, between Tippoo Sultaun and " Some officers,'* favs bis lordr 
Zemaun Shah, is, though not di- ftiip, "of approved mibtary talents^ 
greliivc from the prcfent point, yet experience, and integrity, at fort 
Inmcwhat difproportioned to the St. George, declared, that your 
Icale of our comprcfied narrative, army, in the Carnatic, could not 
li may, however, be cxcufed, on be aflembled, for offenfive purpofes, 
account of the curious views it ex- before the commencement of the 
hihits of that refined politenefij year 1 800 ; and that a period of fix 
wliich prevails in the intcrconrfe of months \Vould be required for its 
the Afiatics, amidfl great ignorance equipment, even for the purpofe of 
and bigotry ; and it is of lome im- defending the Carnatic againft any 
portance, as tending to fhew how fudden attack. The difficulty of 
ftrong a band of union and nerve of aflembling and moving your army, 
adion the Mahometan religion on the coaft of Coromandel, fur- 
may yet become in the hands of en- nilhed, indeed, an alarming proof 
tcrprize and ambition. of the defenceiefs and perilous ilate 

In addition to the confiderations of the Carnatic, in that arduous 

above-mentioned, it was recoiled- conjun6lure : but, in proportion to 

ed, by the Britifb government, that the prcfllire of that aifficulty, the 

Ibeconcfufion of peace on thecon- neceffity of an inflantaneous and 

linent of Europe, by the treaty of adive exertion became more ur- 

Leoben and Campo Formia, and gent; for, whether the army, when 

the weak (late of our allies in In- affembled, was to anticipate or wait 

dia, particularly of the Nizam, the attack of Tippoo, it appeared 

I'vhofe councils, as well as army, an equally indifpenfable mealure of 
were, at that time, fuhjefled to the ' precaution to refume, without der 

indoence of a powerful French lay, the power of meeting that vin- 

fedion, might appear to both Tip- diclive and reftlefs prince in the 

poo and France to of!er a favour- field. I was not, thqrcfbr^e, dilboit- 

abte crifis for the attack of the Bri- raged, either by the fuggeflion to 

tilh pofleffions in India. \vhich I have referred, or by fubfe-> 

For thcfe reafons, the governor- quent reprefenlations of a fimifar 

general and council of Bengal charader and tendency, from infift- 

deemed it indifpcnfably neceflary ing on the immediate execution of 

to aflcmblc the armies on the coaft my orders for aflembltng the arrhyi 

of Coromandel : and, on the twen- and, adverting to the fatal confequeli- 

tifth of June, 1798, orders were ces which have formerly been ex* 

i^raed for that purpofe. Lord Morn- periencTed in the , Carnatic, by ne- 

iWon, in his difpatches to the court gle^ling to keep pace with the for- 

o/dircclors at home, mentions the wardnefs of hofiile equipments in 

drfpofcd ftatc and certain radical My fore, I refolved to intruft the 

^  I;E4] • yrg. 


prptefUon of our pofTeiSons on the the month of Augufli 17984 tha 
Coromandel coad to no othqr feca- eovernor-general of Britifli India 
^ rity than a complete and early flate learned the preparations making by 
of prcparati(>n for war. the French in the Mediterranean^ 

*' At Bombay, my. orders for al- Various circum fiances attending the 
fembling the arm^ were executed equipment of that armament con- 
with great promptitude and alacrity, vinced him, that at leaft part of it 
unaccompanied hy any fymptoms of might be deflined for an expedition 
indifpoiition to thofe united and zeaK in India^ according to the avowal 
oils efforts which the exigency bf the of tlie French directory. Under 
crifis demanded frcm every branch thefe imprefllons, he direcled the 
of your civil and military fervice/* attention of rear-admiral Rainier to 
The unavoidable delay, lord Morn* the defence of the coafl of Malabar, 
ington proceeds to relate, which which the admiral undertook with 
obllru6led the allembling vf the the utmoil readinefs, although his 
army in the Carnatic, compelled original intention had been to pro- 
him to relinquifli his firil intention, ceed, in the firfl intiance, to the 
ofilrikingan immediate blow agaiud Araits of Malacca. Having, on 
the power and the refources of Tip* the eighteenth *of Oclober, recei- 
poo SuUauii. 'He applied himfelf, ved authentic information of the 
therefore, to the formation of fo invafion of Kgypt, by the French, 
permanent a fyftem of preparation and of tlie progrefs of their arms 
and defence, as, while it tended in that country, being fcniible of 
to Ireftore to the government of fort the evident conne6lion between the 
St. George, with all probable dil- invafion of that country and of the 
patch, the power of repelling any united defigns of the French and 
a^ of aggreflion on the part ot Tip- Tippoo Sultaun againfl the Britifti' 
poo Sultaun, might ultimately en- power in India, of the neceflity of< 
able him to demand both a jufl in- cither compelling the fultaun to de- 
demnificat ion for the ex penfe which tach him fc If from the intereils of 
the fultaun's violation of treaty had France, or of depriving him of the 
occafioned to the government of power of co-operating with the 
the Eafi-India company, and a rea- French, if they ibould be enabled 
fonable fecurity againft the confe- to reach India; and, farther (till, 
quenccs of his recent alliance with that no negociation with Tippoo 
the enemy. With this view, while Sultaun could be (uccefsful, unlefs 
the army was aflembling on the accompanied with fuch a difpo- 
coafl of Coromandel and Malabar, iition of our force as (bould alarm 
hisattentidnwasdiredtedtoflrength- him for the talety of his capital; 
en and improve the defenfive alii- and, that no military operation 
ance, concluded between the ho- could effedt an adequate or fpeedy 
nourable company and their high- redu^ion of his power unlefs di- 
iieiTes the nisuun and pafhwa, un- reded immediately to the^iiege of 
dor former treaties, for the purpofe that city. The governor-general, 
of eflablidiing a barrier againA the weighing all thele circamftances, 
ambition ap4 po>ver of Tippoo on the twentieth of October, iiTued 
Sultaun. peremptory orders, to the govern- 

Towerds the commencement of ment of Madras, for the equipment 



of iheir baiter ing train, and for ad- could have faid of the governor, 
vanclng it, witli all practicable dif- thai he was lefs attentive to his 
dirpatdh, to the moil eligible ftaiion private interefl than to his own,, 
on the frontiers of the Carns^tic, and lefs indulgent to him than to 
with a view of proceedinej towards himfelf. The .virtues of the gor 
Sertngapatam, at the earliefl poflir vernor had, for their objedl, whole 
ble period, if fuch a movement into communities and races of men. 
Myibre (hould become neceflary. The greateft bleliing tiiat can pofli^ 
To the goveriunent of Bombav he biy be conf^^rred on fociely is a 
UTued farther orders, for the cullec- Ari^ and impartial admlAraiion of 
ti«n not only of their troops, but juftice between man and roan, and 
of the largell potHble fupplies on one order or rank of men and ano* 
tJiecoafl of Malabar. iher. Mr. Duncan appeared in a 

At Bombay, and throughout the light not lefs heroic than amiable; 
preiidency, heddes a yohmtary and when> indead of indulging in any 
paiiiotic contribntion to a liberal partial relaxation or conceflion to 
amount, which was alfo made in any individuals among his own 
the other prefidencies, an armed countrymen, he flood forth the de- 
ai£[)ciation was formed, oii a plan termincd and zealous protector of 
laid down by general Stuart, to be the helplefs natives that had fallen 
employed as might be deemed moft under our power, by a due execu- 
expedient for the protectionof the tion of the laws : but, in all hard 
iiland. The patriotic and active cafes, tempering the rigour of the 
zeal of Jonathan Duncan, efq. go- law, as much as pollible, by every 
vernor of Bombay, on this occa- mitigation of humanity and mercy, 
iion, juflly and warmly commended As an additional fecurity lo the lives 
by lord Momington, was no more of the people, the judicial procecd- 
thao what was to be expe6ted with ings on the coafl of Malaoar, and 
confidence, from the whole tenour which were held in the language of 
of his public conduct, in which it the country, were trandated into 
was his conflant aim to combine Englifh and tranfmitted, in that 
theinterefls of the company with forn^^ to the chief judge of the 
the well-being of the natives of In- province: for the execution of 
dia, and to improve the revenue of which office, commiflioners were 
the former, by refpe6ting the preju- appointed, in May, 179(5, who 
dices, by proteding and encou- confirmed, mitigated, commuted, 
raging the latter. His invariable or armulled, the fentence of ^ the 
regard to the natural clai If) s of the native judge, without having, in 
poor Hindoos, and his inflexible ?nyca(e, the power to enhance it; 
preference of the public, to any or to forward the trial to the gover- 
private interefl, naight perhaps have nor and council f<)r the final deter- 
teen condemned, by feme of the mination of governihent, accord- 
company's lervants, as too rigorous ing as the particular nature of tlie 
and fevere, if, while he devoted cafe might be found to require, 
himfelf to his public duty, he had While our government prepared 
been, in the intercourfes of private for its own fecurily, with vigilance, 
life, deficient in humanity and prudence, and vigtjur, two evenls 
goodnefs ; or, if any individual happened, which conlribu ted to en- 



conrage the hope of a complete in- to his owit, of thecifjht of Norem- 
vmph over the confederacy between ber, and one of another dale to the 
Tippoo and the French, ag:iin(t the fame efle6^, glofling over hi» int^T- 
Britith power in India. The dif- coiirfe with the French, (wiffi 
mifiion of the French fadlon from whom he had a^ualij made a treat v 
the nizam's army had been happily offenfive and defenfive, under the 
accompliftied at Hydrahad, a new ftrongeft afllirancea that it would be 
fubfidiary treaty had been ratified ratified by the directory) and evn- 
^ith that prince, and a decifive and ding- (he propofition of opening a 
gforioiis vrclnry had been obtained negociation with tlie aUicrs. From 
by an En^Iiflj f>ver a French fleet, this letter, fraught with a ftran^e 
on the coafl of Ee vpt. The ^over- mixture of pohtenefs, religious hy- 
nor-general, therefore, on the eighth pocrify, and barbarian cunning and 
of November, fent a letter to Tip* diflimulation, it may not be impro- 
j>oo Sultaun, in wliich, after apprf- per, or iincntertaining to our read- 
ling him that he was acquainted ers, to give the following ex I ra6l': 
with his intcrcourfe with the French " I have been made happy by the 
j^ation, he mentioned the fuccefs of receipt of your lordfhip's two firiend- 
hi*; Britannic ninjefty's fleet againft ly letters, the contents of which I 
the Frencli in Egypt, the revival clearly comprehend. The particu- 
v( our alliance with the nizam, lars which your lordtbip has com- 
the defrruclion of the Frencli infln- munioat^d to me, relative to the 
ence in the Deccan, the declared victory obtained bv the Engfifli flee*^ 
dilpi'^tion of the paflnva to fulfil over that of the French, near the 
his dcfefnilve engagement to the fliores of Egypt, have given mc 
litnioll extent in his power, the more pleafure than can pofTibfy ba 
prcft'nce of his majeft}'s fqiiadron conveyed by writing, indeed, I 
on the coaft of Malabar, re-infbr- poflefs the firmed hope, that the 
ccd by fuch of his majefty's (hips leaders of the Englifh and the com- 
bs had been equipped for the pur- pany Bahauder, who ever adhere 
pOic; and, finally, the progrels of to the paths of fincerity, friendftiip, 
the military preparations o^ ihe and good faith, and are the well- 
Britifh on both coafts. It was withers of mankind, will, at all 
hoped tKat>tlic rcprefentation of all *^imes, be fuccefsfnl and viflorious; 
thcle particulars would have incli- and that the French, who are of a 
ncd tiiQ fultaun to a propofition ci'ooked difpofition, faithlefs, and the 
made to him, by the governor-* enemies to mankind, may be ever 
general, to receive major Dove- deprefled and ruined, Yourlordfhip 
ton, on the part of the allies, for has written to me with the pen of 
the piirnofe of proceeding io an friendfliip,— '* that it is impoffible 
amicable arranp;eraent of all fub-. for me to fuppofe your lordtbip to be 
filling differences. With fuch ex- ignorant of the intercourfe which 
'peciation*j, lord Mornington pro- fub fids between me and the French, 
'cceded to for! St. George, for the whom I know to be the inveterate 
purpoje of cor.lacting the expe^»^d enemies of fhe company, and to be 
nf^gociation with the fultaun. On now engaged in an unjuft war wit^ 
his arrival lliither, he received a theBritith; and that I cannot i ma- 
letter from the fultaun, in anfvvcr gine vouriordftiip to be indificrent to 


the ttanTadiofis which have pafTed 
belw€«ii me and the enemies of the 
Fn^life." In this circar, {the pd 
of God) there x«. a mercantile tribe, 
whoempby themfclves in trading 
by feaandiand* Their agents pur- 
(iiafed a two^malled velTel, and, 
liaiing loaded her with rice, depart- 
ed with a view to trafic. It hap« 
petied that (he went to the Mauri- 
liuf, from whence forty perlbns, 
French, and of a dark colour, of 
whom ten or twelve were artificers, 
Slid the red fervants» pa3^ing the 
hire of the fliip, came here in (earch 
of employment. Such as chofe to 
take tervice were entertained, and 
ihe remainder departed beyond the 
confines of the circar; and the 
French, who arc full of vice and 
deceit, faave^ perhaps^ taken advan- 
tage of the departure! of the (liip to 
put about reports, with a view to 
raffle the mhids of both circars. 

•* It w the wifti of my hear I, anc^ 
my confhuit endeavour, to obferve 
and maintain the articles of the 
agreement of peace and to perpe- 
tuate and Ih'engthen the bafi» of 
^riendihip and union with the cir- 
car of the company Bahauder, and 
with the cirear's Maha Kaja Saheb, 
Safe Munt, Pafhwa Bahauder, and 
his highnefs the. Nabob Afnpli jah 
Bahauder. 'And I am refident at 
home, at times taking the air, and 
at other tiroes arouling myfelf with 
btmting, at a fpoi which is ufed as 
a pieafue-ground. 

'* In this cafe, thealluiion to war 
ia ^our Hrioodly letter, and the fol- 
lowing pa/iage, namely, * that pru- 
dence requited th^tt both the coin- 
pany and their allies ihould adopt 
certain meafitres of px^ecatition and 
fef/^e/ence/ have given mc great 

" It was farther written by your 
ikndly pen ' That as your Igrdfliip 

is deiirous of communicating to me, 
on behalf of the company and their 
allies, a plan calculated to promote 
the mutual lecurity and welfare of 
all parties; yotir lordfliip propofes 
to depute to me, for this purpofe, 
major Doveton, who formerly wait- 
ed upon roe, and who will explain 
to me, more fully and particularly, 
the fole means which appear to your 
lordfliip and the allies to be effeclu* 
al for the falutary purpofe of remo- 
ving all exifting miftruft and fufpi- 
cion, and of eilabliftiing peace and 
good underflanding on the nioft du- 
rable foundations ; and that, there- 
fore, your lordfliip truft'j 1 will let 
you know at what time and place 
it will be convenient to me to re- 
ceive major Doveton.' It has been 
underilood, by the blefling of the 
Almighty, at the conclufion of the 
peace, the treaties and engage- 
ments, entered into among the four 
circars, were fo firmly eflablifhed 
and confirmed as ever to remain 
fixed and dur.ihle, and be an ex- 
ample to the rulers of the age ; nor 
are they, nor will they, ever be lia- 
ble to mterruption. I cannot ima- 
gine that means more eflvclual than 
thefe can be adopted, for giving 
inability to the foundations of friend- 
(bip and harmony, promoting the 
fecuri ty of ftates, or the welfare 
and advantage of all parties." 

To this letter from the fulfaun 
the governor-general returned an 
anfwer on the ninth of January, in 
which he renewed the pronojition 
for openintr a n<tgociation, and ur- 
ged him not to delay his reply be- 
yond the period of one day. The 
fultaun remained fiieni: at le^icrfji^ori 
the firic'.^nth of Fel)iuary, 17!>S, he 
intimated, by letter, to lord Morn- 
ington, that, * hoing frequently d\C- 
pofed to ifiakc cxcurlions and hunt, 
he wa^i accordingly, puceeding 



spoD 8 boniing exciirfion, and de* jundion wid» die prmelpil wm, 
Hrlng that he would diipatch major With the fame view be oocapied ai 
I>oyeton (lightly aUended. The poft at Seodafeer, near to which 
advanced guard of the army was by there is a high hiil, that oommattds 
(his time ordered into the territory a view of the Myfere» afanoft to the 
cf TippoQ« To have delayed this, environs of Seringapatam. Front 
woula have at once thrown the ad^ the fummit of this motutBin,a party 
vantage, which the Britiih then poi^ <^ obfervation^ on the morning oif 
Jefled, into the hands of Tippoo, the fifth of March, diibovered an 
and have rendered the fieg;e of his encampment to be forming between 
capital impradlicable, daring the Seedaieerand Seringapatam. Be- 
prefect feafon. Intimation was fore the evening this encampment 
given to the allies, of an intention affuroed a veiy formidable appear- 
to proceed immediately to hoflilities ance, and covered a f[reat extent of 
with Tippoo. The Nizam's army ground. From the bill of obferva- 
look the field, and took the proper tion^ the whole of the aimy of this 
fieps for forming a jundion with encampment was feen to be in mor 
that of Madras. This army confifl- tion : but their movements were lb 
ed of fix thouiand native troops, well concealed by the woodinefc of- 
nearly an equal number of the com- the country, and the hasiaefs of the 
pany^s troops, fubfidized by his atmofphere, that it was impoffible 
nighnefs, and a great body of ca- to afoertain their obje£t ; nor, in 
TEury.: It then joined that of Mar fa6l, was thb ditbovered until they 
dras, under major'-eeneral Harris, had penetrated a confiderable way 
about twent-four thoufand ffarong, into the Jimgles, and commenced 
which entered the MYfore country, an attack upon our line, whicb hap- 
on the fifth of Marcn, with orders pened betwe^i the hours of nine 
to proceed immediately to Seringa- and ten. 
patam. On the feventh, the enemypiefced 

Thefe orders were executed with through ihe Jungles with rach fe* 

an *alacrit V in pcrfed confenancy crecy and expeditioHi, that they at* 

with the fpirit by which they were tacked the rear and the front of our 

diclated. No time was allowed for line almofl at tbe fame infhamt. 

refledlion, change of purpofe, or This difpatch prevented more than 

negociation.- A great prize of the three of the Bombay Ciorps being 

grafp of bolh tbe company and indi- engaged, as tlie fourth, which was 

viduals. Ii might be lod through poUed two miles and a half in the 

procrailination and parlies. rear, was unable toformajundlon^ 

In the mean time, the Malabar from the enemy having cntinbe* 

army, equipped and put in motion, tween them and Seeweer. The 

with eqAal promptitude and judge- communication was efledtualfy fib- 

ment, under general Stuart, had, flruded by a column which, aeoerd- 

on the firfl ol February, marched ing to the reports of prifoaeit, con* 

from Cannanore, and afcended the fified of upwards of five tboufayul 

Ghauts on the twenty-fiflh. His men, under the command of Bober 

army was divided into (out different Jung. 

corps ; and thefe moved fucceirively On the eighth, fortunately before 

into fuch fituation as might enable ll)e enemy had accompRfhed their 

him to form the earlieft poffiblc purpofe, major-generkl Hartley had 



^!at to spfprize the commaiider-fii- En^lifh annr. But as he did not 

chief of tbeir attack, and temained fafficiently ipread the tra6ls ofde«> 

hmU£ to give any affiance that vallation, his pnrpofe of defeating 

tDigiitbeneoefiary. Thebeftpofi- our army was defeated, as genem 

tjon was aflained fot repuifing the Harris, by a flight deviation from 

enemy; and in this alarming iitna- the common road, reached his defli- 

tioiu the corps defended themfelves nation at the time he wiflied, a^ 

with h much re(bliiiion, that the without any material interruption: 

fttltaun's troops were unable to make Tippoo havmg abandoned the open 

%Bj iBprefiion-. The brigade was country, and taken refuge in his 

on every fide completely furround* capital and fortrefs of Seringapa- 

ed, and had to ccmtend againft a tarn. 

▼ai difparity of numbers, beiides On the fixteenth^ general Stuart, 
other diksoaiagiag circumftances. with the Bombay army, crofTed the 

As foon as general Stuart received Cavcry, and took up a poiition ex- ' 
intelfigence of the perilous iitnat ion teiiding from its northern bank to- 
of the rijght brigade, be marched to wards the Edgal : while general 
their affifiance with the flank com- Floyd, with the left wing and ca- 
fttnies af bis majefty's feventy-fifth valry, moved to the Delawayery, 
legiiaent, and the whole of the fe- beyond My fore, to cover a partr 
venty-^feventh. He arrived at about fent out the preceding niglit to cof- 
iiaif pafl two». at fome of the divi- le6t cattle and flieep, and to exa« 
fiocis of the enemy, who had pene- mine the new fort of My fore. The 
traied into the rear, and poffefled party returned with confiderabte 
themfelves of the greaLroad leading iuccefs on the evening of the fix^ 
to Seedafeer. The engagement teenlh, and encamped near the line 
lafied nearly "half an hour, when, of general Harris. Meafures were 
after a fmart fire of muiquetry on immediately taken by the gctneral 
both fides, the enemy 'were com- for eredting batteries, and preparing 
pletdy rooted, and fied with preci- for the attacking of Seringapatam* 
{Htatioa through the Jungles, to re- The batteries being finiflied, tliejr 
' gain tfaehr column, which ft ill con- began to batter in bfcacii on the 
tinaedthe attack in front. On ar- thirtieth of April, and had, on the 
nvmg at lieatenant-cokmel Montre- evening of the third of May, (b 
ibc'spol^ the general found his men much deflroyed the walls ngainit 
overcoaie wira fatigue, and their which they were diroflod, that the 
ammonition almoft esdiaoiled. • At arrangement was made foraOaaltirig 
tweaty nintttes pail thiee, the ene« the place next day, when tlxi breach 
Ayretieated iff all directions. was reported practicable!. The 

Ajttodaonwas fiirmed between troops intended to be ompioyed 
the Bombay and the main army, were Hationcd in the trenches early 
Tmoo Sttkaofi, by tbe encampment on the morning of the fourth, that 
it Permptam, and by haraifing the no extraordinary movement might 
aiareh of general Harris, had ufed lead the enemy to^xpe6t the ailaiiJt, 
all liie Jseant in his power for pre- which geheral Harris had deter- 
venting this jnndion in vain. He mined ftiould be made in the heat 
de&nfyed the villages, and laid ofthe day, a*t the time bed calcii- 
waiie the conntry, in front of the ted to enfure fucccf^, for their troops 



would then be lebft prepaid for 
making oppoiition. At one oVIock* 
the lroop<t moved from the trencher, 
crofled the rocky bed of the Ca*- 
very, under an extremely heavy 
fire, paOed the glacis and ditch, 
and afcended the breaches in the 
Javjje-hraye and rampart of the fort, 
furmounting/ in the roofl gallant 
manner, every obflaqle jn their 
ivay, and were completely fuccefs- 
ful. • 

Refinance continued io be made, 
from the palace of Tippoo, for fome 
time afler all firing had ceafed from 
the works. Two of his fons were 
there, who, however, on the affu- 
rance of fafety, furrendered to the 
troops furrounding them ; and guards 
were placed, for the protedlion of 
the family, mofl of whom were in 
the palace. 

It was foon afler reported, that 
Tippoo Sultaun had fallen. Seve- 
ral other chiefs were alfo Hain. 
Meafures were immediately adopt- 
ed, to flop the confufion, at firft 
unavoidable, in a crowded city 
taken by aifault. The princes were 
removed to camp, immediately, 
fearch was made for the fultaun*s 
body, which, after much difficulty^ 
was found, late in the evening, at 
one of the gates, under a heap of* 
ilain, and foon after placed in the 
j^alace. The corpfe was, the next 
day, recognized by his family, and 
interred, with all the honours due 
to his rank, in the maufoleum of 
his father. 

Thus, after a fhort, but brilliant 
career, /ell the houfe, o^* dynafly, 
of Hyder. It was noble, in pro* 
portion to the lownefs of its origin 
(for Hyder Naig was at firft only 
a private in the Myforean fervice), 
fpt^did in its progrefs, and not 
ioglorioiu in its fall. It is eini» 

n^tly diflinguiflied frotn All Hit 
families; or dynaflies, tliat have 
ever appeared, in fuch quick fao 
ceffion, in Hin(k)flan, by iei mor6 
extenfive adoption, coHivation, and 
application, of European arts and 
arms, than had been known be* 
fore in the dominions of any native 
power in Alia. 

Thofe who are fond of parallels 
between iiluflrious chara^ers, may 
£nd many points of refemblance 
between Tippoo, the fon of Hyder, 
and Hannibal, the fon of Hamilear; 
both, at once fubtle and &lfe, yet 
brave ; both, fiodioas of the know- 
ledge of their times; both trained np 
by their Withers in.hoflility to (he 
firfl power of the age ; both exci- 
ting the vengeance of all nations 
againil.that power; and, in tbfs 
Career, taking a wider range than 
that which ufually bounded the 
views of even ambitious and con« 
quering princes : Hannibal, extend* 
ing his intrigues from the Pillars of 
Hercules to the Red Sea ; Tippoo 
Saib, from the nations to the eafl 
of Caucafas, not only to Conftan- 
tinople, and other (eats of power 
on the. Mediterranean, but even \o 
Paris. It wouki f«em tliat indigna* 
tion and refentment, againft oven* 
bearing power and ambition, is, m 
the loftiefl minds, the liveliefl paf^ 
fion. It was, probably, by fuch 
feelings, more than a calm confide- 
ration of the general wel&veof the 
United Provinces, and of Europe, 
that the great king William III. 
was animated to Tuch invincibte 
and heroic oppoiition to the ambi- 
tion of Louis XIV. of France. It 
is onneceffiiry to obferve, that, not- 
withfianding all theie refemblances, 
there was no companion betweeif 
the abilities of Tippoo, who wait 
guided more by paiiion tfmn fbond 



i'd^cmenlj and the renowned Car- abfence of Zemaun, grafpcd at tlio 
i':i3j;inian. . reins of gnvernnient. 

On ll:e redii<5iion of Scniigapa- The fatisfaction which a native 
tani, and (he <?xcilJon of Tippno, of Britain derives froin a review of 
/o/'J Afornhigton refolvod to make this profpeious llaLe of our iiiTair* 
f'-ch arrangements as might efta- in India, liofiiie coinbijiuLions and 
I' h the Britifii influence and au- dcfi^ns conlbiindcri, t( irilorv es- 
Thn-.ty in the fubtliicd country.—* tended, and revenue inercalcd, i* 
C(v.uir.iiTioners, app'^iiiled on the not, in the liberal and ingennou* 
part of the company, and alfo in mind, altogether luimixed wuh a 
Khalfof the nizam, on the twenty- painful recolledlion of the blood 
f "drth of June, promulgated a they rofr, though that of an enesnv, 
I'Teme of partition and feltrement, ana of a princely family overthrowu 
The capital, with its funrefs, and and reduced to a ftafe of dcpen- 
tHe iiland in which it is f.tuated, deuce on llieir enemies. Confidt*- 
v.Mh fiiinc exteniive didri^i?, incJu- rations of political expedienrey do 
f*Ui^ Mang-ilore, nr.d a ven' c^^inti- not in ever; breaft, and at all times, 
doable extent of fca-coaft, were fuperfeile morjl fontlrnent. But 
3';r>ttcd to the Knglifb. A conC- if thole derations alone were 
<i-'rable portion was afllgned to the of weight, Hill the refeiUment, je.i- 
ty-2?,Tn, And a feparate territory loufy, and new lu)fii!c con;bin;i- 
wa*; fabje6led to the fway of the tions, wiiieh are fo frequently exci- 
^^*Hifl(>ur Mnha- Rajah Kidienrtai ted by conqucHs, might, perhaps, 
VVuddiar, a dcfcendant of the an- be deemed worthy of calculation. 
c.iT.t rajahs of My fore, whofe As a pleafmg contrail to advai>- 
tb'or.e had been feized by Hyder- tages gained by force, we ftrJI 
Ali. The elevation of this prince, cone lucie our chapter, on Briti/h 
to the niufnud, took place in due India, tor 1 791), by an acxount of 
Jorm on the thirtieth of\June, a profpcrity arifing irom a plan con- 
day which the fuperllition of the ceivcd in a fj^irit of moderation, 
brachinans had Jelecled as the moft juftice, patriot ifm, and, indeed, uni- 
i"u(piciou» for that purpofc. The verfal philantljropy. 
^'Hs of Tippoo were taken into TliO prince of Wales's illand, in 
ihe proteftion, that is, the cuftody, the entraiice of the ftraits of Ma- 
a? well as c-are of the Hlngjilh. lacca, is happily lituated for tl)e 

But the hoft lie dcfigns and move- facilitation and convenience of 
irents of Zemaun Shah, againfl our trade with China, and otlier places 
Settlements in India, would not to the eaftward of China. It is 
have been diicontinued, in confe- of no iiiconfiderable extent, b^iing 
qocnce of the fall of Tippoo Sul- thirty miles in length, and, on an 
UuD, if they had not been reprefled average, about ten or twelve in 
by formidable military preparations, breadth. The climate is mild end 
^hicb he did not choofe to cncoun- falubrious; and both climate and foil 
t'^r. In 1796, he had advanced, fitted not only for the produdion 
with a large army, again ft our {ci- of provifions,' but alfb of pepi)or, 
tJement?, as far as Lahore, when nutmegs, and other f pices. It is 
Iitr was called back, by a rebellion, within ten davs fail'ig of Mdras: 
tesdcd fay hif brolherj who, in the to which place, from Ceylon, a 



veflel cannot work up, aeainfl the 
north-ead monfoon, in lefs than iix 
Cf feven weeks. 

The prince of Wales's ifland was 
acquired, by the government of 
Bennl, as Pennfyivania was by 
Wilnam Penn,* in regular and vo- 
luntary ceflion from the king of 
Cudda^ in 1785. The importance 
of this place, in our poflcfiion, has 
been iiluftrated, by the protedion 
which it has afforcied to the trade 
carried on by the merchants in all 
our (iiffereivt prefidencics in India. 
From the commenooment of the 
prefent war, few Ibipi to China, 
from Bombay, Madras, or Bengal, 
but have touched at Prince of 
Wales's iflarid, for intelligence ; 
and icvcral have been chaced in 
by French privateers, into whofe 
hands they muft inevitably have 
fellen, it they had not been fo near 
a British port. Malacca affords no 
protection whatever to trade, as all 
the merchant-fhips lie nearly two 
miles off from the garriibn, and are, 
confequently, expofed to be cut 
away from their anchors by the 
enemy's cniizers. On this account, 
prince of Wales's ifland has, fincc 
the commencement of the war, 
been the rendezvous for all the 
Bombay, Madras, and Bengal flitps 
trading to China and the eaflern 
iilands, and alfo for the company's 
ibips going from thofe iflands to 
China. It if!, unqueflionably, the 
befl harbour in India, for veflels 
of every kind, beinj(, at all feafons 
of the year, fafe, ana eafy of accefs. 
Since this port was tirfl ei^abliflied. 

a veflel has never yet been known 
to drive or drag her anchors. Here, 
alfo, Ihe whole navy of England 
could be fupplied^with mafls and 
fpars of all fizes. Admiral Rainier, 
about two years ago, put three 
lower mails, of the wood of this 
ifland, in the Sufiblk, the only fe- 
venty-four, it is prefumed, in the 
Britifh navy, that has lower mafls 
of a fingle fpar ; and they have 
flood fo well, for four monfoons, 
that all the men of war, in thbfc 
quarters, come here to take them 
in. The ifland is alio fo favourably 
fituated -for a naval por^ that a fiiip 
di fabled in adlion, on any part of 
the coafl, during the fouth-wefl 
monfoon, can run here with a fair 
wind, where flie can e^ii]y be re« 
fitted ; and flill the fame wind will 
enable her to crofs the bay, and 
join the fleet or fquadron, if fla- 
tioned on any part of the coafl to 
tije north of Cevlon. And for 
winter -quarters, during the north- 
eafl monfoon, when the fleet cannot 
longer remain on the coaft, this 
place holds out many advantages, 
which give it a decided preference 
above all others ; the climate being 
extremely favourable to the fick, 
and the price of all kinds of pro- 
vitiuns extremely reafonabie. Here 
the principal part of what is un- 
derflood by the Malay trade, now 
centres. Smce the fettlement form- 
ed on this ifland, the price of opium 
has rifen, in Bengal* from two hun- 
dred and flRy rupees, per chefl, to 
feven hundred and eight hundred ; 
and at the (ales in November, 1799, 

* Admiral Ptnn, wlio^ in conjunction with Venablcs, had conquered the iHand of 
Jamaica, obtained a pronntfed ^ant of Pennfyivania, after the expuUion of the Dutch 
and Swedts, from Charles U. On the admirals death, his fon, the celebrated quaker, 
after much folicitation at courti obtained the performance of it. But, inftead of im- 
mediately taking advantage of his patent^ he purchafed the lands> conveyed in his grant, 
from the Indians ; judging the original property i«)d eldtil right lo be veiled in ihem. 
12 • if 



it ibid as high as eight hundred and 
fixtj inpees per cheft. This in ac- 
counted for by the advanced prices 
which merchants can afford to give 
at this mart. The Malay traders, 
who were formerly fupplied with 
opium irojn Bencoolen, Batavia, 
and a few Ihips fitted «ut from 
Bengal, come now to this phce in 
their own veflels, whicb thev navi- 
jerate with fpeed and fafely. At 
Prince of Wales's iiland, Ihey not 
only buy their opium and pie^e- 
goods at a lower price, but find a 
ready market for all the different 
articles of traffic manufaflured, or 
produced by the earth, in their 
own countries. 

The pepper -plantations on this 
iCand, in the year >799, produced 
nine thousand picoles. And there 
are nmv twenty tboufiind nutmeg- 

trees on the iflandy belonging to 
the company, and to individuals, 
though by far the greater number 
to the latter. TKc plants look as 
healthy, and are as Arong, us any 
at either Anibo) na <»r Banda. From 
its pofition, and other natural ad- 
vantages, it pioniiles, in time, to be 
one of the cliiit emporiums of hi- 
dia, and to couipeiifate to Great 
Britain for any ceflions that may 
be made, in that country, for the * 
invaluable blelling of peace, to 
France or Holland. On the whole, 
the fettk-ment on Prince of Wales's 
ifland is a ftriking and pleafing 
proof, how much the profperity of 
a maritime and commercial nation, 
by other means tlmn thofe of war, 
may be happily improved and ex- 

Vol. XLT. 




q H A P- V. 

Determinafiofi of Jhe Porte lo repel tJte hivafion of Egypt. — Letfer from ihs, 
Grand Seignior to Tippoo Sullann, on that Sithjefl. — Tippao'x j^nf^fer.—r: 
A new Sett of Ijlaumitijh Socinians.-^^yjccomit, by Tippoo SuUmw, of the 
Chrijtian Domination in India, — Copiplaints again ft the Englijh, — Conjc- 
deracy for cxtenniuating the Chriflian Infidetx from India,-— Rcfe^ ions. 
— Hypocritical Condn^ of the French towards the Turks, Rcfcntjncnt 
andfpirited Condnci of the Porte, — Alliance between the Porte and Ruffia. 
— Cfiangc in the 'furkijh Minijlry, — Memorial of the Porte to all foreign 
Mimfters,'^Turki/h Manifcfo, addrejfad to the Britijh Minifler at Con- 
fantinople. — Chnra£icr of the Turks. — Military Preparations (f the Parte, 
Councils and llcvs of the Ruffians, — Charatler and political Conducf of 
the RuJ/ian Emperor, PauL-^freaty bctucen Great Britain and Rujfia. — 
Ruffian Declnratiou of War againjl Spain, — The Emperor of RuJJia elei'i' 
ed, by the dijpcrfed Knight^, Grand Majler of Malta, — Uis Munificence 
io that Order, — Sew Fjlahlijhment for its Maintenance at St, Pete^!'- 
burgh, — A combined Ruffian and Tiirkijh Fleet fails through the t)ard(i- 
mcls into the Mediterranean. — And reduces the / 'enetian f (lands on the 
IVeftcrn Coq/i nf Turkey in Europe. — Humane and liberal ConduQ <f tha 
Conquerors oj thefc tp. their Prifoncrs of ff'ar,  

THE fympathics and antipathies 
of reJicjion did not produce 
the fame effects on the minds of the 
grand feign ior and Turkijji divan 
that they operated pn that of the 
kin^s of Candahar and Cabul.-r 
Thcfe, as is ufiial v/ilh other niji- 
Ijionlfts, were nK^dificd and cqun- 
ferai5led by eonfidt^xationspf policy. 
The dominion of the Ofmalins ap- 
peared a nearer and dearer ubj«*rt 
thAVi (he intercfts, common (o all 
Mulfulmcn. of the rcligifai of the 
prophet. The ppwcr and prolpcds 
•f heretics, infidels, and pol^ the- 
irs, the avowed enemies- of (he 
JChoo - dadaud • circar, * in India, 
were lefs cianning than the new 

republic. The grand feignior, in- 
ft ead of exciting the Mahometan 
princes againd the enemies* of 
TippoOj endeavoured to unite them 
ip oppolUion to the enemies of all 
fovpfcigns and religion. 

The grand fcignior, in a letter, 
dated the twenty-third of Septem- 
ber, 17i>8, to Tippoo Sultaun, ac- 
quainted him of die invafion of thu 
venerated land of Egypt, by the 
-devoted French, notwithftanding 
(he obibrvancc of long (ubfjfiiu: 
frlendllii]^ on the part of tJie Sub 
lime Porte ; the ambitions vievvs of 
that irrcl'i^ious and turbulent peo- 
ple in Hip.dorir.n; and the dcler- 
nilirationor the P'/rtc (o employ the 


* The <'op!"pI©n of Tlppca, 



■moft vi^roas meafiires for the pur- treachery, deceit, and fnpremacv, 

pofe ©f repellm^ that rebellious of the vhriftians^ in the legions bt* 

■race. The grand feignior requeft- Hindoflan, are beyond the power 

<^<i that Tippoo would oomtnunicate of expreffion." Tippoo proceed* 

to him whatever lubjed of com- to deduce the hiflory of the Chrif- 

plainl he might hare agairrd the En- tian dominion in India, from the 

gliib : when, by the aid of God and time when the French and Englifh, 

lhe^mircignior*«^^oodoffice9,thore ''each, with one of their detefted 

•complaints (hould be removed, to fliips, and a few Caffres" (infidels), 

his Jatisfaclion, and the grounds of on board, came to the coaft, to that 

oppcrfition and eilrangeroent be ex- when the Englifli had adopted a 

changed for the detirable objects of detennined refolntion to fubdue the 

harmony and union. To this let- whole of HindoAan; and, in con- 

tcT, Tippoo,. after the wfual com- junction with the Nizam Ally 

}'liment$ to the grand feignior, and Khan and the infidels of Poonah, 

profellions of reverence and devo- to fubvert the MiiiTuiman fdigion. 

tion to the common faitH of Itmau- The whole energy of his mind, 

him, repHed, that, as " The French he faid, was continually exerted it^ 

tM made thenvTelves enemies to fup|X)rt the religion of Mahomet. 

Iii? feighnefs, they had made them- As an inftance of his zeal, he mcn- 

tclves fo to all the followers of the tioned a de^gn he had formed, of 

T^ith. God (laid he) is the pro- <^ueWing, by an armed force, com- 

U-aor and defender of the land of manded by one of his approved 

Hindoftan; next to him, this fup- fons., certain exceflive commotions 

r-'ant, (meaning Tippoo himfcif) ihat had bc«^ii excitctl, in theneigh- 

at the Almighty throne, does not bourhood of Mecca, by the foii pt' 

^ will not negledt the fervice of Abdool Wahaub. This' Abdool wa^ 

tjje people. I am fally confident an enlerprizing Mahometan fcep- 

that your highnefs will be difpoied tic, who, fome years fince, el] a 

to afford aifiihince and fapport, in i>H(hed a new doctrine, the foundri- 

all matters, to us labourers. All tion of which is, the abjuration 61 

Hindoftan is over-run with infidels the fignal honours paid to Malw- 

and polythei/h, excepting the do- met. His doctrine, a kind of //- 

minions of KKoo --dadaud - rircar, iaumifijk Socinianifm, cWd not c?r- 

v.hicfc, like the ark of No'ab, are tend to a denial of the prophet s 

life under the protection and boim- roiflion, but it placed him m tijo 

teoua aid of God. It is my hope, condition merely Of a meflenger of 

liom the (bpreme king of kings, the ^ word of God, pUMing, m 

tiiat, as at tlie appearance of a fc- himfolf, no title to (he adoration 

cond Adam, the religion of Iflaum of mankind. Tiiis man obiainrd 

will obtain eKclufivc prevalence very * numerous profelytes, who Ira- 

orer the wliole country of Hindof- verted with him the conntries of 

tin, and th^t all the iinful heretics Syria, Arabia, and J gypt, propn- 

will, witli the utmoft eafe, bc*comc gating their tenets by the (word. 

tiie prey of the fwords of the com- The power of the hiertvrch. Ah- 

batants in the caufe of religion, dool, fpiritual and Imiporal, on his 

Lc it known to thofe who (land at the death, was tian'^fornd to iiis fon. 

I'-'jt of the imperial th(ODci that the Tippoo had ^vritten to the iupreme 
C . ' [F'2] niniftcr 

68] ANNUAL R.E,GI\gTE.Rk MTsa: 

TDiuifter of the fliereef of ivfcxcai 
dcfiriog to be informed of the litna* 
tioD of affairs in, that qaarlcr, 
"For, (fays he) the holy recepta- 
cle is an object of veneration to the 
followers of lri;th, ami an objecl 
of the regard of the aii-powert'ul; 
and to do fervices thereunto is pro* 
dadive of blcirit-gs b<)tl} in this 
world and the world Uy come/* 
Tippoo, in order to conciliate liie 
friendfljip of the: Porte Imvauis 
himfelf, and to ro\ife its rcreatujeiu 
againil tiic Englilh, ilated, in ])is 
letter to the grand feij^r.ior, that, 
after he had granted pepco, r.t the 
eamcA and humbic fuit ot Ln^liHi 
ambailadors, in 17o+,* t;e\ iiad 
excited and joim^d in a ho'.ile ceii- 
federacy againfl llie Khoo-didaud- 
circar, in confequcnceof the fricnd- 
fliip that fubfifted between theiir- 
car and the Sublime Porte. Tlie 
£ng li(h, he fiojicd, bcin^ inforiped 
of the miffion, the friendly rect'p- 
tion« and the retdrn of his auibaifa* 
dors from Conftuntinople, ** with 
hearts inflaixiud and confciou:; that 
they had given \u< highnefs (ihe 
grand feignior) proofs of tlieir evil 
difpofition/' in^med lately conceive 
cdj that all the trjbeof JOaum were 
about to league together for their 
deftruclion. Confederated with 
the Niaam and the infidels of Pf>o- 
jiah> they waged war su^ainfl the 
Khoo-dadaiid-circar, for tc>ur years. 
>^t length, near a hundred thoufantl 
followers of the faith had deterxnin'- 
od to flay tJicir wives and famili&s 
with Ihcir own hands, ami, ruQiing 
on. the infidcif;, drink the cup (if 
martyrdom, and plunge the infidels 
into. hell. The counfellorjs, th<* 
lordsj and the refpecied fages of 

Iflaumifra, all agreed, that this a^ 
tatk upon tho dominions of the; 
Khv>o-dadaad*c*ircar was in confe- 
q'lence of the deputation of ambal* 
ladors with letters to the Sublime 
Porle ; and, therefore, that it was 
adviiable, by any means, to accom- 
modate matters- lor the prefent ; to 
cnmmuricate to. his highncis ail 
that had ore u red ; and, joined by 
his hi^hnels^s aid, proceed to cxr 
terminate the inlid -is afterwards. 
He had approved, iie faid, the re- 
prcfentation of his faithful fen'ants, 
and furrendering tliree crores and 
thirty lack]& of rupees, and half his 
country, which was all a dead lols 
to him, put an end to the contetl. 
In conciuilon, be prayed tl)at the 
vidorious banners of idaum might 
be ever prevalent, and every trace 
of l\emiy and in6deis be wiped 

A wifli hti,s often been exprelled 
by men of* learning, that fome ac- 
count of the Punic wars had been 
hit by the Carthagintans as well 
as by the Romans; or fpme of their 
ollicial papers, containing flatements 
of ti)e conduct qf^this great and 
victorious people. The Romans 
were at great pains to deflroy every 
monument of Carthage. It was 
more liberal in the Englifh to pre* 
forve the whole, and even fo pub- 
lifh many of the papers that were 
found, alter the fail of Ttppoo &\il- 
taun, in his palace of Seringapa- 
tarn. It is probable, that if any of 
the Carthaginian documents had 
been prelerved they would have 
exhibited fomewhat of the charac- 
ter of thofe leli by Tippoo. The 
condudl of tiie Romans would have 
appeared to be deeply tinctured 

•^ • TIrii maetcr is ndt greatly mifreprefcntcd by Tfppco.— Sc^ Memoirs ef ti>e H^jr 




wKh artHkre, injuftice, violence, 
tird rapine: but, with much truth, 
there would have been a inix'tare 
of faireHoocl, and (emi - barbarian 
tunning. We fympathife with the 
laitauti, when he dcfcribes and de- 
;>'ores the ruin of the Mogul em- 
pire, " (haken to pieces by it« own 
iVrvai^ts, wounded by the Enjrlirti, 
and, in it^ la ft ilapre, by the Mah- 
rattaii. who feized on tlie lew re- 
maining wreck* of its ancient great- 
reU and fplendour; " and are deep* 
W »rfe6ied at the fad fpe6lac?Ie of 
** a poor fi^litlefs individual, of the 
mval family of Delhi, whofe fer- 
^utti (under the Rohiiia chief, 
Oijolaum Caudir) had put out his 
eves, rented in his houfe in a frate the 
n>>rf abject, and' the only refources 
of hi? maintenance the fruits of his 
garden ! ** But vi-e revolt at the 
f.iift hood of the fultaun, in the 
rinUl of aH his re!i(*ious profef* 
fions, and d<*fpife hi* mean and 
lii^y cunning, when wc find him, 
in his letters to the Fr<»nch, afcrib- 
in^ the enmity of the Britilh power 
to himfelf, to them r in hi« letters 
to Zemaun Shah, attributing it to 
hi-s having deputed ambaflhdors to 
that prince : and/ in his difpatchcs 
to the grand fcignior, imputing it 
to kU delegation of n« embafly to 
the Sublime Porte. 

V.'hileTippoo Sultaun attempted 
to direct the whole fenfihility and 
e\prtion?of the Turks againft the 
common enemies of Ifmaultfm, on 
tJcor.e hand, the French, on the 
oJlier, endeavoured, by foft words 
5">d tair profe(iion«, to fufpeud and 
ti-'k their indignation, at the inva- 
•"•'in of Egvpty in 4he recoHe.^ion 
or the ancient and natural atlionce 
fietween the Porte and France, and 
STi a ji-aloufy of the Auftrians. RuA 
tiani, and 'Englifli. Neither the 

Turkifli ambaflador at Paris, nof 
the reis-ctfendi at Conftantinople, 
were able, by repeated inquiries, 
to obtain any other information re- 
fpecting the expedition, from Tou- 
lon, than thai its only objeft was 
the con(|U(.-ft and the 'deflrutlion of 
the order of the knights of Malta ;• 
an obje^^ that mull be pleafin^, and 
excilethe gratitude of all Mulllil- 
men. BiOiop Talleyrand, the minify 
ter, of the French republic, for fo- 
reign relations, folemnly affured the 
Ottoman ambaffador, at Paris, that 
there was no other end in view •• 
and that it was the fixed and unal- 
terable purpofe of the French go^ 
verninent, to prcferve the ancient 
frienddiip which had fo long fub«» 
fi/led between France and the Sub-- 
lime Porte, and to cement anj 
/Irengthen it more and more. But; 
in the mean time, while the French 
minillcr was making fuch protefia- 
tions, in reply to the letters fent by 
the French charge d'affaires at Con* 
ftantinople, Ruffin, as well as by 
the Ottoman gox^emment, that en-» 
voy had received letters, of an old 
date, 'in which the directory had 
Written to him, that it was, indeed; 
true that Buonaparte had orders to 
go to Egypt ; bnt this was only in " 
order to punilh tiie beys, to pro- 
cure certain commercial advanta- 
ges for France, and to ftrike a blow 
againfl England ; that it was the 
intention of the diref^ory to fend 
an ambalTador to the Sublime Porte, 
for the purpofe of arranging all 
thofe matters, and fliewing various 
important advantages that would 
accrue to the Ottomans from that 
expedition : and that if the Porte 
fhould be fo rafli as to declare war 
againft the French republic, on ac- 
count of this a (lair of Egypt, it 
would be immediately attacked by 
[F'Jj the 


the imperial courts, wbich were its empire, woirfd be a po#erfiiI d^ 
ancient and condant enemie<(. fence againft Both internal revolt 
It is probable that Talleyrand, and external aggrefliort. In a word, 
wbcn he gave the fblcmn affii ranees the grand feignior ought not to take 
juft mentioned, to Alj-'Eifcndi. had, umbrage at fhe appearance of" the 
in the multiplicity of' bufinefs in French in Egypt, iince it was ma- 
which be was engaged, forgotten nifeftly for (lis good. 
the contents of iris letter to Rufiin. The Turfcifli government was 
From the difcordancy between that neither fi> mndr paralyfcd by inter- 
letter and tlvofe ailuranccs, it was nal weakAefs, nor io- much over- 
manifeft that his defign was, in his awed by a dread of the hvo impe- 
converfation with the Tarkilh am- rial coarts, at to bear fuch treat- 
haflador, to decci\'e and amufe the raent and language, without eMpref- 
divan, until certain intelligence fing and gi^Hng proofs of their re* 
fiiould be received of the fate of fentraent. To the Spanifii ambaf- 
the expedition. But, after Buona-* fador, the reis-eflTend*, wkh equal* 
parte had landed, and made very dignity, propriety, and feveiUy, re- 
confiderable progrefii, though in a plied, " I am forry to find the king 
very fliort time, towards the efta- of Spain become the tiiol of me» 
bhfliment of lite Irench colony in who murdered his family,- and ihakc 
E^ypt, the French envoy at Con- a fabre o\^r bis. own head!** An 
fiantinopic, the Spanifli, and the embargo was laid on the French 
Dutch, or, as he was called, tlie ftiips at Conftantinoplc, and in 
Batavian ambalFador, reprefenled, oLlier Turklfh portsw The French, 
to thcTurkii'h government, that the merchants, as well as confuls, were 
po^elTion of that country, bv the impriloned, and their goods fequet- 
French, under the autlwrity and tored. The French envoy rRuttin, 
accultomed tribute to the Porte, with hi* domeftics, was ftnt as » 
would be the very beil thing that hoftage Co the Seven Towers, and 
c&ufd happen, for the intereft and the arms of the French republic 
prelervation of the Ottoman em- torn down from the French ambaf- 
pire ; a partition of whofe Turkifli iador^a palace. Tlie Spanilh am- 
fiominions was certainly in (he con- bartadof received an order to quit 
templation t)f the Ruliians and AnP Conftanlmople within a few days. 
triaiM, as the occupancy of the The Dutch ambaflador was orderect 
coafts of the Arabian Gulph, by away, likewile, but, on bis repre- 
the ereClioi* of forts, was in that fenting that, in a lew months, there 
of the Fnglifli. The excitement might very probably be a change 
that would be given to commerce, in his government, he was fufiered 
^nd ilte improviUKnits that would to remain. 

he extended bv the FrcMich in On the fecond day of Septem- 

K;?ypt to otlier parts of the Turkifli her, the following memorial was 

dirmifjions, would ultimately >e- delivered, by the I'urle, to alt the 

dnund to tke wealth, power, and foreign minillers : 

jrlory, of t\re fovereign Sublime '* Tlie Porte, as all Europe 

Porte. Its French fubjecls, at the knows, has long continued at peace 

i'atue time that they promoted tlie with France, and on terms ©f the 

•iJiternal protperity «f v.'j Ottoman ihicleft amity and good underftand* 

. ing : 

History of europe. [71 

!n^; wl\ich good andcrfhuidtng it the pacific and jud difpofitions and 
has done C^ery tiling in its power principles, of the Porle. Though 
to raainuln. With tlie utmoll fur- the divan had perfevcred in their 
Vr-ze, ibercfore, has it feeu the fyftem of neutrality, they were nei- 
Turkilh territories abruptly^ and in ther unacquainted with their poli- 
a raoft extraordinary manner, at- tical principles, nor unalarmeil at 
tacked by the French arms, A man their progreCs. . After enumerating 
of the name of Buonapartt;^ giving^ the ex ten five advantages which the 
himlelf Dut to be :, French general, Frencli had reaped from the Sub- 
)ni aude war on the Turkifli pro- lime Porte's remaining neutral, du- 
vir.ce of Egypt. It is impollible ring tiie courfc of the war, and that 
^OT the Porte to believe that fuch they, on their fide, ought alfo to 
3 proceeding, fo contrary to the have been Heady in preferring 
rights of all nations, can ever be peace, the manifefto ftates, '* That 
coantenanced, much lefs command* thofe araongr them, who found the 
^i by the Frencii executive direc- means of aliliming to thMmfelvcs the 
tory. A confiderable force, how- reins of government, by favour of the 
c-vcr, has been fent to Egypt, to revolution, began to .dtvile various 
fi'jp the progrefs of the invaders, pretences, and under an i Hull ve idea 
Si^me of the emiflaries of Buona- of liberty — a liberty fo called iu 
p-rte have pretended to perfuade word, but which, in reality, knows 
the people of Egvpt, that tney have no other laws than the lubverfioii 
been fent by Mahomet to give them of every eftabliflicd government— 
perfect liberty and. happinefs, and (after the example of France), the 
rc[:der their religion the ibvereign aboliflimcnt of all rclii^ions, tiie der 
religion on earth ; but the people ilrudion of every country, the piuii- 
l«3ve anfvvered, that Maliomet an- der of property, and the dillolution 
li^orize,^ no injuflice, and that they of all human fociety — to occupy 
can place no faith in fuch promifes, themfclves in nothing but in mii- 
from thofe who»ha^re denied their leading and impofmg. upon the ig- 
Ood, and renounced their own norant, amou^ft the people, pre- 
prophet/* tending' to reduce mankind to the 

The dignified brevity and fimpli- fiate of the brute creation, and ren- 
<^'ty, and the plain and manly fenfe, der the government permanent in 
f'- this httle piece, was generally their own hands. Actuated by fuch 
and judly admired. A roanifefio, principles, Ihcy made it their max- 
c^^nccived alfo in the fimpic majefly iui to fiir up and corrupt, indlfcri- 
'^r truth, was communicated, on the minatcly, the fubje^ls of every 
eleventh of September, \193, by power, whether diftant or near, 
tiie Sublime Porte, *' To their el- eiiher in peace or war, anj to ex- 
teeraed friend, the minificr-plenlpo- cite them to revolt againft their 
tODtiary of the court of Croat Bii- natural foverclgns and government. 
Urn, at Conflanlinople/* In this V/hllft, on ouvi hand, their mini/ler 
piece, the duplicity, artifice, trea- at Confiantinoplt:, purfuant lo that 
chery, and injuftlcc, of the French fyfiem of duplicity and deceit which 
republic, are contraflcd with the is their cuflom every where, made 
plaiit-dealing, tbe good faith, and profefiions of fricndfbip lor the 

£ F 4 ] . , Ottoman 

72] ANNUAt REGISTER, 1199, 

Ottoihan empire, endeavouring to inflru6^icftMwhtch were given them ^ 

make 'the Sublime Porte the dupe and, confeqtiently, that any farther 

of fheir infidious projeds, and to complaint would be of no avaiF 

forward their obje^ of exciting her whatever. 

sgainfl other friendly powers ; the " NotAvithftanding thcfe traTifec* 
cominander<; and generals of their tions, however, the Sabfime Porte, 
armv in Jlaly, on the other hand, in the Iiopes of die dire6lory alter- 
were engaged in the heinous at- ing its (vftem of conduct, attd lay- 
tempt of per\^crting the fubjedls of ing afidc the fenfclefs purfuit of 
hij rnajefly the grand feignior, by wifhing to overturn the ' univerfe ; 
fending agents (perfons notorious in expetiation of feeing things in 
for their intriguing prafVices) into France, fr»)m the haraffed fltuation 
Anatolia, Morea, and the iflands of of that country, at length take a 
the Archipelago ; and by fpreading different turn, by the people refu- 
manifcftocs, of the moft infidious fing to bear any longer tho/e itjto- 
fenour, among which, the oiie ad- Ferable evils and di (a tiers which 
drcfled by Buonaparte, to the peo- have been brought upon them from 
pie of Niacrio, with leveral others, the perliwial views ot a few upftart 
diilributcd by the lixme, are fuflici- individuals, fince the commencc- 
tntly known io the pnblic. ment of the revolution ; and with 

''^Upon the Sublime Porte*s com- a view of preventing fecrct enmity 

plaining, to the dire6lory, of this from prodncing an open rupture ; 

bondudl of their commandcn? and fhe did not alter her courle, but 

generals, their anfwer was, that all preferred keeping filence. 
proceedings, on the part of their *' In the beginning of the war 

officers, contrary to fricndfliip, were with the other powers, the French 

not with the confent of the direc- government had declared, that their 

lory, and the fame fhould be pre- intention was not to accpiire new 

vented, and their officers warned territory, but, on the contrary, U> 

'againfl it, the wifli of the French refh)rc ever^ fuch conqueft as might 

government being to flrengthen, have been made by their arms du- 

more and more, the ancient friend- ring the conteft; contrary to which, 

fhip fubfifling with the SubFime they not only have kept pofleffion 

Porte. of various cxtenfive protnnces,— 

•' In confeqncnce of this anfwer, fnatched by them from the bdli- 

delivercfd officialFy on their part, it gerent powers ; but, not content 

was expected that the faid renerals with this, profiting of the change v 

would have left off their Editions whicFi had prevailed among the al- 

purfuits." But, neverthelefs, no lied courts, through their intrigues, 

change appearing in their condi^ct, have put off the niafl; intirely, and, 

and their perfeverancc, in fiich in- developing their fccret views, with- 

fidious practices, being greater than out reafon or juflice, have fallen 

ever, it became obvious, that the upon and independent 

anfwers of the directory were oaly republics and flates, who had held 

fictitious and deceitful; that the themfelves neutral, like the Sublime 

* intrigti ing attempts of their agents Porte, invading their territories 

could not but be didated by the when leafl provided with the means 



of defence, and fubjefling them to nate play of (ecrel intrigue or open 

theirwilj by open force and boililily. hoftility, as beft fults tlicir end, to' 

" Thus, no one being lef'tto con- derange the conftidition of every 

trml ihcm, they tore the veil of all cftabliftied indcpeiidi^nt flate, by 

(it^'OfHm -at once, and, unmhidful crt'aling (as tbev have done in 

01 (lie obligations of treaties, and, Italy) a number of fmall republics, 

to convince the v^orld that friend^ of wliich tbe French is to be the 

1^1 ip and enmity are the fame thing, parent mother ; and thus to fway, 

in their eye«, contrary to the right and to condud every thing after 

of nation^, and in viokition of the thc'ir own will, every where. 
lies fubfiiling between the two " Now, Egypt being the porfaf 

courts, they came, in a manner al- of the two venerable cities fMecca 

tf>^her unj>rc*cedented^ like a fet and Medina), and fhe pre fen t opo* 

of pirates, and made a fudden in- rauor.s, in that quarter, being of a 

v.ifion in Egyp^ the molk precious r.auiro aifccling all the Mahomcdan- 

arcone the provinces of the Olto- k'ct at large, the Sublime Porte, 

man Porte, of which they t(K)k lor- conllltently with her exprefs, decla- 

rihle pofll-tlion, at a time \\ hen tlifv nt^nns to the above French cliarg<? 

Itad expcricDced nothing from this d'afFiires, and, tliroiigh her ambaf- 

coart but demon It rations of friend- f-irlor, to the diredtory nt Paris, is 

fiiip.** compelled, by every law, lo refd^ 

Themanifefto, having recounted ihc* faddcn and unprovoked aggref- 

various infrances of French dupli- Mon and hollilities, committed bv 

rily and diffimnlation, and, pinti; u- the Frtud). as above, and, with a 

In-ly, the pofitise decLi ration of full coiiH.knce in the aflTiflance of 

T.iile\rand, in anIWer to the,c-ate- the Omnipotent God, to fet about 

? rical qaeftirn put to him by Aly- repelling and deflroying the enemv, 

i' !^'-ndi, that Buonaparte'*; tommit- by f^-a and land. Tims, to wage 

fioii liad no otiier object than tlie war again ft France, is become a 

c-svr.queft of Malta, and the deftruc- precept of religion incuUibejU on 

tron of the order of its knights, in- all Mudulmen. 
Icrrcd : " In confequence w hereof, the 

" That the diredlors of the afi^refaid char* e d'affaires, logt^tbe.- 

French government, to tccond their with the oth( ers of th:it midion, 

^»wn ambilion a)id arrogance, had haw been fent to the Seven Tow* 

tciaaHy h»rt all recollection of thofe ers, to be detai:;ed there, as hof- 

hws cbfef%*ed and maintained in lages, until fuch time as AIv- 

every regular government; and that EtT^ndi, before named, and thofe 

no jFaith, whatever, was to be of his retinue, be arrived from Pn- 

paccJ in their words and profef- ns: and the confuls, merchants, and 

tif.ns.. From the tenour of their rrench properties, in Cunfl.uUinr)- 

arbitrary proceedings, and defpotic plc> and in other part* <;f the Ofto- 

Conduct, as too well wiliietled from man empire, thall alio be kept in 

firtt to bft, it is clear and cvidt-nt, depofit, and as lecurity, until the 

(bat tlieir projeCl is no other but merchant-;, dependents of the Sub-' 

to baniili every orderly influution liiue Purtc, wiih their (hipping, and 

fiom the /ace of the world; to over- properties, as alfo the; publi;, Ihlpa, 
(iit human focieiy ; and, by an alter- with thair equipage, detained in 



the province of Egypt, (prifoners 
of war excepted) be fet at liberty. 
To repel the perfidy of thofe ufurp- 
«rs who have raifcd the fiandard of 
rebellion and trouble in France, is 
a roeafure, in which not the fafety 
and tranquillity of the Sublime 
Porte alone, but alfo that of all the 
]>owers in Europe, fs concerned: 
wherefore, the befl hopes are en- 
tertained of the cordial co-opera- 
tion of all friendly courts, as well 
as of their difpofition to fulfil, by 
every means in their power, their 
duties of frieiid(hip and of aHIllance 
in the prefcntcaiile." 

Thongji the native energy of the 
mind, in Turlicy in Europe, be re- 
prefled by defpotifm, it is obfcrved 
to recover, on trying occafions, not 
a'littje of that quic knefs of percep- 
tion which formerly diAinguiflied the 
natives of that happy region and cli- 
mate. The Turks, though funk in 
iloth, are not, by nature, a How or 
ilupid race. A review of the con- 
dud of France by this nation, forced 
to fpeak out by tiie irrefifliblc im- 
pulfe of truth and fa6is, and render- 
ed hoftile to their ancicntally only by 
infufFcrablc aggreflion,deferves to be 
recorded among the roofl memorablo 
events and features of the pafEng 
years. But, neither the rcoellion 
of Talfowan Oglou, who maintain- 
ed his independence and power in 
Bofnm, Scrvia, and Balgaria, and 
threatened to carry his arms into 
Macedonia and Romania, and even 
to Conftantipoplc} the revolution- 
ary rpi^it, cxcHed and folicrrd b^ 
the French, in the Morea; nor, fi- 
nally, perhaps, the invafion of 
£g}])t, would have fuftlced to rouze 

the Porte to the exertions Tvbichf 
the times and the occafion de- 
mand wl, if the naval vrftory 
of Ahoukir had not exhibited a 
flriking and encouraging proof, that 
the power and fortune of the French 
republic were, not Irrefiflible* It 
had been conAantly reprefented by 
the Englidi minider at the Porte, 
whofe public condufly as well as 
his polite and friendly attentions to* 
his conntrymen abroad, merit roach 
praife, that the revolutiufiary ff^irit 
of France threatened all monarchi- 
cal thrones .with fubverfion. The 
Porte, at laft, at once alarmed at 
the invafion of Egypt, and embold- 
ened by the victory of the Nile, 
liAened ferioufly to his arguments. 
He became the principal counfellor 
and confient of the reis-eflendi, or 
fecretary of flate ; and it was very 
much owing to his influence and 
addrefs that an .alh'ance, ofifenfive 
and dcfcnfivc, was formed betvveeii 
Rttffia and the Porte, under the re- 
ciprocal guarantee of the emperor 
of Germany and of Great Bri- 

It was found now, that the fu-, 
preme vizier, Izzad Mahomed Ba- 
ihaw, had attended to nothing but 
his own uileren : fo that, " In the 
dark himfelfi with refpecl to the 
evil defigns of ihofe fwinifh infidels, 
the French, from not procuring 
proper intelligence, he did not ap- 
prize the inhabitants of Egypt 
thereof in good time," he was there- 
fore depofed from the office of 
grand vizier, and Jofeph, bafhaw- 
governor of Euzerum,* appointed 
ni his (lead; until whofe arrival at 
the fiiblime gale, Muftapha BaQ^aw, 

* This Is rbc fame Jofeph who had been am!>afra(!or, for feme years, from the Porte, 
HI the (•jft 0} XjonCBO^ 


to w^om the iTDperial decree,* an- on the feceflion of PruGia, became, iw 
T^onncmg thole changes, was ad- earned, and had determined to fend 
drejTchi, was to aft as deputy-vizier^ a great lorce to the aid of tiie allier, 
or Rahnakatti. Military prepata- as belore related^ Hei iuixsiiTar^ 
lhn% wew made, plans of adion on the KufPian tiirone, iiiiierittrd*- 
were formed, and troops were in from his illuftrious anct^flors, a pai^ 
iBotioo, mboth Twrkey in Afia and fxon for tlve farther ag grand izonleot 
Tarkey in Earopev Of the o))cra- of die empire, and from I hem too, 
tions in the Ibrmer, foraeaccoimt a^ well as his own filuatiwi, a di(- 
has already been given. Before pofftion to qualli popular innova- 
te proceed to take a view of tlwfe tion, aad to maintain the conacn<i« 
io the tatter, it will be proper tO' caule of lovereigns. The latter irf" 
advert to the counfeis and move- tlxife prhnciplos appears to ha^'e 
reentsof the Radians, with which been that which originally raovci 
fhofe of the Turks, in the prefect Paul 1. in 17:>8, to take an adive 
ftrange convulfion of the world, part with the coalilitm ; thoi4gh the 
^ere/ to ail appearance, amicably latter was more and mure develo- 
blended. ped by the progrcfs of events, anil 
At the coBineBcement of the iecms even to have abfurbod the 
war, the late empifefs of RulFia, original motive of action. He 
j<:aJous of an anion between Au(- was unhackneyed in tlie Inirigocft 
tria and Pruifia, and not dtfpleafed and duplicity of court;; : he avow^ 
to fee tliefe preponderating' |>owers . ed and mo\Mid straight fT)rward t» 
of Germany exhau/l their itrength hk object ; wlilch was the reliora- 
in a confiici with France, acceded, tion ot' the Bourbons to the throiie 
at (if ft, to the confederacy of kings, of France.f It was in the ihiue 
«niy in name. Bat ike aflerwa^ds, fpirit of hoftility to FrcucK innova- 

* ¥nm ttifs decree, premul^aced At the Porte, on the frrfl of September,, the follow. 
i'lg, Mfervin^ to givt an idea of 'the Turks and Turkifli govcrnnient, is extracled v— 
'• Nowir, it bcin^ incumbent upon all true believers to combat thole fiirhlcfs briires, :\^ 
Frmch, and It being: become a pofitive duty fcfr-our Imperial pcrfon to ddiver xhf b.tfTt J 
te-Titones from their accurfcd hands, and to revenge the InAjlt which they have oifeneii 
10 Mofuimm, no dcltiy whatever is to take place for ibc arrival of the new viRier j but 
tbe mnii vigorous meafures mult be purlasd to attack them hy fca and lanJ. 

" Wherefore, by a deiiberaiion with the iiluftrious lawyers, miii:il»;rs, and cWeKaIr.-% 
ecr fjbjr£}s, you mult (with a full confidence in Cod and hii prophet) fix upon itic 
ffrjflual means of freeing the province of Erypt from tho preftnoeof fuch vvretc'rch. 
Vo«f wlil acquaint all the trtie believers, in the n-fpettive <juarter<», that we are at vc«r 
Wif!) tite French j and, tumang jiigU im<» day, vvjil apply your utmoil tX^am to take 
revenge of them. 

" you will adopt the n\o(\ vigilant conduct towards i^cfendirj*; t!ie ether M;;l»o.-r;rtaa 
provinces and our imp-Tial froiicicri, from the jjlots anrl m.^Iice or t'lic cn;,j*iy, by tue 
djf rein force mert of every pore and place with troops and mllitiry 3l<;:cs. 

** Vou will likewifc dire^ your zealous attention towards tlic» doe fupr-iy of KhWg 
prwnfionj to the Lr^habitants of ihh our iiuperial rchdcnce ; and will vv.uth over tiit ai- 
teirsof all pcrJcns in general, until r!c lupremc^vir.ior do arrive. 

" We rh=»;l ol.ferve your cxirtions, and m^y tht t-iaunprtrnt ()o\ orvVm his dtvinr 
favour to attend our undrrtaking:, and render us fuccclsful in the vii'iication of our 

t See the dedaratloo made by his mnjcfty the emperor of aii the Rufi";as to ibc loejsi. 
Wrtof tbeCernian empire^ in the iec4>nd [.u( ui iht> voiun*?. 



tions that he laboured, by certain of human nature, and of innnwa- 

domeAic regulations relating to tion in modes and manners of life, 

dreis, equipage, anA the ceremo- is not very confident with the Ihi- 

nial, jof (bciety, to preferve a due bihty of abfoiute power-; unlef^y 

gradation of ranks, and the fepre* indeed, he ihduld haire conceived 

macy of the court over the whole, or veiitbred to execute a deiign of 

Certain reverences were exadled anticipating political fermentation 

from pafTengers on the ftreets^ not ^^ revolution, by gradual changes 

only to the imperial family but the ^^i progreffive improvement in the 

principal officers of ftate. No form of government, * 

one below a certain rank was a^- With the foul and life of the 

lowed to put more than a certain cwifederation againil the French 

number or horfes' to his -carriage, republic, the king of Great Britain; 

Ukafes, or royal cdidls, were pub- he entered into a cidfe alliance, by 

lifhed, for wearing cocked hats nnd ^ proviiional treaty, done at Jit. 

direfling all perfons to appear in Peferfbiigh, on the eighteenth of 

Iniokles, both in their (hoes and at December, 1798. In the name of 

their knees, in wai(!coats with flaps, the moft holy and indivifible trinity, 

coats without capes, and ftocks in* his majefty the kitig^of Great Bri- 

ftead of neckcloths or handkerchiefs, tain, and his maj^y the emperor 

without any kind of bolder or ftufl^ of aU the Ruffias,' in conicquence 

irig. No pcrfbn was to wear boots of the alliance and friendlhip al- 

with tops, or half-boots. For dilf- ready fubfifting between them, be- 

obedience to thefe orders fome per- mg defirous to enter, intso a concert 

fons were punifhcd with a fliort im- of meafures, fuch as miglit contri- 

prifbcment. Thefe regulations were bute, in the moft efficacious man- 

generally confidercd as trifling and ner* to o|)pofe the fuccefles of the 

unworthy of a great fovereign. They French arms, and the extcnfion of 

wore, indcej, an air of levity and the principles of anarchy, and to 

ludicfoufDcfs: yet, (he attention bring about a folid peace, tog<^iher 

paid by Peter the Great to the re^ with the re-eftabliftiment .of th'e 

gulation of drefs has not been con- balance of Europe^ judged it to bo 

demned as either frivolous or un* worthy of their avo&ferbusconfi* 

important. Peter at pains to deration and earoeil folicitude- to 

introduce new fa(hion$; Paul to endeavour, if poflible, to reduce 

preferve the old. It may be even France Within iti propter limiltj 

cioul>ted> whether the policy a£ as they febHOed before the re* 

Paul was not, in this refpe61, tlie volution. With the intention of 

wifeii, as being' moft confonant inducing the king of Pruffia to 

with the fpirtt of an abfolute gq* take an a6lK'e' part in the war 

VernmeDt. If Peter the Great had againft the common enemy, they 

lived to our -day, he would have propofed to employ' all their endea- 

J>encetved what, perliaps, he did Vours to obtain that end. His im- 

l^ot, in his ardour to civilize and perial maje/ly wn^ ready to afford 

fciine his people, forcfee or thitik htm a fuccour of land-iorces, and 

of, that a (pirit of imj>rovement in he de/lined, fin that purpofe,- forty^ 

the arts and fcienoes, and the con* five thoufand men, infantry and 

comitant fentimcnts of the dignity csvalry^'wstbihpntcel&rvartiilttrf. 

' With 


WUb legard to the diredlfon of terminating the war, and thereby 

thi« corps, ami its oorobtned ope- of difcontifiuing the fubiidy, before 

rations with the Erutfian troops, the expiration of the twelve raontlis 

trie emperor of Rufiia wa^ tq ar- above flipulated, he engaged, in 

niii^ thefe i«rith the king of Pruf* that cafe, to pay three months ad* 

iij.and thearrangefiicnt to be made vance of the iiibfi<)y agreed on» 

wa< to be comraunicated to his J3ri« reckoning irom tl)e day on which 

taiinic majetly, in order that^ by the information ibonid be received 

huh a concert between the high by the general cominanding the 

n!lics, the military operations again fl Rufiian troops. In like manner, 

llie enemy mi^iit be made with the if any aggreflion on Ruilia (hcAild 

greater Uiccelu, and that the object take place, by which the emperor 

prtjpoted might be the more eafily (hould be obliged to recall his army 

allertatoed. His Britannic majev* into his own dominions, the fuhn«> 

tv, on his partj engaged to furnilh dy (liottld, in fuch cafe, be paid up 

]»ecuniary liicrotirs: 225,000/. fter- only to the day on which the army 

hng, for the firl? and moft argent (houW re-enter the territory of Rid- 

expenfe«; of which 75,000/. was fia. This treaty was to be confi* 

to be paid as (qon as the troops dered as provihonal and its execu- 

ilioald have pafied the Ruffian fron* tion not to take place until tjie king 

tit*r; and that the other two moie- of Pruflia fhouid be determined to 

ties of a like fura each> Qioqld be t»rn his forces againft the common 

paid at the expiration of two fuc- enemy. But, in cafe of his not 

tctiivc pericxls, of three months doing fo, the contradling parties 

'^ch, thereafter. He agreed alfo relented to themfelves the right and 

tofumifli to the Ruiiian emperor a the power to lake, ihr the good of 

hihfidy of 75,000/. per month, to their affairs, and the fuccefs of Hie 

bo computed iroiii the day on Yvhich falntary eixl they miiihf have in 

Im- corps tW* troops, aboyo- mention- view, other meakires analogous to 

^^-l. (hould pafs the Rnilian frontiers, the times and circumfl.inces, an<l to 

1 his fubfidy was to be paid at the agree then on thofe which, in fuch 

fummencement of each moi>th, a cafe, they flionld judge to be 

aikl, being defined lor the appoint- rooft ncceirary. The emperor of all 

HRMiti and roaintenonce ot^ the the RulTias, ncverthelefs, in order 

ti'Kipj, it was to be continued da- to give a ftill more Ariking proof 

fing the fpace. of twelve months, of his finccre difpofitions, and of 

unlcfs peace iboold be madefooner. his dcfire to be, as much as po(li- 

Witftm that {pace of time, the con- ble, uieful to his allies, promifed, 

trading parties were to come to an even during the courfe of Ibe no- 

underftanding, whether, in cafe thp gociation with. his PruHlftn mnjeflv 

Har (hould not be terminated, the and before its termination, to put 

i>)b(idj above-mentioned fbouid be the corps of forty-five thou land 

continued. The contracting parties men on fuch a fooling that they 

engaged not to make either peace might be immediately empIoyt»d 

f'l* armi^Hoe without including each wherever, according tf» a previous 

otW: but it tbrongh' anyun(<>re- omcert among IH he allien, the nti- 

f^en events, his Britannic majefty lity of the common cauJc might 

• ioukl be imder the necei&ty.of rccjuire. 



The zca! of the emperor Paul, tti While his Rufllan majefty exert- 

tfie common canfe of crowned heads, ed h is whole aotliority and infliience 

^vsKsalfomanifefled in adectaration to rouze a general , attack on the 

4>f war againft Spain, in a mani- Ffencli- republic, he 'received into 

leAo,. dated the fifteenth of July, his fricndftiip and protection thofe 

1799 ; in which, as well as rn the who had fiiffered from its tyranny 

flMiMfeflo to the German ^empire, and opprcffion. To Lewis XVIIT. 

the mind and vtew« of the empe- as he was cabled by his adherents 

for, at that time, appear to "be dW- and his court, he ^ve an aiylum 

|»iayed unequivocally and with fin- in the capital of CourJand. He 

verity. "A mimg the fmall number received a number of eroigrai^t 

jot Eiiropeaji powers (fa id he) who, Frelich nobles intoWs military fer^ 

IB external appearance, feemed to vice: and, a1)o^<e all, he extended 

ht attached to the French monar- hif» prote^ion and munificent pa- 

«hy, but who, in reality, are on^y trona;!^^ to the difperfed and cje^ed 

#cpreficd by the dread of thofe fu* kniphts of Malta. The grand 

{ers whom God hath abandoned, bailiff, the grand crofs, and other 

Done has more evidently betrayed drliin^uiftied members of Oi is order, 
that dread, or that pufillanimous' affembled at St. PettTfburgli, in 

lidhmiilion, than Spain: not, in- Odober, 1798, elected the empe- 

idocd, hy alFt>rding them, hitherto, ror grand nia^er of their order. 

any eflVelual fuccours or co-opcra- His nia5elh'« wlio is -faid to hax^c 

tion, but by the artual preparations iblichled, accepted this dignity, and 

which ftie IS now making. Fruit- exercifed its prerogatives, in co«- 

fcfe have been all our efforts, and ferring, with great pomp and f<»- 

tl'vey were as forcible as it was pof^ Jemnity, the order itle4f, as well a« 

ISblc to make, to rec onducl that it^ different degrees, titles, and of- 

power irtto tlie tnie path of honour fices, on various perfons of didinc- 

aftd glory, and to unit*- with us, "tion. Count Ijtta, envoy-extra- 

We declare war againil the king «r<linary from the pope, and the 

4)f Spain ; and we confcq«ent^y prince Serra Capriola,. «H'<*y from 

Ijive orders for lequettrating and Na|!>itfs, were Jionoured w^th thp 

^^orfifcating all the Spanilh mer- grand crofs. A new tnllitution, 

^rbant-Aiips Which are at prefent in under the name of a gnuid priory^ 

o»r ports ; and we likewiie charge was eAab1i(hed at Peterfburgh, m 

ali oiir commanders, both by feaand favour of the knights of Malta, 

iasd, to treat as. enemies the fubjecls and endowed with an annoal reve- 

of his Spanifb raajefty, wl^irever iMie cf 216,000 rubles. This was 

<hey may meet with them." His to fervc as a refidence wnd raRying 

imperial majefty, in the fame tem- place for alt the knights. The 

pier and tone* laid an embai;go «mi motives, afligned by nis imperial 

the Hamburgh ihips in tlie Ru0inn jnajeii^y for this ad of munificence, 

• portif ; and, in a menacing atlitiide, were a ros^ard to the common cauie 

attempted to draw olf not only that of ChriAianity and Chriftendona, 

linail^ yet important, republic, but , to which the illuflrious knights «if 

Sweden, Denmark, and even Pnif- Malta had been (b eminently fubfer- 

4Ka, from their (y(kem of neutrality vient, to prefervc that order, and 

lo the iidc of coalition. . lo cuoble ih^m to recover tbe pof- . 



felfions that had been nivifhod from menting the power, fecurity, an4 

<hem by injuftice and violence ; glory, of ftates/* 

and to add a nevi^ incitenient to the The emperor, in February, 1799, 

Ij'valty and bravery of the Ruffian fenl a note to all the foreign minif- 

nubles by the hope of being ad- ters reiident at Petcrlburgh, requefl* 

initted, in confeqiience of lignali- ing them to make known, to their 

zed merit, ir)to the iiluflrious fra* reipedive courts, that he had ac^ 

lemity of the knights of St. John cepted the title of " Grand mailer 

of]cru£ilem. But, from this order of the (bvcreign order of St. John 

no perfr.n of noble ciefcent, and of Jerufalem," of which St. Pettyf* 

blherwire properly qualified, ac« burgh was henceforth to be the 

cording to the rules of the order, of feat and chief relidence. Orders 

any country in Chnilendom, was to were alio ilFued to the minlliers of 

he interdirted. To the ancient and Ruflia, not to receive any letters, 

ftanding laws of the order, his ma- addrelfed to his imperial raaje/ly, in 

jdly added a nnmber of regulations which the title of *' Grand malice 

refpeiJiDg his own. new fbunda-. of the fovereign order of St. Joha 

tion. of Jerufalem^' Aiould be omitted. 

The ukafe for this eftablilhment On this new inilitution, for the 
was accompanied by ft proclara:^- prefcrvation of an ancient order, 
tion, declaring that any gentleman, though its patron and head was 
of any Chriftian country, duly qua- neither unmarried nor a catholic, 
h bed, miffht be received as a Knight the aged, infirm, and unfortuate 
of St. John, in the imperial reii- pope, Pius VI. in the rootMAery of 
denceof St.Peter(burgh,and refide Cailicn, near Florence, bellowed 
tiiere in that cliani^ler, and enjoy his approbation, fan6tion, and pa^ 
the emperor's particular favour and ternal and apoilolical benedi6lion» 
protedion. on (he fifth of November, 1798, 

" We flatter ourfelves (fays his Tiiis account of the new grand 
niajefly) that, having through Di- priory at St. Peterftiiirgh, .would 
nnti Providence and hereditary Aave been altogether di (proportion- 
right come to the im))erial throne ate to the fcale of this narrative, if 
of our anceflors, we have it in our fubfequent events and pretentfons. 
power to pr4)te6l, maintain, and recently brought forth, had not 
even incrcafe and extend, the fplen- given thein much importance. 
doar of an order fo ai^cient and The emperor of RuiTia, with the 
reoowiicd among the orders of chj- difpohtions, and under the engage- 
v^hy, convinced that, by fUch a merits, above mentioned, made war 
condud, we dial] render an impor- on i'mnce by lea and land. A Ruf^ 
tant fervice to the univerle ! The lian fquadron, of twelve fail of the 
laws and regolatians of tbiii order line, wa<i fent to co-operate with 
infpire a love of virtue, form good the Britifli fleets. In the German 
morals, (lrengtl>en the Ixmds ot fu- Ocean, oil' tlie coalt of Britain ; 
b^irdination, and prefent a power- . and another, <m. the twenty-fifth of 
I'dlremcdy again fl the proicut 7/7 tf7^/a Auguft, IT 9:\ appeared in the ca- 
for innovation, and the unhridlrd nal of Conltaiitinople, where it 
licentioufnefsof thinking. Inline, was joined by a Tu^kilb fquadron.. 
liiis ordcf is an engine fyr aug- J^iie cou\bincd fh'ct, conC fling ot 




twelve fi[iip« of the line and fixteen 
frigates, belides gall4*>s, gun-boats, 
aiid tranfports, with twelve thou- 
fand men, failetl through tlie Dar- 
danelles into the McditCFrancan. 
Iheir firft operation was an aftacic 
on the newly-created French de- 
partments in the iEgcin and Adria- 
tic Seas. Cerigo, tin' angient Cy- 
tl;erea, an ifland bcli/nging to the 
Venetians, but ceded to the French 
by the treaty of Canipo-Forroio, 
ivas taken, aiftcr a flight refiftance, 
on the tweifdi of Oftob'^r. Zante 
and Cephalonia were abandoned 
by the French on the nincleoniii 
of that month. And from thence, 
on the fiftlj of November, tht!y pro- 
ceeded to blockade the canal of (he 
i Hand of Corfu ; in the town and 
■ibrtrefs of which ifland, tiie works 
of which; conftru6icd by the cele- 
'broted general Schalenberg, had 
been "kept in excellent order bv the 
Venetians, and lately flronc/tiiened 
by the French, there was a confi- 
derable garrifon, and ani!)!^ /lores 
^nd provifions. This place was 
taken, b\' the united Turkifii and 
Knfllan forces, on tbe firft of March. 
The town and forts of Corfu, with 
the artillery, ammunition, ilores^ 
proviiion^, and all other public ef- 
fe^s, were given up to the allied 
troops. The French garrifon were 
|o be conveyed to Toulon, in veilels 
furnidicd by the combined fqua- 
dron, and at the expenfe of the laid 
fquadion, on their word of honoqr, 
not to bear arms, for eighteen 
months a^irainfl Kis majefJy the 
grand fcignior, his majefty the em- 
peror of all (he RHfiias, or againfl 
their allies, the king of England, 
the king of ihe two Sicilies, and 
t-Jie |>relc*nt allies of (he two em- 
pires. The French general, with 
pe prtncipul officers, and their fa- 

milies^ had it tn their optton, to go 
either to Toulon or to Ancona. 
The commanders of the allied /qua- 
dron declared, that every indivi- 
dual, of whatever religion or nation, 
as well as all the inhabitants of the 
town and ifland of Corfu, fliould 
be ref}3ed!ed in their perfbns and 
property ; tijat they Aiould not be 
proiecnted, molefted, or purfued, 
on account of the political opinions 
which they might have held^ or for 
their adions, ,or for the employ- 
ments which they might have filled 
under the French government, up 
to the date of the capitulation. If 
any of thera chofe to depart witli 
r.ll their property, they might do fb. 
Tire fick, wlio could not accompany 
the garriibn, were to be treated in 
the mme manner as the Turks and 
Kuflians, at the expcnfe of the faid 
powers, and, alfo, when cured, to 
be fent to Toulon. The French 
general was permitted to ieave> at 
Corfu, an officer, with a fum of 
fix thoufand livres, to be expended 
for the comfort and be&eRt of his 
countrymen ; and alio theneccflkry 
number of ofiiccrs of health, to pre- 
pare drugs, and take care of the 
fick. The garrifon, the officers, and 
thofe employed in a civil or military 
capacity, were to receive, as well 
on fliore as on board the veflcls, the 
fame nuinber of rations that were 
allowed to them, according to their 
rank, in conformity to the French 
laAvs, until their debarkation at 
Toulon or Ancona. The fliips of 
war and tranfports, which iliould 
be employed in conveying the 
French either to Toulon or An- 
cona, were not to make any prizes, 
either in going or returning; and 
the commifTary-gencral engaged, in 
the name of the French govern- 
ment, to caufe the faid veilels to bi: 



tetpeBed by the Frencf) flup« and yoke and to wear the chains iitipo* 
veflbk, and to guarantee their re- fed by the conqaerors. 
tam lo Corfu, in like manner as The union of Rudia with Tur* 
the Tuikidi and Ruffian admirals key increafed the power of the lat- 
tefpediyely proniifed» in the name ter, not only by an acceffion ot 
of thoic courts, to caufe ail the foroe, bat much more by re-anima* 
French, comprifed in tlie prefent ting the courage^ and infufing new 
capitiJation^ to be convi^ed to the energy into the Ottoman councils 
4eftinatMm agreed on. The French and nation. The appearance of the 
general and his ihkW were to have combined Turkifh and Ruffian fleet 
a Rttffism guard of honour, until and land - forces, on the weflem 
tiwr embaixation. The Fnench gar- ooaft of Turkey in Europe, gave 
rilbfi marched out of all tlie poQii ibrce and effod to «firi6l orders^ 
wbicfa they had occupied, with all from Conflantinople, to all the ^ 
military honours, at the time and agents of the Turktfh government 
place agreed on, the officers, civil in tliat quarter, to ufe the mofl 
and military, retaining their arms : vigorous means for quafhing the 
on which the town and fortrefs of intrigues of the French, and re- 
Corfu pafled, of courfe^ into the prefmig all tendency to rebellion, 
poflcffion of the allied forces. The b^fhaw of Janina, who had 
In this capitulation, there was ftiewn fome /ymptoms of difregard 
nothing of that A^atic barbarity to the firmans of the Forte, on fun- 
u-hich the friends of the French dry occafions, and who had begun, 
revolutioQ afledled to apprehend, as was believed^ to liflen to certain 
from the acceifion to the coalition overtures from the French, took a 
of Turks and Ruffians. It is not decided and a6live part on the fide 
poffible that anv convention could of that government* which it wast 
nave been maae on fairer term<, his duty to fupport. With the per- 
with greater regard to Juflice, hu- 6dious cunning of a barbarian, he 
manitj. and the niceft fenfe of ho- drew the French generals, Rofa 
Donr. In pcrufing this capitulation^ and Salcette (though the former, it 
we entertain a momentary wonder, is faid, had taken for a wife one of 
that the horrors *of mutual war his daughters}, into a conference 
flioald at all exif! between nations with fome of^ his emiffaries, who 
capable Of thinking and adling fo pretended a difpofition, on the part 
generoufly as well as juflly : on- of the bafliaw, to go over to the 
doubtedly, they would much fel- French ; during which, they were 
domer take place, were princes arrefied, with certain other inferior 
and politicians governed' in their officers who attended them, and 
councils by fimilar fentiments. The kept in confinement. The French, 
wifdbm of the capitulation was in the different pof!s formerly held 
equal to its humanity. Its modera- by the Venetians, which they occu« 
tion and jufticc flood in .dire^ pied on the coaft of Dalmatia, 
oppofition and contrafl with the were either killed, in Cafes of the 
domineering and rapacious paffions Iea(^ reii (lance, or taken prifoners* 
of the republic, which obliged the This was a more important ad- 
conquered ftates to pafs under the vantage than the reduflion of the 
Voi^XLL [GJ iflands; 

82] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1-799. 

iflands ; for, in thofe pofts, tli« 
French had many facilities for dif- 
feminating their dodlrines through- 
out Epinus, Thelfaly, and Macedo- 
nia, and exciting a general infur- 
redlion among the Greeks, for the 
revival, as tliey faid, of the Greek 
republic, and for combining with 
the formidable and fortunate ba- 
lliaw of Widdin, Paflbwan Ogiou, 
who had penetrated into Wallachia 
and Bulgaria, and threatened dill 
farther and rapid progrefs. That 
chief, being informed of the treaty 
and junction of the Turks with the 
Ruflians, and that, while the power 
of tbcfe allies prevailed on the Al- 
banian con ft, a body of RuHian 
troops had begun to march pgainfl 
him towards Moldavia and Walla- 
chia, Was alarmed. He had, for 
fome time, been held in balance, 
between the offers of grace from 
tlie Poi le, and the charms of inde- 
pendent power. He now deemed 
it prudent, not, indeed, entirely to 
give up the latter, which fo few 
have been inclined or dared to re- 
linguifli, but to come to a compro- 
mife with the grand feignior. Paf> 
fowan Oglou cc-afed all inroads and 
holtiiities againft any of the Tur- 
kifh provinces, on the condition of 
Lis being Cv-)ntinued in his govern- 
ment, and an exemption from cer- 
tain «tributo, which he claimed ac- 
cording to a written dtt'd of the 
Sublime Porte, in confequence of 
the diflinguifhed merit of his ancef- 
tors. It was the exaction of this 
tribute, from ihe laiids belonging to 
pa (lb wan Oglou, as well as from 
others, that was the original caufe. 

or, at lead,, the original pretext, fof 
his taking up arms again ft ihe ful« 
taun of Conflantinople, whom he 
boldly accufed, slr well as his agents 
and moA of his Turkifli fubjeds, of 
repeated violations of the laws of 

When the iflands of Cerigo, Zan- 
te, Cephalonia, and St. Mauro, were 
taken by the combined fleet, a part 
of the French, who had garrifbned 
theip, were fent prifoners of war to 
Albania ; and other French prifon- 
ers were made, at the pofls they 
held on the coafl of that province. 
The fate of thofe unfortunate men 
was very different from that of 
fuch of their countrymen who fell 
into the hands of the allies, at Cor- 
fu.* The French officers, above 
mentioned, were fent by Ah', ba- 
fhaW of Janina, to Conftantinople, 
where they arrived on the eleventh 
of January, and were fent to the 
priton of the Seven Towers. From 
four to five other prifoners, of infe* 
rior rank, including fixteen wonen^ 
arrived on the twelfth ; with fixty 
heads, of their unhappy confipa<-> 
nions, who had perifhed from fa- 
tigue, cold, and, perhaps, from tlie 
brutal treatment of the Turkifh 
(bidiers. The men were fent to 
the Bagnio, the women to the quar- 
ters of the French ambafTador. By 
th's time, another party of Frencn 
prifoners, to the number of forty- 
fix, had alfo arrived at Conflanti- 
nople, and had been alfo lodged in 
the fame prifon. They were on 
their voyage from Alexandria to 
Corfu, when they fell into the 
hands of tlie Englifli fleet, under 

* It i^ to be obflrvcH, that, before the conteft in the /Bgean Sea was decided, by the 
rcdu^l'on of Corfu, which flood a fiege of three months^ no paktof the combined nav^ 
fierce could be fpatedy for fending them to France. 



feidmiralNeiron. Being driven, by as the Englifh foldicrs, until they 
llrefs of weather, into the port of fhould be Tent home to France, oa 
Syphanto, they were taken hold on their parole of honour, 
by the natives of that ifle, and fent The grand feignior, it niav well 
to Conftanlinople. It was in be- be fuppofed, was happy in tnis op- 
inif of ihele unfortunate men, that portunity of teftifying his gratitude 
fir Sidney Smith made that gene- and refpedl for the Britijli govern- 
Tonsand humane interceffion, which ment and nation. Of thefe he had 
has been already alluded to in our already given tedimonies,. in the 
^ond chapter. prcfents of a ridi aigrette of dial- 
A Tarklfti (hip of war, of eighty monds (called, in Turkiih, chcUngk, 
K>uis, was launched at Conflantmo- or a feather of triumph], and a fu- 
pfc, on the fourteenth of January, perb pelifle, to admiral Nelfon ; 
Ai this operation, performed witli and (lill more, in the gracious ex- 
much ceremony, the fultaun, Selim preffions by which thole marks of 
himfeff, on board a veffel of one efteem were accompanied. The 
handred and twenty guns,, was pre- following note was tranfmitted frosi 
fent. Sir Sidney, after the launch- the feraglio to fir Sidney Smith, on 
ingofthe new (hip, withfomebf the fecond of September: 
his officers, was aamitted to a di- " The fublirae Porte has already, 
red audience of the fultaun. After in a note written fomc days ago, 
prc(enting to his highnefs divers expreffed its fatisfadlion at the nrft 
objcds of equal curiofi ty and uti- intelligence o^ the defeat of the 
lity, fuch as a model of the Royal French, by an Englifli fquadron m 
Gewge, he was honoured with a the White Sea, on tlie coafl of 
long and (amiliar conference on the Egypt. As this happy event im- 
fubjed of his roiflion to the fublime poles on this empire an indifpenfa- 
Porte. On this occafion, he repre- ole duty of acknowledgement, and 
fented to the grand feignior, that as the fervice performed on this 
the captives from Syphanto had occafion, by our tsfteemed friend, 
been taken by admiral Nelfon, and admiral Nelfon, is of a nature that 
the claims which they made, of demands a public, mark of grati- 
being conlidered as his prifoners. tude, hik imperial majefty, the raofl 
He interceded in their behalf with powerful, formidable) and magnifi- 
all the zeal compatible with the cent grand feignior, in his imperial 
refped due to the fultaun, and im- name, has deftined, as a prefent, to 
plored fome mitigation of their the faid admiral, an aigrette of dia- 
fate, as a favour done to hirafelf monds, and a peliOe with large 
and his nation. The fultaun grant- (leeves ; and alfo two thoufand fe- 
ed his petition: the forty-fix French quins, to be difiributed among the 
prifoners, under an efcort of ma- wounded feamen. And as the 
rines from fir Sidney's own (hip, Englifh minifter difplays the moft 
iheTxgTe, were fent from the Bag- uniform zeal, for cementing and 
i)io, a very rigorous , prifon, to the (Irengthening the friendfhip be- 
o/d poiace oi the French ambaffa- . tvveen the two courts, it is hoped 
dors, where ihey were allowed the that he will not fail to make known 
/ame tdiions* for their fubfillence, this cxrcumflance to his court, and 

IG2} ' to 


to folicit the permiflion, of the 
mo^ augufl ana powerful kine of 
England, for the faid admiral to 
wear the aigrette and pelifle." 

On the part of his Britannic 
majefly, a number of common field- 
pieces were prefented by fir Sidney 
Smith. The Englifh, Rufiian, and 
Neapolitan, ambafladors were ad- 
mitted to the mod important coun- 
cils of tfie Turkifli miniAers : and 
the mo(l perfed unanimity and 

concord prevsuled amon^ all thofe 
allies. But the fsftisfadtion of th^- 
Turks, at this harmonious combi- 
nation, at the prefent moment, in 
the intervals ot profound refleQio^ 
on the pad, and anticipation of 
what was likely to come, muft, n^ 
doubt, have been painfully inter- 
rupted by the confideration, tha^t 
Turkey (lood now in the feme re^ 
lation to RuiBa, that Spaio did to 

. CHAP. 




I icijfitudes €>f CdlonizatioTij Commerce y and ^rts.'-^^Re-afiion of the Exp^ 

dition to Egypt, on the Affairs of Europe.-^lnternal Policy of France, 

— yiolaiicni of the Freedom of Ele6tions,'-^^Civil DiJfcniions.—^Finames, 

— ^upprejfian of New/papers. — Execution oj the Laws againjl Ecclefiajlics 

<aii EmigroTits, — Ejcape and Return of.banijhed Deputies, from Guiana 

to Europe, -^-^ Lam far confifcating the F roper ty of Exiles, in cafe of their 

cTOiiing or quitting the Place of their Banijhment.'-^ Debates in both 

{Councils on this StibjeH. — Military Commiffions, Trials, and Executions, 

'-'Ijxw for inquiring into all the Attacks that had been made on Perfons 

and Property, from Motives of Enmity to the Public arid its Friends,'^-' 

Dreadful EffeQs of this Law^^^Plunder, Profufon, Venality, and ^or- 


ARTS and fciences, coloniza- 
tion and commerce, had pro- 
OBcdcd from eaft to wcfi> for fix 
thoafand years: bat they now feem- 
ed to take an oppolite coiirfe, and 
to give a degree of probability to 
the theorv of monfieur Baillie, con- 
cerning their progrefs from weft to 
caft. It would feem, that when 
civilization and refinement have 
dwelt for. a certain period in one 
quarter of the globe, they leave it 
as exhaufted land, in purfuit of 
frefh foil, but return to it again, 
after it has refled for a certain 
time, and recovered its original 
wildneCs, and capability of new 
cultivation. It was among the 
avowed objeds of the French ex- 
pedition to Egypt, to carlr^' back 
tiie arts and (ciences to Africa and 
Afia, their native countries. Ha- 
ving already noticed the confe- 
qaences of that expedition, in the 

eaft, and in the European countries 
neareft to thefe, Naples,* Turkey, 
and Ruftia, we now proceed to 
gfve , fome account of its re-a6lion 
on France, in which it originated. 
But, in order to do this, it will be 
neceflary to take a view of the 
ftate of politics and parties in the 
French nation, from the middle of 
April, 1798. 

When the expedition to Egypt 
was finally agreed on by the direc- 
tory, the mind of Buonaparte (not, 
perhaps, the laft objedl of confider- 
ation with the dire^lory) wa.s 
wholly employed in planiiir.g and 
preparing ior the execution of that 
daring enterprize. Before that pe- 
riod, Buonaparte, who uniformly 
oppofed violent meafiires, formed,* 
to a certain extent, a counterpoife 
<o the power of the direfiory.*— 
Though deeply conne61cd with, 
them, he retained, and with fpirit 

* In our laft voluroc. 


96'\  ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

aflferted, his independence. This 
vas not the cafe with the two coun- 
cils. The fubferviency of thefe to 
the diredlory and their agents had 
confiderably lowered them in tlie 
cflimation of the public. Many 
of their tranfaflions were obvioufly 
dictated by the executive power, 
which, iince the affair of Fruclidor, 
had become more formidable than 
ever. The treatment of the coun- 
cils, at that lime, had intimidated 
them to fuch a degree, that they 
did not, in general, dare, at once, 
to become refradlory. 

The objedts of internal policy 
and regulation, which occupied the 
minds of the directory, in 1798, 
were principally the five following : 
the annual (;le6tion of a third of the 
legillature ; the finances : the free- 
dom aflumed by the different pub- 
lications ifluing from the prefs ; the 
execution of former and contri- 
vance of new decrees againfl emi- 
grants apd ecclefiailics ; and a re- 
^arcb into all the attacks that had 
* been made on pcrfbns and proper- 
ty, public or private, from mo- 
tives of enmity to the republic and 
its friends : all of which objedls had 
a connexion and reference, more 
or lefs remote, with the {lability of 
their own power and of the govern- 
ment eftabliftied by the events of 

As thefe were reprobated by 
numbers, the directory dreaded 
that a great part of the nation, ip 
the next eleditions, which were to 
be held in April, would throw out 
the candidates, on their fide, and 
choofe their opponents. Various 
expedients wcr« propofed in order 
to obviate what, they aflerled, 
would prove a fatal blow to liberty 
and the republic. No lefs daring an 
iE:y{H;dient was brought fpcward 

than an imitation of whet (lie 
Englifli government had done, a lit- 
tle time after the acceffion of the 
family of Hanover to the throne. 
Parliament, perceiving the general 
difaffedlion of the people to this 
family, and apprehending that a 
new ele^ion would fill the houie 
with members fimilarly difpoied, 
took upon itfelf to prevent the re- 
volution that muft, in fuch cafe, 
infallibly enfue, by voting its exifl- 
ance fcptennial. This was a ma- 
nifefl encroachment upon the rights 
of the nation ; butj having an army 
to fupport it, and a powerful party 
loudly approving it, as neceflary 
for the jpreiervation of tranquillity 
and the freedom of the conflitution, 
it was fubmitted to, and gradually 
acquiefced in by thofe who felt ths 
neceflity of abiding by the princi"* 
pies of the revolution in 1688. 

The cafe, it was maintained, 
was parallel between England, at 
that time; and France, at the pre- 
fent. Were the multitude to cx- 
ercife its elective rights, during the 
ferment that now agitated the pub- 
lic, (he number and adivity ot the 
emiffaries employed againfl the re- ^ 
public was fuch, that it was much 
to be feared that the people would 
be feduced to vote for its enemies-: 
the confequence of which mufl 
prove its immediate deflrudlion. 
Th* prevention of fo great an evil 
would, therefore,, authorize any 
pieafure taken againfl it, and filence 
every argument alleged in favour 
of the ordinary rules of proceeding; • 
as thefe wo^ld indifputably endan- 
ger the fafety of the nation, which 
wa^ the firfl of all laws. 

The propriety of this proceeding 
was the more infifled on, that it 
had been adopted in a country thei) 
the freeil upon earth, and by a le^ 




liflalure, of which the wifdom 
Uood in the highefl degree of re- 
pute in all Europe. But this mea- 
fure was combated by numbers of 
tbe warmed republicans, asoverturn- 
wg the very foundations of public 
liberty. The nation, they aiferted, 
was fuU of the moft determined 
friends to the conditutional free- 
dom now eftablilhed, and it was 
Aot to be doubtedi hut they would 
«xcrt themfelves in its protection 
^atnil all domeflic machination, 
tile autliors of which were well 
toown and would not dare to (hew 
themselves, when once they found 
that the friends to the conflitution 
were in readinefs to oppofe them. 
It i|ras owing to their want of ce- 
ierily in coming forwards that- its 
enemies had been able to gain any 
advantages. There were ample 
methods to fruftrate the attempts 
of thefe, without recurring to fuch 
odious meafures as were indudri- 
oufly recommended. The beft mo- 
dels to be copied from, in aflembling 
the people, would be thofe that took 
ptice after the tenth of Auguft, 
1792. Therein not a royalifl had 
ventured to (hew himfelf ; here, the 
constituted authorities cleared from 
treafonable intruders, and the laws 
agaihft emigrants and recufant 
priefis put in force, none but re- 
publicans would appear at ele^ions. 
The conliitution having ordained 
annual renovations of a third of the 
legiflatiue, to omit them would be 
to violate it in the moft efl'cntial 
point ; but it had alfo^ for itR own 
prefervation, empowered the le- 
^iflative body to judge of the law- 
iulneC< of ele^ions. This was not 
» matter of difficulty : the condi- 
tions of admiilibiiity, to the prima- 
ry allemblies, were (6 perfpicuous, 
Uut tiiey could not be luiftaken; 

and, while they were duly obfer- 
ved, royalifts could be excluded 
from them with all facility. Such 
were the reafonings of numerous 

InceOant and indefatigable were 
the opponents to the directory, in 
ftriving to counteract their endea-' 
vours to lecure a majority in the 
approaching eledions. What prin- 
cipally embarrafled the ruling party, 
the third to be replaced confifted 
of tlie laft members remaining of 
the convention that had preceded 
the prefent legiflature and framed 
the exifting conftitution. Theie 
members were undoubted repubh'- 
cans and firmly attached to the di- 
redlory, who, notwithftanding their 
irregular ftretches of power, were 
no lefs warm in that caufe and had 
committed thofe very irregularities 
to fupport it. 

A committee was, in the mean 
time, appointed to confider of the 
means to prevent the approaching 
elections from falling into improper 
hands, and to guard the conllitu- 
tion againft thole enemies who were 
endeavouring, by fecret praftices, 
to undermine it. Under this deno- 
mination were c'afled, it fecms, 
feveral meetings, held, about this 
time, at Paris, and in fome of tho 
cities of principal note in the re- 
public. Thele became fo fufpicioiis 
to the ruling powers thaf they were 
every where, on divers pretences, 
fliut up. They had alfumed the 
;iamc of contiitutional circles, and • 
fome of them were complied of 
individuals of the firft cor.lidera- 
tion. The friends to thefe eirclea 
condemned their enemies with un-^ 
qualified afperity, and rcprclenied 
them as men reiblved to eiigrofs, 
exclufively, the power of the ftale, 
and who itignaatized| ^s foc's to the 

[ G 4 J xepublic, 


republic, all thofe who refafed to 
fuomit implicitly to their meafures^ 
In this manner* France was now 
become 'a icene of civil diflention, 
that threatened to involve it in frefh 
diforders and to renew the calami- 
ties from which it had, with fuch 
difficulty, been fo lately extricated. 
It cannot be denied, that a flrong 
party exiAed, decidedly averfe to 
the government and the t^onflitu- 
tton. The didurbance ahd confu- 
iion that accompanied the eledttons, 
in many places, induced the coun- 
cil pf five hundred to requeft a cir- 
cumflantial account of them from 
the directory. The meifage, fent 
in anfwer, contained a clear and 
particularized detail of numerous 
irregularities and violations of the 
laws and the confiitution, vtfibly 
aiming at its fubverdon and to r&* 
eilabliih the fyftem of 1798. 

On this ground, it was deter- 
mined, by the directory and its par- 
tizans in the two councils, who 
conflituted an incomparable majo- 
rity, to annul the whole of the 
eledlions made in feven depart- 
ments, and to declare thofe of a 
confiderable number of individuals 

This deciiion was violently oppo- 
fed by feveralof the moft-confpicu- 
ous members of the legiflatufe. 
That which affedled particular in- 
dividuals was reputed the mofl dan- 
gerous, as tending to place the 
choice of members entirely in the 
option of the party that predomi- 
nated in the council. Such a me- 
thod of proceeding would be clear-? 
ly deilrudlive of the fovereignty of 
the people, and transfer it from 
the conHituents to the conflitued, 
which was inverting the order of 
things of a flate that called itfeh a 
r^ublic. U was alleged^ at the 

fame time, that feveral of thcfe 
individuals were 6f irreproachable 
character, and notedly aevotcd to 
the conftitution. 

The general reply to thefe alle* 
gations was, that the cxchifion, de- 
creed againfl individuals, was found* 
ed on irregularities in. their ele^^ion. 
Irregularities alfo required' the an- 
nulment of all the elective proceed* 
ings in the (ibveral departments^ 
with this diiference, however, that* 
the latter were of a more flagictous 
nature, and the perfon* cholen no» 
tor ions enemies to the conftitution 
and obnoxious in many' other re- 
fpedls- It was, thereforej upon tfie 
maturefi coniicktrationi indifpenffb^ 
bly necelTary, for the fefety of the 
republic, totally to reje6t the no-- 
mi nation of fuch people, and to 
abrogate whatever had been done 
in their fai'onr, as being evidently 
tlie eflfedt of fadious violence. 

This refolution did not pa4s with* 
out an acrimonious altercation : but' 
the« plurality in both councils were, 
nevcrthelcis, convinced that, though 
it might dei'iate frotn the ftridt let^ 
ter of the law, yet the fpirit of the 
conftitution would exciilpate the 
dire6lors and the republican party, 
for having recourie to it, as tlie 
only expedient to prevent the de- 
clared adverfaries of the eAablifhed 
order of things from introducing 
frefh confufion and didurbances. 

Thus terminated the bufinefs of 
the eighteenth Floreal, ((event h of 
May) eight months precifely, af- 
ter the (till more famous one of 
Frudidor, which it pcrfe^ly re- 
fembled in the prmciple that 
brought it about, and in the eflfeds 
that followed it. The public in ge- 
neral, though duly (enfible that it 
contradicted the genuine maxims 
of liberty^ did po^^y its.expedi* 


FiiSTORY OF Europe:. t8D= 

€ncy m the a6liB! circumftances of 
affatn. The dread of tTerrorifm, of 
'vhich the rcje6\ed cfcclions mena- 
ced a renewal, feemed to reconcile 
e^'eiybody to the propriety of their 
rejeclion. The whole of the buli- 
r.efs, indeed, was of fuch inipor- 
tencc, that it had unlr^termittingly 
occupied the attention of men evei' 
fince that of Fru6lidor. 

Meanwhile, fcarcely a week pafl- 
ed without fome merfage (rom the 
dinedory, refpeQing the exhaufted 
ftale ot the finances. Having rid 
tbemfelves of the popular party, by 
the eighteenth of Frudlidor, they 
now laid many- evils to the chaHg^e 
of that party, during their afcen- 
dcncy, for which it was neceflary 
for ihem to provide remedies. But, 
among all thefe evils, that which 
demanded the ipeedieft remedy was 
the revenue. For the ibrvice of 
the year, from September', (the 
commencement of the French year) 
1797, to September, 1798, a Turn 
was \«oted of fix millions of livres 
toumois, or 25,66fl,660/. fierling. 
Of this fum, two hundred and 
twenty-eight millions were to he 
cleared by the territorial impoft; 
the reft by an augmentation of 
taxe^on collateral fucceffion?; farm- 
ing the pofts and fupprclling the 
prmlegc of franking, re-eftablirti- 
ing the national lottery, erecting 
himpikes, a farther duty on ftamps, 
a duty on paper, and, above all, 
hy a mobilization of the national 
debt; by which the real flock was 
reduced to one-third, payable in 
money, and the other two in bonds 
to be taken in payment for national 
lands. The funds allotted for tlie 
fiippljes were not all of them near 
f'^prodadrreas had been expedcd. 
Hew taxes were, therefore, from 

time to time, prnpofed, for making 
np deficiencies and formet^ting nev^ 
exigencies: fome of* thefe were* 
adopted and others rejedled. The 
grand Hefource, on all emergencies, 
was, not any regular and equal 
mode of taxation, but confifcation 
of the .property of individuals, for 
which, if pretexts could not be 
found in old laws, new ones were , 

Of the numerous daily and even* 
ing newfpapersj ptibliftied in Paris, 
twelve were fnppreTTed, not' only 
on account of the matter they con- 
tained olTenfive to governmeilt, 
but alfo, it, may be prefumed, for 
a terror to others. The preamble 
to the decree for this fuppreflibrl 
fialed, that they caf! reproach and 
coiifemptontheinftitutions and laws 
of the republic: that they uniform- 
ly fupported a fyflematic plan for 
the diforganization of the confli- 
tutlon ; fome of them. Under the 
livery of royalty, others urider tha^t 
of anarchy. That two of them, 
whofc chief defign, as they pro- 
feflfed, was to report the del^atcs 
and decifions of the French coun- 
cils, fet the laws of the church in 
oppofition to thole of the flate, and 
religious ceremonies to republican 
inrtitutions: that they ertdeavoured 
to extend the reign of fanalicihu 
and fuperftition, to pervert the pub- 
lic mind, and to extinguiih a love 
of the country : that they abu- 
fed the liberty of religious opinion, 
in order to preach up religious and 
political inlolerjix-e ; and, that, in 
fine, they tt^nded to fow the feeds 
of jealoufy and hatred among th« 
citizens of the different depart- 
ments, by the partial difcuflion of 
local and pcrlonal interefls. For 
thclb lealons the diredory, with* 



the approbatioti of the two coun- Khould be found to have quitted the 

cils, thought that they coold not place of their exile, (hould be con- 

* be too carefnl in checlcing faflion fifcatcil, for the benefit of the re- 

and enlightening the people, with public: thatfuch individuals (bould' 

regard to the artifices of royalty, oe batiifhed again, to fuch places as 

anarchy, and fanaticifm. the executive directory thould think 

A bookfeller, of the name of Cq- fit, and condemned to perpetual 

chin, was arrefled, ibr having t)ub- exile : the goods of fuch returned 

lifhed, in a preliminary dilcourie to exiles, in like inauner to be confiP- 

a new di£lioniiry of the French Ian- cated, if, within the fpace of two 

guage, (bme fentiments that were months, from the publication of the 

considered as reflexions on the re- prefent decree, they (hould not pre- 

volution. ient thefafelves before the mae;if- 

A number of the deputies, who trates of Rochefort, to receive 
had been banifhed, in September, orders from them^ concerning the 
1797, to Guiana^ among whom was particular prifons in which they 
general Pichegru, Barthelemy, Wil- were to be lodged, until the time 
lot, Lanue, and Oflbnville, made wlien it fliould be convenient for 
their efcape from that pcfiiferous the executive directory to (hip them 
region, and arrived in London, and off again, either to their old, or 
other parts of Europe, in Septem- ibme other new cjuarters by them 
ber, 1798. At the time of their appointed. The (ucceilions, or re- 
banifhment, a refolation was pro- verfions, of the confifcatcd eftates, 
pofed and talked of in the council to be held and enjoyed by the re- 
of five hundred, that if any one public during the natural fife of its 
fliould evade or efcape from the iafl pofTelTor, now ejected and in 
dcfiined place of exile, his ellate, exile ; and during the life, alfo, of 
goods, and chattels, fhould be for- his next heir and fucceflbr, until 
reited to the republic : but it was he fliould reach the feventieth year 
not then carried into a law. The of his age. Out of tlie fequeflered 
return of the exiles coinciding, in or coniilcated eflates, certain allow- 
point of time, with an infurreXion ances to be made, for the fubfifience 
that had burfl forth with great vio- of the wives and children of the 
lends in Belgium, this laft was, by exiles, on principles, and in pro- 
many, afcrrbed to the intrigues of portions, to be fixed by the legiila- 
priefis who had efcaped and re- tive aflemblies." 
turned froip banifliment. A pro- The debate that enfued, on this 
je6l, as the French fpeak, or, as we interefting fubjedl,- was diftinguifli- 
Englifh would fay, a bill, was intro^ ed by the animated, eloquent, and 
duced, on the third of November, refolute, though fingle, oppofition 
171?8, by Deipoor, one of the de- of a member, whofe name defervcs 
puties from Belgium, to the follow- to be recorded, elevated above the 
ing cffedl : . frowns of numbers, and the dread 
" That the goods of individuals of violence, by the confcioufnefs of 
who, having been banifhed by the inward reditude, and an indigna<» 
Jaws of the nineteenth and twenty- tion againfl injuilice and inhuman 
fecond of Fru^idor, ^year five, tyranny. 



Imnedktely on the reading of 
t!he bill, a number of voices de- 
manded that the queflion iliould be 
put to the vote, as^ in a cafe fo 
urgent, there ivas neither room for 
delay nor debate. But Rouchon, 
the member for Ardeche, inveighed 
v'lth f^reat and even violent enao- 
tion againft the injuftice and inhu- 
manity of reviving a propofal which, 
when it was made^ a year before, 
had been rejedled, as unjufl and 
inhuman. " Without inquiring, faid 
he, into the caufes or origin of that 
concealed -power, which fecretly di- 
rects all our difcufnons, I ihall con- 
^oe myfelf to the refutation of thofe 
frivolous pretexts, on which the 
bill propofed is founded, and de- 
monftrate its impropriety and injuf- 
Cice, as it is a iydem oi conHraint, 
cooiiiLation, and permanence of 
operation. In point of conflraint, 
there is no one, if he choofes to be 
contQBiacious, who can be con- 
itraxned to come to any place, 
other wife than by phyfical neceflity, 
in order to undergo any punifbment 
to which he may be condemned. 
Woold it not he- monflrous and 
atrocious, to lay to a man con- 
demned to the guillotine, if you do 
rot come on your own feet to the 
^dbld, you fhail be cither broke 
on the wheel, or drawn and quar- 
tered ? Is it fit to imitate thofe 
Indian kings, who order their fub- 
jects to the frontiers, and then give 
them up to be purfued by favagc < 
beads? I know that the grand 
feignior frequently fends a (} ring to 
his baOiaws, but I never heard that 
he ordcre^i them to come and fetch 
it, under ike denunciation of a fe- 
rerer punifhment. The meafure of 

confiication he confidered as unjaflf 
ruinous, and inconfident with all 
public faith. It was alfb, he ob- 
lerved,. contrary to the conftitution. 
In civilized flates, tranfgreirions of 
a political nature were never pu-> 
niihed by other than temporary 
puniihments. The citizens would 
have every thing to dread, if, in 
the aflemblies ot their reprefenta- 
tives, revolutionary meafwes were 
every thing, and the conjlitution no- 
thing. Read hidory, and you will 
find that there was never any mea- 
fure, for cruelty, equal to what is 
now propofed to you, adopted by 
Nero or Heliogabulus. [Here he 
was interrupted by a cry of, to the 
Jbbey with him,* to the AbhCy ! ] 
Rouchon continued. — This bill, 
when duly confidered in its connec- 
tion, and the influence which it is 
calculated to produce on the legii- 
lative power, is more deflru6live (o 
you than to the t,ranfported depu- 
ties. Yes, I repeat it, this bill fub- 
verts the very foundations of repre- 
fentative government. In order to 
the exiftence of a regular govern- 
ment, it is neceifary that there 
fliould be certain fixed principles, 
from which there fhould be no re- 
ceding every day, on pretence of 
faving the country. It is high time 
to give over the ridiculous pradlice 
of treating the conflitution like one 
of thofe precious pieces of furni- 
ture that are fometimes laid afidc, 
by notable houfewives, for fear of 
wearing them out by common ufe. 
•By your proceedings of Frudidor, 
you removed, to a great diflance, a 
number of men, whom you confi- 
dered as dangerous : but you can* 
not difpoflefs them of their pro- 

• One of the principal prifons, where ihe unfortunate royalifts were confined, until 
fhema^rcft of September, 179%. 

• perty 

92] ANi4UAL REGISTER, l79Sr. 

petty, und^r tlie idek of their being which rendered the prcfent fitting 

criminal : in as much as they have one of the moil boifterous that had 

not undergone any legal trial. It taken place for a twelvemonth. — 

is* monftfous, to' make ufe of the The fubjedt was exceedingly inte- 

words juftice and humanity, in the refling : and, though there was on^ 

iame breath with confifcations and ^ne member in oppofition to feve- 

jjroftrriptions, without trial or judge- ral hundreds, he was animated and 

ment. This is tbe ironical laugh fupported by reafon and moral fen- 

^ a -man who poignards his vidlira. tlment, ana long maintained Ihe 

{Here, agaiil, Rouchon was inter^ linequal contell with overwhelming 

jrtipted by many expreflions of difl numbers and unconquerable preju- 

approbatfon.j 1 call on my col- dices, teazed arid tortured into 

leagud, Chabcrt, to anfwer tfils ar- maiiy cxpreflions of impatience and 

gument. In no ftate, fubje6led to blind pauion and refentment. For 

Ikws, is any one held to b6 a cri- this reafon, we have judged it pro- 

ihinal, and out of th^ir pro(e6iionj table, that we fliould do a pleafure 

without previdus and legal trial, to our readers, to embxace the pre- 

and c^orivi^lion. ^But' the .deputfes Cent occafion to lay before them a 

were baniflied, by the nineteenth fpecimen of the debates in .the 

of Fru6tidor, without previous trial French parliament, 

and conviction. Therefore, they Rouchon, throughout' the whole 

were cither baniflidd, in violation of his fpeech, w'as interrupted with 

of the conl^itution, or, there was no ^.^^ from individuals in different 

<?onflifutiori to be yi^fated. .1 de- parts of the hall, befides the gene- 

ifiaud the previous que ft irtn. I have' ral and unlverfal burfls, already 

riot had time to arrange my^ fenli- Mentioned, o(, to order, down uilh 

liients on tlie prefent fubje€F : but, JUm^ have elone, to ihe Abbei/ uUk 

at the fight' of the bill before you,' hifji, to Guiafia, and fb on, He> 

the hairs of my head (land on end ! alone, and unfupported by a fingle 

r demand, at leafi, that, if you do countenance of voice, maintained 

not adopt ^he previous quefiion, the caufe of juHIce and humanity, 

you will fend ^ melfaoje to the di- in the midfl of reproacbes, me- 

reftory; for farther inftruflions, I naces and the conflant calls of the 

Kave yet one farther obfervation fo prefident to order. Sometimes he 

make, and then I have done. The forced his way, in the debates 

bill is fo conceived and worded, which followed his fir/l fpeech, into 

that it puts the power of making the tribune, and fpoke from thence, 

the law into the hands of tlie di- and fometimes {landing up in his 

reflory, who might, accordiiii^ (o place in the hall. In the debates in 

their pleafure, banifli the Bourbons the French alTemblies, there is a dc- 

to Spain, for example, and the de- gree of gefticulation and contortion 

puties, to the burning defarts of of Countenance, that, to an Kng- 

Surinam, there to perifh of thirfl liHiman, and' all the northern na- 

and hunger." ticjns, except, perhaps, the Ruflian^> 

This fmart fortie, this unexpeclcd would certainly appear In the high- 

fally of honeft indignation, excited efl degree extravagant and ridicu- 

a genofal murmur and agitation lous. Gefiifre and a6^ion are a 

throughout tiic whole ailembiv, kind of mute modes of interchang- 

' ' . ing 


ing fentlments, ivhich the French^ acquitted, for example^ a \voinaii 

in tiieir public meetings^ have im- yvho had avowed that it was her 

prov^ into a kind pf language^ wifli to extermiQate all the re^uhr 

very weU uoderflood to one ano- Jicans ! Aye, cried a great number 

ther, in all its xnodifications, thpugh of the deputies^ and which acquit* 

not a Utile various. In this fpecies ted, alfo, a number of agents in the 

5>f language, Rouchon was not a caufe of rovalty ! GenifSjeux# after 

whit behind his mod yiolent oppo- this jexordiuro, faid, that he could 

nenls. When his voice was drown* refute all the principles on whicj|. 

ed by the confentiexit clamours of Rouchon had gppoled the bilh if^ 

bundreds, he ilill exprpC^d his fen*- indeed, there were, in that hall, 

timeots by g<:ftures, lopjcs, and irri* fuch a number of deputies capable 

tatiog fmiles of contempt^ glanced of approving his principles a$i (o 

in the faces of his bi^terefl ^- make a refutation of them at all 

verfaries. Thcfc were, Geni(lieux, neceifary- [At thefe words, alraofi 

BoQlay-Paty> Lecointe-Puiraveaux, ' the whole of the members, rifing 

Chabert, Crochon, ai)d Poulaine- as by one accord from their feats^ 

Grandpre. cried out. No, no, it is not neceW 

The following is a fliort abridge- fery : f^ive la rcpublique /] 
jacnt of th<& greater part of the Boulay-P^ty. — You have heard^ 

/peeches that were maqe firom the to-day, tlie laft fqueak of the infa- 

tribane, in aiifwer to that of Rou* mous fa6lion of Clichy. It is the 

chon. arrival, in London, of Pichegru, 

Geniifieux.— I would a(k of Rour Willot, Barthelemvy and olhcr con- 

chon, when, did he ever (et his face fpira^ors, that had this day fent tfi| 

againtl any of thofe evils that tins tribune the fc urn of Clich v. 
threatened the country before the Lccointe - Puiravcaux inveighed 

eighteenth of Fruflidor ? Did he againfl the continued machinations 

moant the tribune, when the in fa- of royalifm. Thanks and praifc,. 

mous Dumoulard demanded a trial cried he, to the genius of the re- 

of the hero who bad conquered public ! which has forced the con< 

Itsly? Did any one hear his voice, ipiralors to throw off the mafk.. 

iK^hen the prolcribed republicans The friends of the republic wilt 

had not where to lay their heads ? unite clofely together, and the 

They talk of a violation of the con- confpirators will again hide their 

fiitation ! Are you the defenders heads ! 

of the confiitution, ye abpminable Rouchon, overpowered by an in- 

£iclfon ! ye, ^ho, with the word pliant cry of five la republique / 

conilitation in your qojiths, are quilted the hall : Crn which all tho 

going about every where to orga- members rofe, and, amidd an uni« 

nize tribunals, fi>r murdering the verfal fliout of exultation, waved 

fiiends of liberty 1 [Here Rouchon their hats in the air. 
ic(i\^cd ftrong aiilent and di (appro- The refolutions moved in the bill 

bation : on which feveral of tbofe were then read over, one by one. 

Bear bim frowned at him, and ^and all of them agreed to. 
crierf, to the ^fb^y}* Yes, continued On tlie fiilh of November, the 

Gemffieux, at the very time when fame fubje^l was recalled to the 

tbs tiibansjss (dd t» Slaakenbourg, ^onfideralion of the five hundred,^ 



by Chaberf, who obferved, that the 
unexpected fpeech of Rouchon had 
prevented the members of the coun- 
cil from refle£ting maturely on the 
bill before them. Half meafures 
were out of feafon. It was neceA 
Airy to give the fini(hing blow 
to the confpirators : he, therefore, 
moved, that all thofe who fhould 
withdraw themfelves from the 
places of their e)cile, Ihould be 
treated as emigrants. 

This motion was immediately 
agreed to, and a committee ap- 

the nineteenth of Fruftidor. li if 
a wonder he did not propoffe to 
revife the law for the abolition 
of royalty ! A party of thofe men, 
who were condemned to exile, en- 
deavours to revive criminal machi-^ 
nations here : others of them, hav- 
ing fled to England, confpire with 
the foreign enemy. Rouchon talks 
of forbearance and indulgence — 
What ! is it a time to talk of indul- 
gence, to thofe men, when the 
Rhone and the Seine are fliil 
tinged with the Wood of their un- 

pointed to draw up a new fet of happy vidims ! Reprefentatives, 

refi)lutions, or, in other words, a 
new bill conformably to the (ame. 
Thus the generous efforts of Rou- 
chon, in ravour of thofe unfortu- 
nate men, whom the council called 
confpirators, had no other effedl 
than to provoke greater fe verity 
and cruelty againfl them. The op- 
pofition of Rouchon awakened, in 
the legiQators of Fruflidor, an irri- 
tation that was vented in expref^ 
fions of animofity, more and more 
violent, in proportion as the argu- 
ments urged againft the bill were 
teazing, and unanfwerable by any 
other mode than that of numbers 
united by the fympathy of common 
prejudice and pafHon. 

Cliabert. -— The agitation into 
which you were thrown, at your 
lafl fitting, by the difcourfe of Rou- 
chon, did not permit you to bellow, 
on the bill before you, all the per- 
fedlion of which it is fufceptible. 
Be affured that the proportions 

there is not now room for half 
meafufes. I demand, that all the 
laws, that have been enaded 
againfl emigrants, fhall be appli- 
cable to thole who fball have with- 
' drawn themfelves from deporta- 

Rouchon —I demand to be heard 
in oppofition to that^propoial. 

A very great number of voices r 
to order, to order ! 

Crochon. — When an audacious 
orator, from this tribune, under- 
takes the defence of the confpira- 
tors of the eighteenth of Frhdlidor; 
when he dares to prefume the in- 
nocence of agents of royalty; when, 
doing honour to himfelf^ by adopt- 
ing the language of a name dear 
to the friends of liberty (Condor- 
cet), he maintains that the punifh- 
ments, inflidled on political delin- 
quencies, ought to be only tempo- 
rary; the royalifls will, no doubt, 
fmile for a moment. But let them 

then Aated were not the efie€ls oi know, that, if a treacherous deputy 

mere inconfideration, but the fruits has the impudence-— 

of deep defign; and the petty conn- Rouchon. — You are an afs ! 

cils fliil held in fecret, by the agents A great number of voices : to the 

of royalifm. Yes, representatives of Abbey with him, to the Abbey! 

the French people, a confpiracy is Crochon continued : — When » 

ilill on foot againfl liberty ! Rou- man has the impuclence to make 

chon propofes to revife the law of iUpulations for the interells of roy^ 


aUy, wewill make flipnlations for penfe of the legiflature : but, be- 
thnfe of tiw; republic. The royal- fore you be generous, you ought to 
iils have caufe to tremble : their be juft : and, if you are fo, you 
accomplices, too, dread, left they will not withhold from wives what 
fliould drive us to the neceflity of they could claim, nor frotc innocent 
taking extraordinary meafures. Yes and helplefs children their natural 
ihofe men. who were vomited from inheritance. With regard to the 
the kgiilature^ perfevere in their acculations brought againft me, of 
confpirations ftill ! An infurrec* being a cunfpirator, I declare that 
tion, as terrible as it is unexpe^ed, nothing (ball prevent me from 
attefts the refult of their plots, obeying the dictates of my con- 
What is the expedient propofed to fcience. But I will anfwer my ac- 
jo« atfuch acrifis? To fend the cufers. What do I gain; by ftand- 
con/pirators out of the country ? ing up for the unfortunate and 
Ko: but that they fliall be treated wretched? While I difcharge a 
as emigrants. What is our legifla- facred duty to others> do I ftipulate 
tive power good for, if a criminal, any thing for my own private in- 
condemned to exile, (liall be fuf- terefts ? Will my appearances for 
iered contumaciouflv to refufe cer- thofe unhappy men contribute to 
tificates of bis refidence ! I vote the improvement of my own ibr- 
^>r fbe amendment propofed by tune ? Will they beftow on me 
C/iabert. [A great number of embaffies^ confulfliips, or any place 
voices joined in a general confent under government ? No •* I de- 
ami acclamation.] mand only liberty, which implies 
Roachon. — I have not demand- juftice : and this is the amoiiiit of 
cd a hearing, for the purpofe of my confpiracy ! 
replying to perfonalities. I am Poulame-Grandpr^ anfwered to 
wearied of in»ing fuch replies. I Rouchon, that, of the two cafes, 
''TtJy mean to propofe a new claufe he had fuppofed the one was alrea- 
to tbe bill. There is no article in dy provided for by a law already 
the bill, for fixing the condition and palled, and that 'the other was to 
civil iituation of the wives and be provided for by a fubfequent 
children of perfons giving them- law. He therefore propofed, that 
ielves up to deportation.' Many, the council (hou Id pafs from the 
ot^ thofe condemned to exile, will prefent converfation to the order of 
voluntarily yield to their fate, ra- the day. 

tner than to devote their unhappy Chat-Zot Latour invoked the 

iamilies to mifery and ruin. I de- juftice of the council in favour of 

mand, that their generous facrifice the wives and children of exiles, i 

"t health and Ufa fhall not be loft and feconded the motion that had 

iO Ibeir wives and children, but been made by Rouchon. Several 

that, from the moment they futren- members having demanded that the 

4;r themf elves prifoners, the feqnef- refolution, moved by Chabert, ihould 

huoDS fliall oe taken off firom be put to the vole, it was put ac- 

eir efhites. I" ^^^ ^i^^ before cordingly and carried, and a com- 

•>a it i» propofed, indeed, that mittee appointed for digefting it 

.me relief fliould be granted to into a proper form. On the day 

'jn famUie* of cxile$, at the«^x- thereaflei^ the fixth of November, 

5J . the 


96] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. ^ 

the bill, newly modelled bjr the re- for Yonnc). What! do you talk 

foliition of Chabcrt, for treating of a committee, at the moment 

lefiradory exiles, in every rcfpe^l, when your country points out the 

as emigrants, paficd the council of men who are her murderers, and 

iire hundred, and» on the eighth, this hall flill re-echoes the traniac- 

was fent up to the cpuncil of an«^ tions . of the abominable afiaflins 

cients, where ii was taken into employed by royalty ? They come 

conflderation, on the ninth of No- ibr Uie purpoie of iecondmg the 

"vember. ' ^ deigns of the perfidious Albion, 

Maillant was aHonilhcd (hat, for the deAru^ion of the republic. 

s|fler a committee had /brmcrly been The debates that have taken place, 

appointed by the council (or revi- in the council of five hundred, have 

iing and reconHdcring the proceed- rendercnl ^11 farther dilcuffion on 

ing of the eighteenth of Frudlidor, the prefent refolution, in this place, 

there fliould be any objeflion or he- unnec€;flary. The eyes of £ur6pe 

fitalion of appointing one for the are. upon us ; and the (kfety of /ke 

feme purpofe, now, in circgmfian- Grcai Nation imp(»rioufly demands 

ces lefs urgent. If the council the nieafurci bel?)re you. I demand 

fbould not agree to the appointment tliat the bill may be pafled immc- 

of a committee, he defired permif> diately. 

£on to deliver his fcntim^nts on the Lecoulteux approved the propo- 

general fubjefl. fal for referring the bill to a com-* 

Dentzcl. Speak, fpeak, we (ball mittee. It might produce expla- 

ice ! nations that might be followed by. a 

Goupil called to mind, as Mail- more entire acquiefcehce and fub- 

lant had done, that, on the occa* miffion to the law prof>ored. One 

fion of the eighteenth of Fru^idor, article in the bill mentions a future 

a committee of the whole houfe and ulterior deft i nation for ex* 

had been appointed, and a diicuf- iles. If, from any fair conHruction 

iion taken place on the bufinefs of of thefe words, ^ it fbould appear, 

that day : in the courfe of which, that there were any grounds for 

two of their colleagues, he faid, hope that they were to be fent elfe- 

had made efforts, ineffectual ind«;ed, where than to Guiana, where, it 

but which had not leOened them feemed, that there was at prefent, 

in the public ef)eem. We appoint dreadful mortality, he doubted not 

committees, faid he, for examining but they would fubmit to the law. 
the proceedings of the fmallefl pri- Goulln'er faid, that, if Guiana 

mary aflemblies, and fliail we not. was really fatal to the exiles, it 

appoint one for the examination of was to be prefumed" that the huma- 

^ refolution that hascofl a difcuflion nit;^ of tlie diredlory would change 

of five days in the council of five their deftination. 
hundred, and fince there can be no Dubuiflbn obferved, that there 

danger from leifurely deliberation? was no occafion for an adjournment. 

The difcullion vviflied for is the more as Maillant was ready to fpeak . to 

defirable, that it may produce a fa- the general queflion. 
tis<acipry explanation of pafl tranf* Maillant oppofed the bill. The 

s^clions. meafure propofed was not urged by 

Mgreau. (pne of ^h« wQinb^ri apy n<;ce(fity ; for as mucl) as there 
4 were 


werenonc of the exile*^ \vh% (incc Fni<51:clor, ann. 5, vva«; orc^ccl in 

Cnc ei^^'jiteenlh of Frii^tidor, had Ihe hall of llic counrll of Hvc nii!> 

dairaed either their oftates or iht^Ir drod ; and a huv was pafll'd, for ro- 

JjiK-rlv. That it n-as a >;rors ntt of Icbratliig ihvt annivcOry of ( 

irjiilrfCt?; asthofe who had reliirned day as a fidlivr.!. 

from traiifportation were not more E y a dc*crt'(\ pndi'd on the c!o- 

culpr.ble than they had b^en before vcnlh oi Now inl/'.T, fornuT ].iw? 

the eighteenth ol* Friiciidor. Far- againft pricff; were enforced ; aisd 

ther, that it was unreafonable that it was larthcr cnnried, that, if th -y 

men fliould be piiniTl"5ed twice for did not, within a month aiier tie 

lbt*(aine crime; both by tranfpor- dateofthcdcxTee.prt'ci'.tllicmfctves 

falion and by fcqueftration of their to the central adminifiralion of iho 

fortunes. The meafurc propofed, department where tliev lojoiuned,* 

he obferved, was impolitic. Re- Ihev fljould be judged and piinifli- 

peated ftrokes of vcnproancc tended ed as emigrants, if found on tiie 

foloofen confidence in governments, territory of the repiibh'e. If they 

Never, even under the revolution- bad been baniflied hy llie eighteenth 

ary tyrasny, had perfons efcaping of FrudHdor, or fliould be baiiilh- 

from prifon, been forced to under- cd by any fubfequent law, two 

jfotbe punifbment of d^ath. Both nionths were allowed to them for 

Barrcre and Drouet had cfcaped ninking their appearance. Infirm 

fromprifon before receiving judge- priefls and all who had paiTed their 

raent. No one ever dreamt of put- fixtieth year were exempted from 

til ig their names on the liflof emi- depo!lation, but to be confined 

^r.ints, as was proposed to be done to^^ether in a habitation to be del- 

with the returned exiles, who lined, in each department, for the 

ihould not prefent thorn fe Ives for purpofc, aiul on no account to be 

rcf-eiving their deft ined punifliment, permitted to goat large in their ref- 

Maillant finally conjured the roun- peclive communes or municipah- 

cd to abftain from the»exercifc of ties. Thole who were without the 

a rigour (hat wa^ not necedury, means of fupport were to be maiji- 

^nd tliat might fubjccl them to the tained at the cxpenfe of the repub- 

imputaliun of pcrieciition — which be. Perfons, giving an a(\hnn, in 

r.cver made profelvtes. tfielr houfes, to |)riefts returned 

At the demand of Pcrrin the bill from deportation, were to be pii- 

^^asreada fecond time and palled niflied by cnnfifcation of tlie Jioule a law, with only fcvcn or eight that ha'i ollered the uf^^Jtnn, if it 

iiiientient voices. were the (yoperty of tlie perfon' 

The attacks that were made on who lent it for tnat j)iir{)o;e; or, if 

-*V pr(xecdin^!S o^ Fructidor eiJher oiily a lenaiW/ by a p;( mijiry tii'.e 

* i.dt-ared tlieoi ir.ore than ever to cqn:il to its vahM\ Thxiv were, 

'•c Frcnvh lee: it U* '.in*, or indi.ced beliiles, to under-^o not I'ls t!.;;n 

J tafpicion that it luii^Iit ht; n( eel- tix nontiis and i-ot more tliun twn 

iury to vindicate tnein from re- years inipriionuie'it. 

P'oacb,' by outward and Meanwhile, onhlarv cor.nnialor.- 

rcarks of approbation, A m-onii- or-;, n;?poin:ed riLcr the revoluiinn 

nj«nt, in r<nnembr;i-<e of the hap- <tf i'ruc(iv!(ii\ in the diti^rcnt ili'- 

^v cvvnU of tlie c':v'iiti'Cii(I» aA p.irtin(^i;!?, vNCie cujpiojed in ar- 

"Vo:,. XIJ. ' [lij Ti:[lu.^ 



refiinr, condemning, and execu- 
line, lurking priefls and emigrants, 
and other perfons convifled, or 
there is too much reafon to believe, 
as was loudly aflerted, only fufpe6l- 
ed of the new crime of royalifm. 
cufed, by the common exaggerations 
of fkme, of great feverity, excul- 
pated themfelves by the publication 
of a lid of no more than twenty 
perfons, in all, that had been tried, 
in the fpace of ten months ; whereof 
twelve only were condemned to 
death, five acquitted, one fent to 
the direfiory, one to the central 
department, and one baniihed. 
That even twelve perfons (bould 
bave fuffered death, in Paris, for 
a dutiful attachment to the church 
and the king, was matter of deep 
and juft concern. But what was 
K more dreadful engine of tyranny 
and oppreffion, in Uie hands of tho 

directory, than even the laws againfl 
emigrants and ecclefiaflics, was that 
which was palled for inquiring into 
all the attacks that had been made 
againfl perfons and property, Pub* 
lie and private^ from piotives of en- 
mity to the public and its friends. 
This opened fo wide a door lor the 
gratification of revenge or avarice, 
that there was fcarcely any perfbn 
of note who might not be haraded 
by charges of this kind ; which, if 
they (hould not be fubflantiated or 
followed by punifhment, might yet 
prove extremely vexatious and 
troublefome. Exemptions from fuch 
fnits were frequently purchafed by 
bribes to the agents of government, 
in all its various departments. On 
a furvey of the internal govern- 
ment of France, at this time,- we 
are flruck, on every fubjefl, with 
a fpirit of profufion, plunder, pro- 
fligacy, venality, and corruption. 





Z^.ioufnefs and Rapaciiy of the DireBors of France, difplayed in their fn^ 

rtign Trcmfa&iQ?iS, •'■^Treaty between the DireRory mid Portugal.— l^ ot 

rsiifed by the Court of Lijbon^-T'Geneva becomes a Department of France, 

"^onduS if the Frxmch towards different. Nations, —^Their continued 

Menaces againft Englafid.''^Calumnics,'^A7id malicious Accufations,-^ 

Tkefe refuted, arid retorted by the Publication of Gejierat Heche's fn/iruc*^ 

tilns to Colonel Tale, for carrying on a IVar, in England, of Plunder and 

D^finiBi(m,—^RcJlc6iions thereoiuy— Parties in France, — Policy of the 

DireHory,^-^ Boa/lings, and vain^glorious Predidions, — Objcrvatiom oti 

Cotordes, a/id the v¥]ft proper Places for their Ejldblijhment. — ^'f('lfai($ 

Jrom the DireHory, to tlie Council of Five Hundred, relating to the Toulon 

Etpeditiotu — Apcdogies for invading Egypt without a previous Declaration 

of IVoT.'-^foy and Exultation at the Latiding of the French in Egypt.-— 

Jnd confident JPredi8imis of great Glory, to be from thence derived, to the 

Freach Naiion.'-^And Benefits to all the IVorld, — Intelligence received in 

France of the Naval ViStory of Aboukir. — EfflSs of this on the trench 

}!ation.'-^^This ViSiory vilified by the French, — New Requifitions of Men 

end Money, "T^The Light in which the Direfiory appeared, throughout 

France, hd'ore the News from Aboukir.-^— 'Cuvdoufucfs and Rap'icity of 

the DireBory,—' Manner in which they made thtir Fortune. ^^The Dc" 

Jiru&ion of the French Fleet, at Aboukir, a new Support, and a new Source 

rf Power, to the Direfiory.— ^The Manner in wh/fh the Govern me7it of 

France received the Declaration qflf^ar by the Turks, '-^ A French Ambaf" 

fador fent to Conjlaniinople, •'^French Avjwer to the Manifcflo of the 

Porie.^—Refutatiofi of this, by intercepted Letters of Buonaparte* s^ — Su6^ 

nij/ivenefs of the French Legifiaiive Coujicils to the Direfiory, and Indf- 

ftrence about the Confiitution,— Die fame Requifitioyis of Men and Money, 
Ma/ were made in France, enforced in the conquered States, ^—It^'urrefiiefi 
in Belgium, -r^Its Rapidity and Extent. -rr-Subdued. 

AS the rulers in France, from 
the directory down to tiie 
iowcft mnnictpal officer, every 
Inhere, and on moft occafions, difc 
placed a fpirit of fa6lious combina- 
tion, a pnoflizate contempt of laws, 
"; well as of material juftice, pro- 
liiHon, and plunder, in the manacle- 
mem of the internal affairs of the 

nation, ib, in their external rela- 
tions, they -were governed by the 
/ame fpint of prnfl giiiii rapacity, 
ilill more than by the arrogahce 
and ambition, common to their 
nation at all times, of extending 
the fway of their principK^s and 
modes^ as well as arms, over the 

.[H2] We 

100] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

We have already, in our laft paid, to certain members of the 
volume, feen their attempts to levy dire^ory, for the purpofe of pro- 
a contribution from the American curing more favourable terms of 
dates. About the fame time, they peace for his government, 
attempted to play the fame game, ' Tlie fame defigns that the di- 
though not more ruccefsfuUy, with reftory laboured to accompliih in 
Portugal. The Portuguefe minif- America and Portugal, in the end 
try, intimidated by the unintcr- of 1797 and the beginning of 1 79S, 
rupted fucccfli^ of the French, and they purfued, throughout the whole 
dreading an invafion from Spaiii, of this laft-mentioned year, in Ger- 
now become their ally, and through many ; as we fliall hav^ occafion t© 
whicli a French army was to march relate, in the next chapter. There 
again ft Portugal, had fent an am- were no earthly bounds to their 
bafllidor to Paris, with offers to rapacity and ambition. If a fmall 
relinquifh the coalition. A treaty or weak ftate lay contiguous to 
of peace had, accordingly, been France, they fnapped it up, and 
concluded with Portugal, towards either incorporated it with tlie 
the end of 1797, by the dire^ory, French republic, always taking care 
on the condition of their receiving to avail ihemfelves, in their per- 
a fum for their own pockets, be- fonal or private capacities, of the 
iides a large pecuniary contribution acceflions that were made by fuch 
for the public ferrice of France, incorporations to the refourccs of 
This treaty was to be ratified in the republic ; or, if fuch a flate 
two months. But, in that interval, did not lie conveniently for being 
the court of Li(bon,hefitating about incorporated, as one or more do- 
this meafure, and b."ing avcrfc to partn.ents of France, tliey drew it 
forfake England, its ancient and into the vortex 6f the- republic by 
faithful ally, the dirc*6!ory, as foon af^imilation, and, as Uiey called it, 
as that rpat e was expired, without afriliation. If a dale, kingdom, or 
the arrival of a ratification, annul- empire, was placed beyond their 
led the. troiity, and difmilfed don immediate controul, by political 
d"'Aranjo, the Portugucie ambaflli- power, or remotenefs of fituation, 
dor. ' As he delayed his departure, they attempted to fpring revolu- 
in hope of reviving the negocia- tionary mines, by various intrigues, 
lion, and oblainlf^'^ !nore fiivourablc and proper lodgements of the coin- 
terms, he vva<; arrc (led, and impri- buftibles of liberty and equality, 
foned i:i the Tci.ipic, tJiongli ii was To the fmall ftate of Geneva, 
well known llut ly^ h\id been im- that had long enjoyed its political 
pofed upon, and male to l)clieve independence, by the precarious 
that the d.-retiory ^*.as willing to tenure of fuffrance on tlie part of 
Ilfien to his propoSuis. As, he lisd its powerful neighbours, afifurances 
not J I >ttecl a^ainfi the llite, this had been given, by the agents of 
;vas certaiijly a^ainil tiu.' laws of the French republic, and alfo by 
r.alion'-N, and was cnnlaleied, as tlie convention, that no attempt 
fHch, in all Ilr.rope. D'Aranjo was fiiOiild be made againft it : and the 


by a fpiril apporetf tly more generous 
and equitable in the le^iflative au- 
thorfties. But the projef^, though 
icemfngly ahandoned, was deferred 
only to a more favourable conjunc- 
ture; and fuch a conjun flare was 
prcfentcd, in the invafion of Swit- ' 
zerland. The intercoiirfe which 
had taken place between France 
and Geneva, from the date of the 
ccnquefl of Savoy, had given a 
cunliderable afcendancy to French 
principles of government. Though 
the mafs of the Genevefe remained 
attached to the ideas of territorial 
independence, a confiderable num- 
j>tf of them began to look with 
indifference on the form by which 
they held their liberties, whether 
a^ part of tlie fbvereign people of 
Geneva, or as a portion of the fo- 
vereign and more powerful people 
of the French republic. The agents 
of the French government had fof- 
tered this tVaternizing fpirit, and 
made confiderable progrefs in pro- 
felytifm, by reprefenting the benc- 
h's which would accrue from a 
&ore intimate alliance between the 
two nations. " Geneva, relieved 
from a cumbrous and flormy inde- 
pendence, would become, as the 
'-^pital of a province or depari- 
inent, the^ioft flourifliing place of 
t.He frontiers. Its inhabitants would 
find more eafy outlets for the pro- 
<iuce of their induftry. As a por- 
tion of a powerful ftaje, their city 
would have nothing to fear, here- 
after, from the ambition of neigh- 
fcoaring ftales; nor be placed under 
the dtfagreenbie necellity of a (king 
iffiiiance from encroaching allies. 

They would Fofe nothing of their 
iormer liberty, but, on the contrary^ 
enjoy a greater portion of it. In' 
peace and tranquillity. From the 
moment of their union with F'rance, 
the various parties, which often 
diffracted their little ftate, would 
ceafe. And, as Geneva had of lale 
been the theatre of contending j)af- 
fions, of difcordj hatred, and pcr- 
fecution, fo it would ftiil continue 
to be, till the acrid but chime- 
rical independence, for whiclj it 
contended,* (hould be diluted in 
the wide-lpreading ocean of Frencii 

Whatever influence thefe re pre- 
fentations might have had, the par- 
tifansofits territorial indepcndHnee 
were not lefs animated in rejc^linn; 
the proffered fraternity. They al- 
fertcd, that " The interefls of both 
republics, as well as the moralitv 
of both nations, were in uniform. 
oppotition to this meafure. The 
republican fimplicity and fevcritv, 
manifelled by the Genevefe* for 
ai^es, ought to be refpe^ted, by a 
nation which h:id confecrated the 
great principle of the (bvcrcigr.ty 
of the people. Geneva, in a IJatc 
of independence, was an open and 
never-lailing luurce, to France, of 
both wealth and knowledi>e. E^'crv 
ddfs, vviietner merchants, mannfac- 
lurers, artifrs or men of letter*, 
had at all times made the Frencli 
nation the depoiitory of tlicir infr.r- 
mation and their commgrce. On 
the other hand, Goncva, becoming'' 
a frontier town, fortif.ed niirl cnr- 
rifbned, fubje6ied to reqiiiri::on<, 
and befieged two or three times 

• The prefent emperor of RufRa, Paul, pafled fome time in Geneva, in the furbu- 
trt jar of I789f in his way to Turin, where he ftaid f:>r fix moiulis. Belnt? afVeH, \y 
Vie Engtlfii miniftcr, at the court of his Sr.:d:nian mr.jclly, what he thcufcln of fh^ prc- 
fTntdirpotes in Geneva, Paul, thin archduke of Ruflia, replied, that *' They fUf'^cllcd 
the uiea of a (lorm in a bottle.** 

^ [H3] .^^^r--^ m 

102] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

in a century, would lofe its indurtcy and till the general peace, and dtf- 
and commerce. The wars in which pcnfcd from the lodging of troops, 
France might be engaged, would in cafe of cantonment, or paflUge, 
(liut up exportation, probably qn all except for a thouland men, in the 
iiJes : whilft, as a neutral (late, the public barracks. The public eflates 
parages to it were every where were to remain the property of the 
open. Geneva, independent, was Genevefe, except the town-hottfe, 
a monument of g.lory to the greai the library, the archives, and two 
nation, from the re(pe6l it fliewed large buildings for the lodging of 
to property, and the protection it troops, all which were declared 
gave to weaknefs. If France per- inalienable. Tliofe cftates were to 
iifted to prefs the acquifition, no be difpofed of as Ihe Genevefe 
refinance would be made : but (hould think proper : but, in re- 
walls and beggars would be the turn, they were to be refponiible 
only fruits of the conqueft." for all debts contracted by the re- 
Thc partifans for the incorpora- public. The arienals, artillery, and 
tion, however, formed a vaft majo- military ftoses, were to be given 
rity. Out of three thoufand one up to the Genevefe, in homa^ to 
' hundred and ninety- feven voters, the French republic. Eftates be- 
two thoufand two^hundred and four longing to companies or corpora- 
gave their fuffragcs for the union : tions, were left to the difpoial of 
and Geneva was accordingly de- their refpeCtive members. All pub- 
. clared, by the fupreme council, to lie and private aCls, of every kind, 
be incorporated wilii the French anterior to the unio», were to re- 
republic. On the twenty-leventh of main in full force, according to the 
April, 1798. The treaty of union, laws of Geneva. And the export 
on the fevent<*enth. of May, was of merchandize then at Geneva, 
ratified by the French government, except fuch as was EngUfli, was 
The principal articles of the treaty to have frt*t* circulation in France, 
were thefe : The Genevefe, whe- without being fubje6t to new 
ther in France or other countries, duties. Tribunals, civil, criminal 
were declared Frenchmen born : and commercial, were to be eHa- 
Ihofe who were ablent, might, at blilhed. One other article of the 
any future period, return to Franco, treaty, between the Geaevefe re- 
and enjoy all the rights annexed public and that of France, it mav 
to the quality of French citizens, be tvorth while to mention, as it 
agreeably to the conilitution, with fhews the opinion entertained by 
the cKceptien of only thofe perlbns the French of that noted clafs of 
who had committed hoililUies, by men, the Genevefe lawyers, to 
their pens, againfl the French re- whofe interference, in public vS- 
publiy. To fuch of the Genevefe fairsj* the petty broils of Geneva 
as were unwilling to femain French ha^ been, on fundry occafion^, 
citizens, penniiSon of refidence chiefly afcribed. The vafi number of 
was granted for three years, for public notaries, for fofmall a ftate, or, 
the feitlemcnt ^f their affairs. The as they were called, advocates, by 
inhabitants of Geneva were ex- the gradual deaths of the incuni- 
eniptcd from all realand pcrfonal bents, was to be reduced to eight, 
requifition, during the prefent war, On tlie other hand, the republic of 



Genen feoonnced all its alliances the twij^ of Geneva foures in th« 
with foreign powers, and melted fkfces of the great repuolic.*' 
down all its particular privileges The fiates that received the 
bjM poblic rights into the mafs French with open arms, or made 
of the French nab'on. The city but feeble refiilance, they treated 
of Geneva Mfa« (bon after formed at firft with a great (hew of com- 
into the capital of a department, plaifance and cordiality ; though ra- 
onder the claffical name (affefted pine, io all, foonecor later, fc^tray- 
on this, as on all other occafions), ed the wolf in (heep's clothing ! 
of the department of the Lake of Towards the Britifti nation, that 
Lemanus. Sufficient territory was had red fled equally their cajolery, 
taten, from the adjoining cantons, their menaces, and their arms, their 
to give Lake Lemanus its fliare of language and deportment was bar- 
relpefiability, with Tefpe6t to mag- barous, outrageous, and vindi61ive. 
nitude, amongd the other depart- Though the expedition of England 
mpnts of the republic. had Cor the prefent, they (aid, been 
Felix Defportes, the commiffioner fufpended, it was not finally aban- 
of the French government, after doncd. The facility with which a 
tbo treaty of union was voted by Imall body of French had effecled 
the patriots, placed within the walls a landing, and made no fmall pro- 
of Geneva, at the exprefs demand grefs, in the north of Ireland, and 
ot the Genevefe, an armed force, who would have been efTeftually 
ot about twelve hundred men, fupported, but for the unforefeen 
Dnder the command of general and, uncontroulable accidents of 
Gerrard, -which, he wrote to winds and waves, was a convincing 
tHe direQory, " was fufficient to proof that a defcent on the Britith 
f^'prefs the fury of. the , brigands, coafts was neither impracticable nor 
^^ho threatened to deftroy the difficult. They inveighed, through- 
friends of the French. It is upon out France, and by means of their 
i^€ promife of my keeping among confuls, commiflaries, and other 
them the conquerors of the Rhine agents in foreign countries, againfl 
(%s Defportes), that the friends the domineering fpirit and avarice 
of France have mounted the tri- of the Englifb, who had began to 
coioared flag. I will not fpeak to affume a dictatorial tone, fincc the 
yo«, citizens direclors, of tlie en- times of Cromwell, when a repub- 
tliufiaihi with which our brave de- lie had raifed their fpirits from a 
fenders were received by their new tone of fubmiflion to a haughty 
fellow -citizens: all their wants were boldnefs, and had lo;ig been driving 
anticipated: there was a general at univerfal and cxclulive com- 
«nuilation to afford them every fpe- roerce. There was nothini;, in the ' 
ci« of accommodation : — •* nothing real charafler or fortune of the Eng- 
'va? heard, on any fide, but fongs, lilh nation, that gave them a title 
^vhich founded the praifes of the to hold their heads fo high among 
French heroes : every heart fecmed the nations. For the inierefts of 
to be united in the bonds of frater- humanity, they muft and would 
r^ity ! So flattering a reception, fo be pulled down : and this was a 
n-al an attachment, fliould prove to glory referved for the great French 
voti, citizens dire^orf , how much mtiofi. The Britifli nation they not 

[H4] only 

lOt] A N N U A L REGISTER, 179^. 

pniy rcprcfciited as a feliidi, fordid, Ujis time, the fpring of 1798, hi 
anci ]>ilirul race of lliopkeepers, order lo andeceive thofe waak- 
who ki;c;w no ol^er glory or gain minded pcrfons in England, whofe 
(hnn that of n^oney, but as fava^e abfiird and filly enthufiafm, in fa- 
monfiers, of the niofl brutifli iidiu- v(;ur of the French republicans, 
nuiiity. The diredory, on foine had led thero to approve and extol 
vagnc reports from I^ante* and all their meafures, even thofe Ibat 
other fea-ports, fent repeated mcC" aimed at a fubjugation of this coun- 
(nut'K \o the councils, in the ciCirfe try. When Tate was dtfpatched to 
of May and Time, rcfpedling the England, at tlie head of a body of 
deplorable ami dreadful fitualion of /iftcen hundred defperadoes, his 
(vver.(y-(\>o thoufand French citi- orders were literally to wage a war 
z.^n-j, prlfoners in the dun^^eons of of plunder and deftruClion, little 
Eni^lnnd, pining under clofe and differing from the barbarous and 
rigorous confinement, under the bloody incurlions of the Tartars, 
iv.alig^n innucnee of corrupt and in former days, into Poland. He 
] cftilcntlal air, wilhout clothing, was inftrudled not to remain, lon^, 
aid with fuch an allowance after his debarkation, on the coa/i, 
tjf flxul ns mi<];lit conceal, from com- but, having fet fire, in the dead of 
r*on ohlervatfon, (he intention of the night, to' Briflol, with the dock 
iha rnglifn minlfiry to cat them and fhipping, to advance raprdiv 
^'Y, gradually, by every privation, into Chelhirc, and either to deftn)y 
'VIk'v dcn.andcd a fupply, for the Cheft*.*r or Liverpool, or, at Icafi, 
i< jief of their uniortunate country- to cut oGT all communication bc- 
lnc:^. ^ twecn the fo cities and the adjacent 
The faireliood and n:?.Ilce of thofe country. At thefe places he was 
compbints uiw cxpoled lo tlie eyes to be joined by two or three more 
of a!! Eur.'>j:c, by an oHicial inquiry, French columns. The objedl of the 
en the part of the Britifli govern- expedition was three-fold: firft, to 
irent and legiflature, v.iiicji proved, 'excite, if pcfiible, a general infur- 
to tfyv'-falisfiidion of all parties con* re61ion throughout the country; 
cerned, lluit thofe ])riibners had in- fec<mdly, to interrupt, harafs. and 
vri:la;)ly experienced all the kind- annoy^ commerce; and, thirdly, to 
nels and inilulgento of v\hich their prepare the way and facilitate a 
< ondiii'.n was fufceptiblc. It was defcent on the coafts of England, 
den^oi firaiei!, on the other hand, by dividing and diflradlixig the at- 
by tlie ujoll uiiobjt^tlionablc evi- tenlion of tfee EngliQi government. 
<!ence, that the treatment of the Tlie people were to be excited to 
Knglilh j)rifoncrs in France had revolt by a proper diflribution of 
fiet n, in-many lujiances, unfeeling money and of liquor ; by declama- 
',\n \ le\ere in the lull degree. liuL tioi^s againfl government, as the 
j.o(h:n^ conld afioid a IfK^nger ar- authors of all public calamity ; and 
gainonl, ot tiu' ^itiocious difpofi- bN* inviting the populace to a parti- 
lions, and intentions of tlie French cipation in the wealth of the afflu- 
jruvernuient to.wards tlui Englifti vnL; to poor people a natural objeft 
r.alicii. than tlie inllruflions of ge- of envy# To the populaKTC, colontl 
neraflloehe to ci>lonel Tate, whicJi Tale was diredled to give up, as 
vv re vcjy })ropcrly publill;cd about tl\oif fnare^ hamietSj larm-houfes, 



Wbod, cattle, and grain. Predatory party, thofe companies we^e to be 
excufiions were to be made, in dif* kept totally feparate from one atio- 
fcrent parties, and thefe widely diP ther, and as ignorant of all military 
perkd, in detachments of two or details as circum fiances would ad- 
(nree iiundred men each. Colonel mit. It was thefe new companies 
Tate was directed to avail himfelf that would prove the grand organ 
of every circumftance that might of infarreflion. For the purpofe 
fender the French caufe popubr of deft roying the internal commerce 
among the lowed and moft nume- of the country, it would be expe- 
rou-iclafs of the people, by fparing dient to burn all ftiips and boatg 
aiid even protecting the poor, the on rivers and canals ; to fct fire to 
oM and infirm, widows and or- dockyards^ magazines of coals or 
phans, and laying the whole burden firewood, rope-yards, and all manu-> 
*^ the war, as much as poffible, factories ; to throw down bridges, 
<Ji'ly on the *' opulent and great, demoiifli canals, and break up 
th^erand authors of all mifery/' roads ; "which would alfo be efl'en- 
Tiie people of England, general tially neceifary for the fecurity of 
Hocbe obferved, however depraved the army. By thefe moans, a great 
t'leir morals, even in the moments number of handicraftfmcn would 
ol iofurrection, ftill retained a de- be thrown out of wcrk, and confe- 
gree of refp«6l for the laws, and qucntly be led to adopt any proje6t 
I'T men in offices of civil magif- that might furnifh them with the 
tracy. It would, therefore, be pru- means of fubfiHence, and making 
(icnt,^ much as potlible, to fpare booty, befides, without the fatigue 
^'^^ property of judges, juftices of of working. Mijitia corps were to 
ine peace, and other civil officers, be diiarmed, and tlveir arms given 
and even of all the country gentle- to infurgents. Arlenals and har- 
D)en. Contributions were to 4>e hours were to be deftroycd, the 
levied chiefly from peers of parlia- mails ftoppccj, and deferlion from 
raent, and other perfons of difiin- the English regiments encouraged, 
guiflied rank and ibrtuue ; the rich In order to ftrike as general a panic 
<^fergy, generally odious, on account as podible, the legion, after the 
of tylhes, non-refidonce, and inat- appointment of a place of rendcz- 
icntion to their duty ; the officers vous, which was to take place 
of the navy and army, and, above every five or fix days, was to he 
ail, the principal officers of the mi- divided into diiferent columns. TI.e 
luia. It would be good policy to inhabitants were to be forced to 
^'2w together artilans, manufadtu- ferve as guides ; and fuch as (hould 
rers, and labourers out of employ- refufe their forvice, inlhmtly to be 
^wit, idle vagabonds, and . even fliot. In this kind of ferv ice ma- 
tf>ndemned criminals ; not to be giftrates, or perfons belonging to 
i'lcorpurated into the French le- them, were to be employed in pre- 
g[ions, but to be formed into feveral ference to otiiers, that luch magit- 
oiflindl companies, commanded by trates might not be left to avenge, 
french officers. And,jn order that or punilh others. Ail informations 
the people of the country might be againft thofe who (hould join the 
Itept in the dark, with regard to legion, to be punifficd with death. 
Ihc force <jf the French and their All inlbrmations given to the Kn% 


106] ANNUAL REGISTEI^, 1799. 

rlifti of the approach of an enemy, they flioald be obliged (o halt, in 
by the found or belis, or otherwiie, order to procare provifions they 
to be ^tven up, without mercy, to were to make choice of ibrae ftrong 
fire and fword. Ail engagements podtion, from whence they might 
with regular tropps was« as much as fend out detachments, for the pur* 
pofTible, to be a%'oided. The French pofe of procuring neceHaries, to 
were to fall on the Engliih only the neareii villages. If it (hoald 
when they could come upon them become necelfary for them to force 
in feparate parties, furprize their their way through the enemies line, 
quarters, or cut off their outpofls. they fhould not receive, but make 
Nothing could be oppofed to the an attack, and that always in the 
columns of the French legion, but night. About eleven o'clock, or at 
moving columns of the enemy. If midnight, they (hould detach two 
thefe columns (hould be but weak, or three patrofesof four or fix men 
the cohimns of the French, united each, with orders to ie.i fire to a 
in one body, might pafs them. If dozen of houfes in their rear> in 
ftrong, the French might difperfe, different places. The enemy think- 
and commit all manner of hofiilities ing they had taken to flight, would^ 
in a hundred diflerent places at the in all probability, purfue them. In 
lame time. The great towns this cafe, they would have it in their 
thrown into cor.fternation by thefe power, either to avoid them, or to 
i>r(Kei(lings would call in the froops, lay an amhufcade, or to attack the 
cnmpofpig the Knglifli columns, lor rear of one of the enemy's columns; 
their protection, againft the dif- which, in the obfcurity of the night, 
pcrled parties oi the French : who and the confufion of a fudden onfet,' 
would thus h€ left mafters of the they might eadly cat off. If the 
open country, and have it in their er>emy fhould run to flop the fire, 
power to cut off botli the inhabi- the French would have the fame 
tan Is of th<^fe towns, and their pro- advantages: they might either a- 
teclors. The French legion were void them, or, what would be bet- 
to c*arry nothing along with (hem ter, fall on tliem, and put a number 
but arms, ammunition, and bread : to the fword. If the EngHlh fhould, 
they would every where find clothes, in fuch a cafe, reft on tlieirarms, 
Irnen, and flioes. " The inhabi- and only fend out patroles for re- 
lants," fays general Hoche, " will connoitring them, the French were 
fu^;ply all your wants,* and the beft dirqfled to feize them, and cut tlieir 
houies'in the country will be your throats, without drawing a trigger, 
magazines." If the French army If they (hould find any portion in 
Hiould be obliged to quit its poft, the country, on the Irifh channel, 
eitl)er by the exhaufted fiate of the untenable, they- were to haflen 
country, or by the approach of a acrofs the midland region, into the 
i^rong force fent againfl them, they counties of York, Durham, and 
were to fet off for another with North umbtrland, where they would 
all poifibie expedition, by forced be joined by parlies of French. In 
marches, and thefe performed chief- this event colonel Tate was directed 
]y in the night. During the day, they to fend an oflicer, in difguife, to 
were to reft in woods and mountains, general Hoche, in Ireland: which 
it', iff the courfe of their inarch, might be done, either by a fifhing 
1 boat. 


l»at, Cram the coad of Wales, or by 

the w&y of Scotland. The infrruc- 

tionsfttnD general Hoch^ to colonel 

Tate, are a curious fpecimen of 

that comlnDation of revolutionary 

principles with (Iratagems oCwar, 

by which the French government, 

bat particularly by the former, 

ciMifidently hoped to fubdue the 


The dircdory, it may be pre- 

famed, were uot untouched by the 

predominant pallion of the Frencli 

cation : hot what is at leail equally 

certain, they (eized the genius of 

tiieir countrymen, and ai'ailed thcm« 

ft^ives of every circumflance, for the 

purpo(e ^f diverting their inquiries 

and ardent imaginations, from their 

own condud, which could ki ill 

I>ear too cioie invefti^ation, and 

abiWbed all ccnfbrious obicrva- 

tioD in the general pafTion for 

miiiiary glory. Tliere was a 

party, and that not the leaft nu- 

meroa^j, in France* confvitinjr of 

p*^pk wearied and fick of revr)lu- 

tion and war« and that breathed 

ev ideally after the return of order 

^*d peace. But there ift no nation, 

of any extent, in which public af- 

fkin are conducted, in general, bv 

a plurality of voices, and lead of all 

in times of turaalt and change, 

^hen (he mofl adlive and daring 

boldly aflliming the reins of govern* 

^nt, give the law to the unrefifting 

mnititude, and make them the inflru- 

mcnts of their authority. The 

mien of France drawing half the 

nation into the vortex of their 

power, by employments, hopes, and 

fears, perpetuated the fydem of 

d'Hiuneenog, at once, over their 

otvn nation, and tlieir neighbours, 

bv feeding the flame of revolution 

wiib the hope of plunder. The 

giiiJIotioe was laid aiide : but Con- 

fifcations were continued at home 
and abroad ; the laft of power and 
fpoliation trampling on the rights of , 
individuals, and thofe of nations. 
The diredory, elated with the ac- 
compliHiraent of iheir defigns on 
Savoy, Italy, Switzerland, Belgi- 
um, and Holland, conceived others 
oflliil greater magnitude, and^made 
little doubt but exploits and con- 
quefts would be auhiovcd beloie 
the clofe of 1795, hv the fleeU and 
armies of France, which would ex- 
ceed thole of the fore;;oing years, 
and place it in a iituation to cxacl 
an unrefilling fubmiOion to all iJie 
conditions which it flioukl think 
proper to prekribe. It' the at- 
tempts that had been made on tfui 
coalls of the Britilh illes, had, 
through the periidy, as the French 
faid, of the oct^an, failed of 
fuccefs, the ground had been re- 
connoitred, and tiiefe precurfory 
expeditions would, by and l>v, Ix; 
followed by others, on a difiVretit 
fcale. Meanwhile the French lhip% 
and foldicrs were not idle. On the 
whole, the genius of the mod&ru 
Rome was gaining an alccndency. 
by rapid advances over that i*f* 
the modern Carthage, tottering now 
on the brink of rain, and which 
would foon receive a deep wound 
in one of her moft vital parts. 

On the twelfth of April, 1798, 
when the men of letters and fcrence* 
that were to accompany Buona- 
parte in the expedition from Totr- 
lon, took their leuve o[ the direc- 
tory, tl»e elder Kfchciiii-raux, chair- 
man of the committee that IkkI beea 
appointed to conlidei' and make a 
report on a fclieme, pr()jectcd by 
citizen WndiirfMU, for. eil^bi^ih- 
mcnts in Sierra I.eone an J iJju'a- 
ma, on the coift of A Mi. a, read 
a difcourfe on that projecc, a::d co- 
le- ::;;£atiou 


* V 

Ionization in general, Egypt was 
fb clearly pointed out as a conqueft 
worthy of the fublimefl views of the 
republic, that (liere were few but 
confidered that country as the ob- 
je^ of the Toulon expedition. No 
doubt but fettlements at the two' 
•places above-mentioned, though 
fubje6led to many di fad vantages 
. and cxpofed to many dangers, 
might be of ufe to the French re- 
public, in fome refpecls. But, it 
was by ' a general view and combi- 
nation of all poffible advantages, 
tlxxt the founder of a colony ought 
to be di reel erf; and it was chiefly 
by the circumfiance of its local 
lituation, that the French fhould 
be guided in its deliberations on the 
fubje^l, whether and how far it 
might co-operate for its eflablifh* 
ment and fupport. The orator, ha- 
ving pointed out the principal cir- 
cum fiances, by which a flate fliould 
be determined in the choice of a 
fite for a colony, proceeded to de- 
fcribe the unrivalled prerogatives of 
the grand iflhmus of Egypt,* — 
without, however, admitting any 
other right to take exclufive pofTel- 
fion of any country, for coloniza- 
tion, or V> afTume any other predo- 
minancy fhan what was the natural 
refult of fupferior genius and induf- 
try, to the promotion of which, 
the French nation, whether as fpe- 
culators for themfelves or tlic pub- 
lic, ough.t to bend a!I their tjfJ'oris ; 
and, fcillowing the progreflive courfe 
(»f opportunities, means, and na- 
f ic^nai power, to feize and proclaim 
the moment when it would be pro- 
per for the French republic to lay 
tii« foundaiioRs of a new colony. 

This difcourfe exhibits a very jvtA 
fpecimen of the ridiculous and, it 
would feem, unneceffary impudence 
with which the French philofo- 
phers, pretending flill to do homage 
to natural law and the rights of na- 
tions, lav claim to a right of di6ta- 
ting to other nations in confequence 
of fuperior abilities. It is, indeed, 
a mockery of all morality. 

WJien the news arrived of the re- 
duflion ofMaJta, the dire6^ory, coir- 
fidering Egypt as already in their 
grafp, began, more dir^fily, to 
avow, in their mofl confidential 
circles, the truth, to the commu- 
nication of which to the public 
the difcourfe of Efchaflcraux was 
a prelude, at the fame, time that 
Talleyrand was amufing the Turk- 
ifli ambafiador, as before obferved, 
with declarations, that the expedi- 
tion of Buonaparte other 
obje6t than that ifland. In the 
newfpapers, in their pay, there 
were daily obfervations on the im- 
portance of Malta, confidered, in 
itfcif, as the means of preferving 
the republic from the probable de- 
figns of its enemies, and «s a fiep- 
pmg-flone for farther conquefls. 
«*The Maltcfe (they i^ated) now 
to be confidered as French, ferve 
on board our fleets, and betake 
themfelves to the trade of pi- 
rates, and do i(1(inite mifchief to 
the Englifli commerce in the Le- 
vant. The communication with 
our ifland.*, heretofore thofe of Ve- 
nice, will be atfured. If Malta had 
fallen into the hands of the RuflianSy 
the EngliAi, or the Auflrtans, all 
of whom wi filed eagerly to have 
it, the advantages of thofe ipev 

•• The memorial and petition of Wadflrom was rcftrrcd, fry the conticil of ftve hun- 
dred, to the dinCtiftft in whole province it lay to receive infermatioa on fuch mat" 





mig^it bave been nearly lofl to us. being fet on foot without a previ- 

In Maliiwe may eflabtidi imraehfe ous declaration of war; to whom 

arlcnaij, and the low price of la- fliould fuch a declsratioti have been 

bourwill enable us to carry on the made? To the Ottoman Porte "? 

biinneis of (hip-building there, at The republic was very far from 

a rauch eafier rate than at Toulon, harbouring anv defign to attack that 

In fine, Afalta is the Cape of Good ancient ally ot iFrance, or imputing 

//ope of the Mediterranean." to that power an oppreflion of which 

At length, intelligence was re- it was the victim. Should the de- 

ceivcfi, that the French army had claration have been made to the 

landed in Egvpt, and were in poP- beys? It was irapoffible that their 

ieilion of Alexandria, Rofetta, and authority fliould be at all recogni- 

• Grand Cairo. A meflage was fent zed. States proceed diredlly to 

/rom the dire^ory to the council of punidi robbers, without any previ- 

fcve hundred, on the fourteenlh of ous declaration of war againfl them. 

September, communicating this in- But farther, in this attack on the 

teliigence, with a brief account of beys was it not, in reality, England 

the moll important particulars, pre- that was aimed at ? The Porte 

faced by a ilatement of the reafons would now, through the hands of 

tdat had induced the dire^ory to the triumphant French, reap thofe 

iend an expedition to Egypt, a immenfe advantages of which they 

country belonging to their ally, had fo long been deprived. Now,, 

t/ie grand (eignior, and that with- at length, for the good of the 

out a declaration of war. Thefpi- whole world, Egypt would become 

rit and purport of the (latements, the richeft in all the natural prodnc- 

now fet tbrth in vindication of their tions of any in the univerfe, th« 

condud, was to the fame effedl centre of an immenfe coTnmerce, 

with the apologies already made by and, above all, it was tho moit 

tlieir agent to the Turkilb govern- formidable poll that could have 

ment. The Porte had been unable been tihken for humbling the odious 

to reduce the rebellious beys, who power and ufiirped commerce of 

tyrannized over the French in the KngliQi, in the Eaft Indies. 

Egypt, to fubmiflion to its govern- The direClory, in this meflage, 

Rtent. Its remonfl ranees, and even did not heiifate to indulge a degree 

menaces, in favour of the French, of boafting and exultation. This 

had been wholly m vain. The memorable event had been long 
French were actually held by the- thought of, and, indeed, foreleen 

beys as prifoners and (laves in E- by the fmall circle of men to whom 

gypt. It was time for tlie French ideas that combine utility with glo- 

tn do judice to themfelves, and ry are familiar. The world, hcuv- 

ai'enge, at once, their own caufe ever, in general, continued to con- 

and that of the Porte. The grand fider the pofTeflion and colonizatio!\ 

feignior bad no caufe to be ofl'end- of Egypt, by the French, as a chi- 
ed. The landing and fuccefs of merical projefl. The realization 
Buonaparte, in Egypt, was not a- of the flupendous prodigy was n*- 

matter of regret to the Sublime fcrved, tor the preient aera and for 

Porte but of felf-congratulation. the French republic. Thele fenti- 

Ai to the point of the expedition meats and obkrvations of the di- 

110] ANNUAL REGISTER^ 17d». 

redory were not deemed, by their of perfidious ne^octatioh, fo pro- ' 
countrymen, to exceed the bounds dace a change in our refolutions, 
of modeAy. They cordially fvm- and the trumpet is; jaft going to 
pathized with them in their failed found . the iignal for combat, the 
extent; and, while they aicribed leg i flatnre mufl not remain coid and 
this, as every thing prosperous and indifferent, nor permit the glory 
great, to the towering genius of of the repubh'c, in the eyes of (c- 
Sie Frenfch people, they did not reign nations, to remain probleroa- 
withhoid their hearty approbation tical. Hiilory will be ailoniflied 
and applanfe finm government any at the moderation and magnanimity 
more than from their fleets and ar* of the republic, which, in the mid ft 
mies. of vidories, hoMs out to its van- 
While the joy, at the fuccefs of quiflied enemies the olive-branch 
the grand Toulon expedition, was of peace. Jn contraft with the/e 
fireQ] and at its fuHefl height, a dignified features, fhe will hold up 
general and continued rumour of the perfidioufnefs of our enemies 
the great naval victory obtained by in negociation and their bafenefs in 
the Englifh, at Aboukir, pervaded a^ion. Vanqnitbed nations ! we 
the whole cOad of the Mediterra- will follow the example of that im- 
nean, ^ and fpred, like lightning, perial people which dragged, in 
into every part of Europe. It was triumph, the princes whom they 
not long before the certainty of this had overthrown in battle/' After 
report was confirmed by official dif- not a little more in this drain, the 
patches, French as well as Englifh. orator proceeded. " A fortunate 
TJie ruin of their fleet and the dan- chance has favoured the enemy ; 
gerous pofition of their befl gene- and this reverfe has given fadner<; to 
rals and troops made k lively im- the fouls of fome republicans ! 
preffion on the French government Does the Englilh flag, then, fly at 
and nation, and threw them, for a Charleroi and Cond^? Are the 
moment, into profound conflerna- £ng!i(h in pofTeffion of ^oulon ? 
tion. But apprchenfion and dif- But they are powerful at fea — very 
may were foon fucceeded by rage well — we, being the maliers of the 
ana a thoufand varied expreflions continent, will fliut them out from 
of revenge, and even affected con- every harbour. Some talk of re- 
tempt of the difafler that had befal- vertes. Weak and foolifh people I 
len them. This momentary check learn to know republicans. The 
they coniidered as a certain prelude ground on which Hannibal was 
to vidtories and triumphs, greater encamped fold, at Rome, for more 
, than ever : fo that, in , fadt, it was than that around it. Behold the 
a real advantage. EngHH), trembling on the coe^ of 
In the council of five hundred, CoromAndel, and ready to throw 
on the nineteenth of September, themfelves into the gulph of Ben- 
Briot introduced a fpeech on th^ gal at tlie approach of the hero 
prefent date of the nation, in the that carries liberty to the people 
Ibllowing manner : " While our whom they hold in bondage." Bri- 
bafe and cowardl)* enemies affect ot concluded his difcourie by mo- 
an immoderate joy at a momentary ving for a 'committee to draw up 
check, and endeavoar, by means the Icgiflativemcafurestluit it would 



be pTo^r to lay before tlie direc* commencing in the end of Septem- 
tory, In cftfe, which was very pro- ber laft. For the additfonal iam, 
baiDle, it (hoald announce^ by a demanded by the public (ervice, 
neflave to the council, the necef* there would be no occafion for new 
fity of recommencing the war, contributions. The fame refources 
This motion wafi fupported by (eve* that had brought about the revolu- 
ral voices, but reje^ed, on the tion mud conlbUdate it. On a mo* 
ground, that it related to a matter tion that two hundred thoufand 
of exterior relations, which belong* French (hould be drawn iromediate« 
edexcbfively to the dife6tory.< Thi4 ly, and put into a condition for ac« 
dWj of Briot's, however, %befpoke tion, from all the five clalTes of the 
the temper of the moment. conlcript citizens, Jourdan. one of 

A meflkge was fent by the direc- the members for Haute Vienne, 
tory to the council of nve hundred propofed, for the greater expcdi* 
on the twenty-third of September, tion, that the whole of the con- 
Tbe directors prefaced their mcf- fcripts, of the firft clais, fiiould be 
(age with many obfervations on the called on at once to come forth for 
bravery of the French, the good the public fervice. This propofi- 
fe-ith and pacific difpofitions of the tion of Jourdan's was agreed to. 
French government, and the golden In the mean time, great elo- 
intrigues of England. The French quence continued to be difplayetl 
nalion, they proceeded, was weary in vilifying the victory of Aboukir, 
fif the diplomatic artifices and de- in rouzing the French nation to 
b)'s of the old monarchical fchool. arms, and exciting, particularU, 
Tne French nation had offered hatred and revenge again (1 the Eng- 
peace: but they expedled that the liih. In an advcrlifement, publifh- 
powers wpuld declare, expreflly, ed before that vidlory, in newf- 
whether peace was accepted, papers and hnnd-bills, of the ap- 
While they hefitated, it was for the proaching fead, announcing the 
republic to place itfelf in a proper anniverfary of the republic, the 
attitude for terminating tbeir inde* twenty-fecond of September, it 
ciiion, and to obtain, by forpe, had been given out, that, among 
wliat it had attempted, in vain, by other exhibitions, there was to be 
means of peduadon. The objea a reprefentatiou of the Englifli fleet 
of the meffage was to fix theatten- in flames. 'I'he conftruclions that 
tion of the council on tl)e urgent h^J been raifed for that triumphant 
ncceffitics of the French armies fpcdacle, when the day of the feall 
at fea and land. Europe muft arrived, were called a fortified har- 
be taught that the French republic hour; and the burning of the Eng- 
was able to fland the prefent cri- lifli fleet was, for the prefent, iuf- 
^9 and that even without new pended. But the prefident of the 
impofittons on the nation. The dire^ory. Trail hard, in an oration, 
reiait of all that they faid was a pronounced in the Campus-Mr r- 
demand of a new levy of two tius, announced other decorations 
hundred thoufand men and a hun- for the fcaft of the repubHc. " 1 tie 
dred and C went J- five mfUions of fi- fl^outs of. victory re-echoed from 
vrtt, in addition to the fum already the banks of the Tiber to the Da- 
fotfd Jbr the feryic« of the year nube : the ghofts of Brutus, Barn- 

112] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

veldtj and William Tell,, awaken- 
ed, by thofe fhouts, from their 
craves, and joining, as aflbciates, • 
m the glorious purdiits of the re- 
public; and pi^uresi flatues> and 
other works of art, to be brought 
to Paris from. the conquered nations. 
Let the friends of ilavery count, 
with fatisfadion, the few moments, 
when victory feemed to have forfa- 
ken our (landards, as if the fubli- 
meil courage mVght not be betrayed 
by fortune; as if profperity, with- 
out a mixture of adverfity, were 
the deftiiiy of any nation. Our 
enemies themfelves, with more pe- 
netration and folidity of judgement, 
ivill fee nothing in their tran^ent 
, gleam ot fuccels, obtained by fu- 
periority of numbers and paid for 
By their bed blood: our enemies, 
I fay, will fee nothing in their fuc- 
cefs but a melancholy prefage of 
great difafter." ' 

The following article appeared 
in the diredlorial; or, as we would 
fay, miniflerial paper, Le Direc- 
teur, on the twenty-fifth of Sep- 
tember : " The valour of the 
Englilb, which (k^ many jwor crea- 
tures take del ighf to celebrate, con- 
lifls in nothing ulfe than overpower- 
ing their enemies by fuperiority of 
numbers. Nelfon, reinforced by 
every traitor, after adding to his 
fquadron, liquadrons dill more nunie-, attacked the French on board 
their (hips, lying at anclwjr, in an 
' open road. The Brilon, emholcf- 
cuod by a ftupid fuperiority, con Id 
ho no other than fuccefsful. But 
li.o vanquished fought like the three 
huiulred Spartans, and Neltbn was 
3'ttle . more than Xerxes, over- 
\vljelming a handful of foldiers by 
tiie weight of bis army. In 
point of glory and renown — on 
\\ hich fide w^ the hero ? To hum 

(hips is a kind of puny trick, which 
beipeaks weaknels. It is but a hy- 
pocritical victory. Compare fuch 
ridiculous vitlories with the formida- 
ble bravery of thofe fifteen hundred 
brave men who lately gained fo 
many palms and laurels. See Ire- 
land, arranged, in the day of bat- 
tle, on the fide of the republic, for 
the purpofe of opening to our bat- 
talions, all the roads to London, 
and hur'ing punifhmcnt to the Bey 
of Albion over the dead bodies of 
his warriors of Aiops and counting- 
htmfes.'' In the fame paper, a- few 
days after, we find the following 
interrogations; "Can thevidory 
of Nelfon prevent or even retard 
the happy confequences of the ex- 
pedition, committed to the unfor- 
tunate Brueys } If it was the ob- 
je6l of that expedition to annoy 
and cut off one of the principal 
fources of the profperity of Eng- 
land, will not tne cannon of the 
fowcr of London, which will an- 
nounce, with fo much fracas, that 
vidlory, be the forcruhncr and 
death-bell of ruin to Engllfti com- 
merce in India? Is not Nelfon the 
Xerxes, who, with his numerous 
army, defeated the three hundred 
Spartans and burnt Athens? But 
Them i (lodes flouriflicd and Xerxes 
was deltroyed. If Brueys, like 
Leonida;*, preferred death to a dif- 
honourable; capitulation, have we 
liOt another Themitlocles to avenj^e 
(he blood of lb many heroes ? And 
does not Ntflfon himfelf owe Iu> 
immoftality to the glory of the van- 
quifned ratlirr thnn to his o*,vn ai- 
tions ? '* There galconnadcs are 
even exceeded by the folknving jai- 
ragraph, whicli appeared, at tW 
fame time with thofe jull quoted 
from other French papers, in i tie Clef 
da Cabinet. " Has Nelfon thrown 

HISTORY O^ £irkOP£. Ylis 

4ny impediment in the way of the ferent inftalments, with tlic papcr- 
feraivl expedition, under Baona- money of llie repuWic. Part of 
jwle? This is the queftiOn that thefe lands he fold and part he rc» 
will be put bv every thinking Eng- tained, comprifing fome of the fineft 
liihinan. All that the Englifh ad- dominion* in Alface^ Reivbel be* 
niiral has done is to deftroy fome came d leading member of the com- 
fii'ps, at the expenfe of a great mittee, in the lime of the conven- 
»Mny of his own : and if the oppo- tion, and the ftill father depreciation 
fitioB party, in the BritiOi parlia- of affignats, mandats, ana refcrip- 
meot, retain any degree of enerpy, tions. Was adopted as a meafure 
the admiral will not cafily.juftify of fafety to tiie republic. But, be* 
hisconduQ." fides this mode of acquiring wealth. 

Before intelligence was received by fulfillirtg his bargains for na- 
of the battle of Aboukir, the ra- tional linds, through the meant of 
pacity and profufion of th^ direc- depreciated paper currency, from 
tory and their agents had come to the time wlien he became a direc* 
f uch a height, that it was cxecra- tor, there was not a job or contrad^ 
ted by the whole nation. The "» which Reubel, as wdl as Ra- 
immenfe fortunes that had been ac- ^el, the rainifter of finance, had 
cnmulated by the members of the ^ot a participation, or, to make 
direclory, and others, drfew univer- ^^e of a more appropriate^ though 
fa/ attention. That of Reubel vulgar term, a Jeeling: and, at 
exceeded thofe of all other dilapi- ^% the contributions impofed on 
'^ors. Neither Merlin nor Barras, the new republics, the plunder of 
though they had amafled immenfe Switzerland, chie^y managed by 
te>rtuMc$, was fo rich as Reubel. his two nephews, Forfait and Ra- 
He was generally accounted the . pinat, and remittances from San- 
richcfl fubjecl in Europe. His for- thonax, in order to fecurc impuni- 
tjnchad aheady fimountcd to three ty iax his malverlations and crimeA 
millions of IKtcs annual revenue, in St. Domingo, crammed with 
and it was flill inorealing. through gold, as the Fronch faid, this nevV 
a hydfopical increafe of avarice Midas. The fortune of Reubfl 
*nd cupidity. It may be worth gave lb much offence to his coN 
^vlule to give a very general fketch leagues in the dire^lorv, that they 
^^ the manner in which Rcubej teized him, fi'om time to time, 
made hfs fortune, as this will ferve, with reprclentations of the proba* 
'"fome meafure, to illuflrate the ble conlequences. This was well 
/*oin{, pre/ently in hand, which is to enough known. The particular 
<lefcribe the internal flate of France, friends of the otlier dire^ors faid. 
We laid the foundation of his fortune that thoy leazed Midas, as he was 
^) the plunder he made when he commonly called, only for their 
act-d as one of* the French cominir- amafenient; but others afKrmed, 
ljrHs,atMa\efice. Merlin, ofThion- and it was generally believed^ that 
^'\\t, wa5 the other. During (he pr^i- (hey did lb lor the piir|K)le ol' laying 
^re/Iircdepjecialionortheailfgr.ats him undcT contributibu; !o which, 
L-'purchafcd the j;realer part olthe ic was alio believoi^, by fbme, li«* 
#!'clefljllical polTeffions, in Allace. lubmitted, from a fear of public 
rhe(e were to be p.iid f4)r, in dif- accuf^tign. 1 1 ij hgweyor, more 
VaL.XLi- [M/ probable 



S(obabI« that B^uhd dceined tiiia* from p^novokioi^ fimilar exprefiian> 

,;If tolerably well fccur<;d from his of fimilar fentiments towards the 

CoUeagact oy Ui6 meams of rt talia- Porte, on the part of the FreiK*b 

tion. It was oomputed thai not guvcrnmcnt. That govemineDt, 

lefs than at leas' haif the xi^tteuuc, (o haughtj and inlblent to other 

voted &>r the fervioe of lall year, flates, which maltreated, drove 

Imd been dilapidated. away, and coi)fiue<i tiieir aaibafla- 

JBe U)is as it may# the cornip- dors, treated the Turkiih ambaOa- 

tions of the FnsDcn ^ovemmi^ut^ dor, at Paris with all poilible marks 

at this time, bad given (och general of refped. The dirciflory afieded 

fcandal to the nation, that the re< furprize at tlie miflakes and errors 

mains of what was called, from tlte into which the divan had fallen. 

pLjice of theii^ meeting, the Clichi- rcfpeding the views of France and 

an fa^ion, in conjunaion with the their own intereftv. In convcdrfa* 

jacobins;, Locian Buonaparte and tion and in different puUications 

Duplantier had determined to call from the prefs, they expatiated on 

the Matoyen and directorial party, the true interells and%po!icy of the 

and all who had amafled great Porte, and bow mucn they were 

wealth, to give an account of their concerned for the protedion of the 

fortunes and dilapidations, wlien grand feignior's power, authority* 

the news from Aboakir laifed and pecuniary reiourcet. Aieding 

an oniverfal cry of revenge and to treat the umbrs^ that bad been 

livar, or, in the language of the taken bv the Porte, its expreffions 

flench writers, made all the French of hofliuly, and new alliances, as 

jabobins. Thus, the lofs of France, a tranfitory caprice, they difpatch* 

9l Abottkir, was a new fupport and ed another ambaflador, Delcoure^c, 

9. new fpurce of power to the di* to Con(!antino[^, with, affurances 

feC^ory. of the conflant and unchangeable 

We have already feen the man* attachment qf the French to the 

per in which the dtredory, par* grand fetgnior and the interefls and 

ticularly the renegade bifiiop Tal* /lability id' the Ottoman empire. 

leyrancC the minifler lor foreign In the fame flrain, and about, the 

relations, endeavoured to amufe and iame time, they difpalched Laeombe 

ibothe the Turks, before tlie adual St, Michel, as their ambaf&Jor to 

invadon, by the French, of Egypt, the court of Naples, whither he 

Their apologies became now more arrived on the third of Odober, 

necellary than ever; as that in- 1798, with the (irongefl afFurances 

vafion lefl no &rther room for equi* of the loyalty of the French repob- 

vocation and dec^tion; and as tiie lie. He fpoke much to the king 

^flnidion of the French fleet muft of the SiciHes uf the pacific and 

inevitably prove a Arong incentive friendly attitude of the republic, 

to the Porte to take a d^idcd and of the hand which prefented i^% 

active part %vrth the enemies of ihk olive-branch, and of the mutual 

republic. The declaration of war advaijtages of beneficent poUcy. 

againil France, by the Ottoman He becanve bound to his majefty, 

porte, though couched in terms of that he might always reckon on t*^9 

die molt undif^uiled indignation, fincqre and conflant dtfpofitions ut* 

reproach, and abhorrence, was far the republic towards the king and 


titstORY OF EURbPfe; [113 

V\;»ff Jona of Naples. It fuUed the with repeated treaties! of. com- 
poVicj oF the rrench, at that mp^ merce, in vain. Thofc (blema 
nwnt, to make pacific profeflions treaties the bey^ had facrificed td 
to aU the \world befides the Eng- private engagements made wiiii 
iHli. fengland; to harafs, opprefii, and 
The French diredtory* after they annihilate the commerce of France 
band an the arts they had pradifec^ with Egypt. Ought their open 
io order to cajole and keep the h(>ftilitie$ to be tolerated any longer^ 
TiA« qtoiet, to no purpofe, by With impunity? The diredorv 
way of aafwcr to the inainrfeffo of would be guilty of a flagrant breach 
rtie Forte, in a newfpaper, called of their folemn engagement, to ex- 
tbeMoniteur, which ^'as underftood ercife a vigitant care for the protec- 
to be as moch under their direction tion of t>rivate prcrperty, as well ai 
as any of our papers are under that public rights and inlerefis, if they 
of our government, and a kind of did not repel fuch barefaced aggref^ 
iilegitifnate gaaette» publifhcd, to- Hon and make Ju(l reprizals? It 
wards the ei3 of November, 1798, was not from Con flan tinople that 
among others, the following re- the blow given to the beys (hould 
marks. Alter affefling to Call in be re-echoed, but from London: 
qaeHion the authenticity of the in as touch as in ftriking at the 
Turkifli manifefto. ihey adverted to Mammalukcs the French govern- 
that paiTage which charged the nient had aimed a blow againiit 
French, tinder the command 6f England, With Which they hiid 
Boonapgrte, with falling on E^ypt^ made common caufe, as appearec^ 
the rooft valuable province of the from a letter which (they aihVmed) 
Ottoman cmpire> lilcc fo many cor* had been fent by fheiti to admiral 
fairt. How far, they afked, could Nelfon^ before the battle of A bou- 
that country be confidered as va- kir: in which letter they had fta- 
luable to Ihe grand feigniorr A ted, to the admiral, that he had 
couulry of which the chiefs were O^ly to deftroy the French flefet, 
independent; and where his ball law, and that they themlelves would 
an oflBcer merely notninal and hono- take care to cut the Frehch troops 
rary, was ejtjier fiiffered to remain^ '" pieces when they fliould come on 
in a ftate of infignificancy and con- fliore. 

tempt, or remanded to the Porte, But it was afked by the enemies 

at the pleafurc of the beys. But, ofthedircciory, what right had they, 

if they could be fuppofed to be un- iti order to inflidl punifiiment on llie 
acquainted with the condudt of the " beys, however merited^ to fet their 

beyi towards the Porte, could they foot on a territory belonging to 

be ignorant of tlieir deportment, the grand feignior, and fuddenTy to 

for many ycars^ towards France? invade it without his knowlecfge? 

Io violation of th^ fights of na- Undoubtedly, the blow firuck by 

im% (hey had plutidered and op- the expedition had fallen unexpea- 

preflcd all Frcnchitien in E^ypt, ediy; not, however, on the Porte, 

Whether fbjdurners or domit iUatcd but on the Englifh, againft whom 

in the country: and the French it was directed. They appealed 

merchants had applied to the Porte both to the written declarations and 

fcr il5 proteclion, in conformity the ^aflions of Buonaparte, who 

- [ I 'i ] akvayg 

116] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1790. 

always avowed and condn61ed him- 
felf as ii\e friend and ally of the 
Ottoman Porlc. In this diaradlcr 
it was that he had fcl at liberty 
three hundred Turkifli prifoners, 
taken at Malta ; that he had under- 
taken to pay to the Turkifh govern- 
xnent the ufual tribute ; and tlial 
tiie b&(baw of Cairo had been con- 
tinued in both his ofHcc and its emo- 
l^iment. The direclony had often 
made application to the Sublime 
Porte for the chaftifemcnt of the 
beys who overwhelmed, the French 
commerce with their exadlions. 
But the only redrefs that they had 
been able (o obtain was a declara- 
tion from the Pofte, that the beys 
were a covetous and capricious 
race, wholly regardlefs of the prin- 
ciples of jullicO; and that tiie Sub- 
lime Porte, fo far from authorizing 
the outrages they had commit tea 
a^inft its ancient and j:ood allies, 
the French, had deprived the beys 
of the protection of the TurK- 
ilh laws and government. What 
was the import ? what to be inferred 
from that fentence of outlawry ? 
the putting of the beys out of tlie 
protedion of the Tuikifli laws and 
j^overnment. Plainly this, that the 
f5uhllme Porte conficfcred the beys 
jis rebels againft their authority ; 
and that, in withdrawing ilieir pro- 
tedion, -they had gi\ en the rebels 
to tho vengeance of the French, 
and devolved on thcfe the charge 
of puniniiug them. — The direc- 
tory or the wrik?rs of their coun- 
ter-manift*fio proceed, at grcrat 
length', to flicw, that the divan 
was previouffy acquainted with the 
clefccnt on Egypt and its objefls — 
the punillimcnl of the beys and of 
r.fgland. They make no mention 
of the converfation between blfiiop 
TriHeyrand and the Turkilh jMK^IkiI- 

fador, Ali-EfTendi. but infift mucli. 
on th6 letters, of a date prior to 
thofe that had been tranfmitted by 
the effendi to the dired^ory, and 
which Ruffin had laid before the 
divan, after his departure from 
Conftantinople to Paris. Theofii- 
ciai communication, of the attack 
on the beys,' by Ruffih, had fer\'ed 
the Porte as a pretext for the decfia* 
rsLiion of war. But when was tliat 
declaration made } Not till the 
Britift]- cabinet, perceiving itfclf to 
be wounded through the fides of 
the beys, whom it had incited to 
take up arms againfl the French^ 
had fi)und means of intiilling faUe 
lufpicions and alarms, and making 
the Porte apprehend tor rifelf, what 
was to be dreaded only by England* 
This they had don« through the 
medium of that fecret council, of. 
twelve members of the Turkifli 
goverument, who were in the 'pay 
of the Britifh minitlep and whotc 
influence fwayed the divan, to the 
dilgrncv; and ruin of the Ottoman 
cmipire. Again tl this influence, 
thedfre^ory predicted, there would, 
ere long, be a general revolt of 
all {he Ottomans who were the 
real friends of his fublime highncfs, 
the fultan, and the Ottoman em- 

Atfird, the direflory ferther re- 
marked, on the Turkiih mantfefto. 
thfre was no ditv6t complaint again ft 
the French government : it was 
iTuonaparle alone, not the directo- 
ry, that was chafgcd with the in- 
vofion of Egypt. This mcafured 
charge, this cautious and perfidious 
rcferve, proved that the divan, fub- 
flrvient as itwasfo {hi: views of 
England^ yet hefi tared to bitrak 
through the fcc^et r.nderftandin;* 
that had been ngrt^cd on between 
the Tufkifli government- and the 



<*.iTT8ory of the French repubh'c. 
But tbis hefitation and refen^e, this 
I'-mporizing policy, was obferved 
w]lv id long as the ifl'iie of tJie ex- 
pedition to Egypt remained doubt- 
iii'; it was not till the battle of 
-4b,mkir had given confidence to 
the Sublime Porte, that Ihcv chan- 
jfcd, with fortune, abandoned, like 
tortane, the French caiifo, and 
benched forth their/nanifefto;— a 
r'anirefto that muft remain as a mo- 
^ in.ent of the underhand and per- 
>i\(y:A dealings of the Ottoman 
Porte with their ancient friends; 
anJ who, in breaking with their 
natural and necefliiry allies, had 
r^^ndered tbemfelves the flaves of 
tic Englifh and abandoned therti- 
l»lves to their mercy. It is a long 
^'^a, the manifeflo, in the Moni- 
'<'"r, proceeded to reprefent, fi nee 
li)'^ Czars call a wifliful eye on Cori- 
Hjntinople. It was one of the vafl 
p^'jc^s of Peler the Great to make 
^iii^ the capital of his immenfedomi- 
^ «>ns and to exterminate the Turksf 
trom Europe, This, too, was one 
"' the deiigns, moft ardently pur- 
-od by the ambitious Catnarine. 
Ha« the hour, dcftined by fate for 
it^accomplifhment, at length come? 
Already has Paul fet his troops in 
i^'M'fon towards Moldavia and Wal- 
Uiiia; already is his fleet under 
{"'e walls of the feraglio. .tie has 
^':'ne oiit^ (o to fpeak, to recou- 
^''iire the ground: he* will fbon 
^♦':ze bis prey, and reign on the 
b'^fphorus : he will annihilate a go- 
^ ^Tnment fo weak and fenfelefs a.<t 
to have called to its aid its natural 
pncmy. The fultan, Gripped of 
■' IN crown, will pafs from the throne 
i'> the fcaflbld : the ancieilt empire 
of the crefcent will become no 
n"orc tlnin a province of Ruflla. 
^:ch will be the inevitable refult 

of the treacherv of the Porte to 
France; and thus, with its own 
hands, it will have dug the grave 
of it own greatnefs. 

A complete refutation of the 
falfe allegations of the French di- 
rectory, contained in this and their 
other papers, as well as in their con- 
verfation with the Turkifh ambaf- 
fador, and their mefliiges to the 
Porte, had any been neceflary, 
would have been afforded even to the 
mofl credulous and ftupid, by the 
intercepted letters of Buonaparte, 
which were publiflicd, under the 
authority of the Britifh government, 
early in December ; by which let* 
ters, the real defigns of the direc- 
tory, in Egypt, and tl»c determi- 
nation of Buonaparte to hold it, in 
(he name of the French republic, 
if poflible, in defpite of both the 
Porte and its allies, were clear and 
incontrovertible. It may be noti- 
ced, as a proof, how completely 
the coiMicils were at the beck of 
the direftory, and how indifferent 
to the confervation of the conflitu- 
tion, or irrefolute and daflardly in 
its defence, that not an. individual 
in either ever mentioned a word of 
the violation of their fundamental 
Jaws, on the part of the direflory, 
in making war againfl a fovereign 
and independent power, and that 
an ancient and conftant ally, who 
had given no caufe, nor e\en pre- 
text, for taking offence, without 
the approbation and confent of the 
two other branches of the legifla- 
ture. This apathy, or timid fub- 
million of the whole of the councils . 
to the executive government, was 
a flagrant proof, that laws sij\d forms 
are nothing without that living ener- 
gy and virtue which is neccliary to 
give them effe6l, and t/jat the 
French nation was uttedy capa- 

[M] ble. 


118} ANN.UAL REGISTER, 1799; 

ble, nol to fay unworthy, of re- 
publican govevninent. 

The fame requifition, (or the 
new levy of men that was made in 
France, wa§ enforced in the con- 
cj acred ftates. IJegeois,- Swifs, 
pavoyards, and Belgians, if they 
<lid not readily obey the fummuns, 
were dragged, by force, into thQ 
French battalions. It was but ten 
years fincc the Belgians h«id revolt- 
ed again ft tbcir"^ own fovereign, 
the emperor^ Jofeph 11. on ac- 
CQunt of tome innovations, and 
chiefly thofe reFpediing monafteries 
^nd certain rehgipus obfervances, 
by no means eflential to the princir 
pies and forms of the Ci^tholic reli- 
gion . They now fa w their cbu rcbes 
pillaged* their priefis baniflied^ im« 
prifoned, and, ibmetimes, put to 
deatb; and this at a time when 
their temporal fiiQerings certainly 
required ail the copfolations of re^ 
ligion. Coii(ifcatJon$, contribu*- 
lious, and taxes,^ had yet left the 
honed and rel'pedlable rlernifh pea- 
fanls, however piuch difcouraged 
by repeated and continued attack^ 
on their induftry, to confule one 
'lanother by mutual fympathy and 
^ffcdlion in the bofom of their fa^ 
inilies. But this cofnfort was now 

ravithcd from them by the mih'tary 
confcription and rcquilltions. Hui- 
bands were torn frpm wives, chil- 
dren from parents, and loverft from 
the objeds of a virtuous attach- 
ment. There is a time when ty- 
ranny cannot any longer add lo its 
opprciTions, and the cup oi mifery 
overtTo>v«. The Flemidi nation, 
driven to defpalr, did not wiinefs 
the young men dragged frorn their 
own fire iidcs, to fwell tht- armies 
of their oppreflbrs, without refin- 
ance. The parties of French, fent 
to prefs the youth hUo tlieir regi- 

ments, were, in fome places^y re« 
fifted by parents^ brothers, neiglu 
hours, and even by the weaker 
fex. The firft movements of this 
kind, fa natural and afle£)ing, dif* 
fufed their influence over tbe Low 
Countries with the fpecd of light- 
ning. A xlifpofition, to throw off 
thp detefted yoke of France, had 
lately appeared in the Netherlands, 
which tubjedled the inhabitants, as 
ufual in fuch cafe.5, Aill more to the 
vigilant feverity of the Fwnch gck 
vernment. The Englifh, four 
thoufand ilrpng, had made a dc<* 
fcent, in May, 1798, at Oftend, 
in order to deibroy the (luices, but 
bad been repulfed by a very infe- 
rior number: fifteen hundred of 
them were taken prifbncrs, amon^ 
whom .w«^e five hundf«:d and five 
officers. The £nglifli» at their 
landings were wtslco^ed by cries 
of invitation. The nevys of their 
landinff was quickly fpread over 
the whole coantry, where a very 
general difpofition to give them in- 
telligence and encourage tl>ero ap- 
peared i^monjgr the inhabitants. A 
Jaw was pefleid, for feruliag (bch as 
fliould, in future, be guilty of any 
fpeech or a6)ion, tending to th« 
encouragement of the enemy, to 
courts martiali to be tried and pa< 
niflied, ac{:arding to the mihtary 
code, as ipies and recrniters ^>r 
hoftile powers. Thus, the Frendx 
were as ready to exGnguiib» as the 
Belgians, to catch the Arfl fparks ot 

Tl)e place, where the explofion 
burft forth, was the beauttlul dll' 
trid of Waks fituated bet^eew 
the Scheldt and the canal between 
Bruflels •ud Antwerp. Froril thence, 
in the end of O^iober, it quick Iv 
fpread to the IbrdQtip of Maliia*. 

liie territory of Loavain, a>i far 1^ 



TfiSenantf and the cnvifonjr of 
Brvfieh. Antwerp and BnifTels 
I0(H both fuli fif i>erfbns indfenant 
at the joke of France, and the 
whole of tise department in which 
tJiev were Irtuated, were declared 
to be in a iiate of liege. In a few 
days, the flame of revolt was rom- 
municsted from north to foatli Bra- 
bwt, IS for as the frontiers of Na- 
owr, ptrt of Fianders, the Arden* 
n»t and tlie borders of Liege': 
ini, in another diredlon, to DiefY» 
i^f Flemilh Campine, and Bo1s-le* 
DiJc, as far » Eyndhiwen. Their 
principal phices of rendezvous were 
Bomheiw, on the Scheltir, Turti- 
W, Herenthall, and, above all, 
^^ The infurgentty who took 
f»(USoa of this la(t place, a very 
^eUcbofen polhion, amounted to 
dx (hoafand men, divided into three 
colunes of two thoufand each. 
The firft of tbefe was commanded 
^T an Aufh'ian corporal, of the 
naiTJc of Corbiels ; the fecond by 
t'lc fon of an opulent brazier, of 
I^ieft, called Woots ; the third by 
^ Freiieh emigrant, formerly a lieii- 

On the fird appearance of this 
in^Hrredion, general Beguinot, com- 
mandant of Briiflels, haitened, with 
^'hat troops he coatd coiled in the 
i^eighbourlmod, to Malines, eriga* 
^, and, for a moment, dcfperied, 
the infurgents; who coliedcd 
a^in in great numbers, a fecond 
timt;, Diade tbemfelves matters of 
Malines, an^ a fecond time, loft 
it: bat, flili the infurredion pre- 
viiied more and more, and extend- 
ed itfelf even to the banks of tlie 
Mofelfe. The French troops, can- 
twjcd in the Netherlands, were 
rtinforced by the garrilbns of Bre- 
da, Betgen-op-Zoom, and Luxem- 
burg: French troops were silfo fent^ 

afterwards, from th^ Lower l^h in e 
and brigades of light artillery, and 
whatever trt)Op$ coulii be lent from 
French Hainault and Fhtnddri. 
Prociamaiions were publtflied by 
tile Freoeh general, Bonn^rd, on 
fertifg' pardqd to aD the infurgelits^ 
in the five infe€led departments, 
bat threatening the laft feverities to 
all who fhquld per^ft: m rebellion. 
A great number of perfon^ weref 
arrefted and imprifoned ; thoufandl 
taken in adion and put to death. 

But the advantages gtdn^d, from 
day to day, by the French, wertf 
dearly purchafed. Though the' 
Belgians were united by no other 
iyftem than a common fympathy^ 
and had no concerted plan of ope* 
rations, they were recruited and 
fortified by the daily accefCon of 
numbers of their countrymen, and 
animated with the refolution of de^ 
fpair. The motto on . their ftan- 
darcfc waa '' // is better to die here 
iJum elfewfiere** After inn umefable 
engagements, in which courage 
ibpplted the place of dtfeipfine and 
experience, and many defeats, or 
rather diiperiions, they fell again on 
the French, when they did not ex- 
pe^ them. 

In the mean time, during thefe 
conflicts with the French troops, 
they did not fpare either the civil 
officers of tlie French govemmenc 
nor fuch magiftrates of towns, 
tliough their own countrymen, 
as had been moft confpicuous for 
their attachment to the French 
caafe. Commiflioners and civil ad* 
miniftrators were killed, wound- 
ed, or forced to feek fafety by 
flight. The fmall military parties, 
difperfed in 'different places, * tor 
the purpofe of enforcing rcqutii* 
tions ot monev and men, were 
fubicded to a like fate. Tlie trees 

12©) ANNUAL REGISTER, 17?». 

<?f liberty werp evfry where cut 
* down^ and the tri-colqured flags 
torn in pieces iind committed to 
the flames. 

The i^erals of the French 
army and the directorial agents, 
who fled tQ tbo a^my for protec- 
fioD, did not fail to malce th^ 
ieverefl retaliation. A number of 
. villages were given up to fire 
and I word. The infiirgenfi, over- 
powered in the callle of Duflel, 
near Malines, around which they 
had caft a trench, were maflacred, 
$flpx they had fyrrendcred^ withcAit 

mercy, A number of executioiien 
followed in the train of the French 
columns ; fcafToIds were eredled ; 
and the blood of the unhappy Bel- 
gians (lovred profufely. 

The brave and honeft Belgians, 
equally obedient to juflice and 
iridignant at injudice and opprer> 
fibn, wearied and worn out, with-* 
out magazines, artillery, and places 
of retreat, enclofed between Hol- 
land and France, and left to their 
ftte by Europe, were, in Janua<« 
ry, 1799, obliged to yield to their 
mighty conquerors. 




drtj^refs of Rafiadt. — Defcription of Germany. — Gsrmainc Conpiliition, 

The'Germanx, in all yfffes, ^charafferiTed by a Lnve of Lfhcrti/. — Sfntof of 
the Emptrc-^Three Colleges, -^yicijfitudcs in the dnijahitinru-^Ehi^itm 
of the Emperor^ — Geograpltical Divifion of Vie Empire into Circles.-^-' 
Diafion of the Empire, founded on Differetices of Re Upon. — Diet of ^te- 
Emfirtj'^Ad-oices of the Diet, -^Decrees cf Ratification. — Cnidufion. — " 
JfJIiKtice of the Emperor on the Proceeditigs of the Diet. — /Ind of the Kimf 
€j Vrnffia,-"^ Deputations of the Empire, -^Orditmry and Extraordinari/ — 
Members of the Extraordinary Deputation of the Empire a[femt4ed at 
Raftadt. — Their Powers and Fttn6tions.''^Nes^ociation better en the Parti e^ 
^nficerwd, ai Rafladi, carried on without the Intervention of foreign 
Po:e9rs,'~^ecret j4rtides in the Treaties of Bape and Campo-Formio,—^ 
yiolalioft of the latter, on the Part of the French, complained of by the Im- 
pcrial M^fttfter.'-^Bafis propofed for a Pacifcaliofi, by the French Plenipo- 
tentiaries^'^Comdtr Propojitions, by Ike Deputation of the Empire, — Ccnti- 
nvatiott nf HqfHlities by the French, — Difputes concerning the Origin and 
Commencement of the Ifar^^^The Bafts propofed by the French Plenipctvn- 
tiaries agreed cm by the fecret Jrtides of the Treaty of Camph-Forwio.--^ 
Secularizations propoJed,^-'The Deputation agree to the Ceffion ff hat f the 
Territory demanded by the French^'^lFho perfift in their Jirft Pmpqfitimis, 
'—Mates iu the Diet of Hie Empire,^^The Cejfon of the left Bank of the 
Rhine agreed to, by Uie Deputation » on certain Conditions.— ^Prii^teJ'iczcs 
*>f the individual States of the Empire, — TheSyflem of Seadayizalion agreed 
to.^^Farther Preienfions of the French. — Objeflions to thefe.—Jvaloufn 
and fecret Views of both the negocia/ing Parties, -^Rapacity and P^cnnliht 
of the French DireEtory.^^Interefting attd injidious Intervention of the 
French Plenipotentiaries, in Favour of certain hnperialCitics, -^Relaxed C7id 
enfeebled State of the Germanic Conflilution. — The German States arravf^rdt 
rrfpe&ivdy around Prujfia and Aufiria, — Frefli Pretcnfkms of the French re- 
ffied by both tkefe Powers.'-^ConceJions of the French. — y^nd of the De- 
putation of the Empire,'^ A Majority of the Deputation agrees to the 
French Propofiiions. — PrfUefl in the Diet againft tlieir Fotc-^EffeH pro- 
duced on tkp Ncgodations at Rafladt, by the approach of the Ruffians to 
Gtrtnany.'>-4AnhcUtfum of the Diet, vn the SubjeB of the French Propqft- 
ticns, ratified by the Imperial Commiffary^ — Rcqui fit ions of the Deputatiott 
9f the Empire, for the Relief of the right Bank of the Rhine, — Declaration 
tf the French PlempotetUiaries again/l the Mnnjion of Ruffian Troops 
ifdo the Tcniiory of the Empire,-^ Referred to the general Diet of the 
Empire of Ratifbon.-^Entrance and Progrejpon of the Ruffians into Ger- 
many. -Surrender of /tie Fortrefs of Ehrenbrit/tein.-^The French Arnn^' 
fn^ the Wiine. --And penetrates into Suabia, — Fretich Proclamation,-^ 


mii: ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Jind Addrefs of General Jourdan to his Army, on their Entrance into 
Qermany.^'^Tafren into Confideratiofi hy the Depufaiion of the Empire* — 
H^hich reeohimends to the general Diet the A^optiot^ of Means for afpecdy 
Peace. — The Zeal of the Deputies for^J^eace^ checked by the Imperial Coxa* 
fHiJJary •'^Preludes of IP'at. ' 

BY At) article in the treaty of 
Campo-Formio, it wsm a^^^rced 
and fixed, that a congrefs ibould 
teheld at Raftadt, compofed folefy 
of tbe plenipotcnlisries af tlie Ger- 
SMintc empire and of the French rc- 
piiblic» for the purpofe of conctuding 
» negoctation between thufe pow- 
€19^ This congrcfs waa accordmgly 
opened on the twelAh of Decern* 
lor, 1797. That oor readers may 
tiic more cstfily enter into the na- 
ture of this a(7emblv, and the cha- 
lader of its deliberations, it may 
act b^ improper to recall to their 
mind, very hnv.i\y, an idea of the 
German ic contlitiuion> and of (bme 
of the principal viciilkude^ it has 
und^^ne, in the lapfe of time, 
tmm Its origin to the prefent day, 
^ben it totters on the verge of dt<^ 
felution, if noty in &61; already > 

Germany is computed to com* 
prise a (ur/ace of twelve tltoufand 
fqoafe geographical miles, and to 
/contain a population of twenty- 
height^ or thirty millions of ijiha- 
iMlants« It IS bounded on the north, 
hy the river Eider, and the Baltic 
|ea; on the eaft, by Prufiia, Poland, 
§ilefia, and Hungary ; on tlie fouth, 
{>y the Adriatic fca, Italy, and^wit- 
cef?and; and, on tho weft, by. 
f'rance, the Northern ocean, and 
|he Seven United Province?, at 
|>refcnt /lylcd thcBatavian republic. 
Germany has not only tJ}e advan- 
tage of three fcas, but alfo for in- 
ternal zuiri^ation, a great naisber 

of rivers, of which the princrpaT are 
the Danube; the Rhine, the E}b<», 
a])d tlie Wefer. In confequence of 
its extent, and (be 'number, induf- 
try, anc^ wealth of its 4nhabitants 
it would be a very powerful and 
fermidable iiate, and a happj conn- 
terpoife and barrier againft the anv 
bition of France, if the different 
territoriefi of which k^s compofed, 
were united under one head* with 
fufllicient authority to conftitate 
them one united and compa^d 
governmefit But, tb^ three han* 
dred Aates i^ito which it is diy'idtd, 
poOcfiing, Rn the aaoi^ par^ rojral 
prerogatives, even to the extent of 
making peace or war, are kiffoenced 
only by their own individual inte- 
reAs. Xh<:y abandon thtt^ commu- 
nity of which they afo mcmlbers, at 
the moment of its'dangeo to sd) the 
attacks of adverfe fbrtufie. Tbuugb 
they acknowledge one chi^G t^y 
are independant of aach othet, and 
not attached by any particrukir or 
pnvate tic to the common intereii : 
oefides lbi>S the powers which they 
have gradually ^ffutncd, are in- 
creafed at every nevt^te£ti6i» of an 
emperor. . For this reafon, it is an 
undecided pbint among German 
dolors of laws, wbvther the con- 
ftitulion of their cjuiitry, be mo- 
nar(3i>fcal or ariftocraticaL This>hi- 
dccifion renders it antattet of doubt 
with forae, whetlicr them be,* in 
reality, any precife and d^nninate 
conlirtiittorv of Germany at ai(.' 
The n^d probable opinion on this 



fabjectis, that the Germanic con* with theeledors* Bni this was no^ 

Itiiution is an extremely limited the cafe. When Germany was ie- 

monarchy. — With the ^cepiion of paratcd from France, to which it 

the (bort and florm v period betwcea nad become UMc€t, to form an 

17 W and 174.5, the imperial dig- empire by itfeli; the chief of the 

nity has, for many ages, been vefled nation was in pofleflion of full and 

in tlie houfe of Auftria. This dig- abfolute fovereignty. Dukes, mar* 

nitv WM not hcxreditory in that fa- graves, counts palatines, and \s^* 

inily, but conferred, on fucceffive graves, were no more than fimple 

vacancies of the throne, by way of officers of the crown, afling in the 

tleclion. name and by the aothority of the 

At the period when the German monarch. But, as it was common 

t^mpire became an cie£Uve king- to bellow, on tons the places that 

<iom, (for it was not fo from the had been held by their fathers, and 

^cinning), all the magnU/esg or to conferthe ^reaiodires of ftateon 

iDoll powerful chiefs had a fhare ^milies who had large pod^iBonc ia 

in the eledion. But this privilege the territories over which tiiey were 

pafltd infenflUy into the nands of appointed to preiide, it came to 

the principal eccleitaflical and fe- pals, in troublefome times, when 

calar princes, who were called the monarch could not exercife • 

eledon. It was neccf&ry, about Arid vigilance over them, that they 

the time of the reformation, and kept their places by a hereditary 

^nce, that the candidate for the im- title, and the officers of the crowti 

perial crown ftiould be of the Ro» befan^e fovereign princes, their 

loan catholic religion. Hence the power increafed, in proportion aa 

t^pacity of 6Uing the imperial tiie hands were flacKencd^ which 

throne is reduced to a very ifew united them to tiie empire, more 

houfes of high difrin6)ion : thofe of and mere, till at length a feal wai 

Aulbia, the Palatinate, and Saxony, put to thdr authority, by the peaco 

fiat, aib the imperial elediion has been of Weftphalia. It is farther to be 

almoft uniformly carried, for nmuv oblerved, that neither the kings of 

|i|!^« by the former of thefe, whole France, nor thofe of Geimany^ 

intmente hereditary dominions has their fucceflbrs, were ever abfolute, 

given birth to an apprehenlion, left lb long as the tribes of Germany 

if Ihould employ its va(l power fur were but fmall. The chi^ con» 

the parpofe of its own aggrandize* falted the opinion of everv free 

n^ent, rather than that of mainta'm-^ man, without exception. An in* 

ing the rights of the ftates of the herent love of liberty, it is record* 

csnpire, the electors have judged it ed both by Tacitus and Juliua^ 

proper, at every new eleclinn, Caefar, was charadlcriftic of the 

^oce that of Charles V. in.]51i), to ancient Germans. When the cm^ 

ftipoUiD for th^ maintenance of their pire became too extcniive for the 

own prerogatives and thofe of their public deliberations of all free men 

(^o-eltates, ^y an infifuroent, called in a body, the king aflembled the 

the Imperial CapituUUiOft. It is a dukes, margraves, counts palatine^ 

pretty general opinion, that the fiirpie counts, and landgraves to 

itiiiitation of the imperial power, conCult txjgether, and witli him, oi^ 

^<l.itsorizinio(Mioriginalcompa^ the affairs of the nation. Thoie 

1^4]* ANNUAL REGISTER. 1799. 

fords were not indeed, firraly fpeak- ton of landed cHates : that if, furfi 
ir)^;, the rcprefentatives of the peo- proprietors as did not hold them as 
f\e: ftiH, however, they might be fiefs of the crown. For a long lime 
eonfidercd as fuch : they were al- there were no other ftates of the em - 
ways great landed proprietors, who pire. Thefe two orders held their 
hare the cleareft and moft unquef-, deliberati<;fns in common with the 
t»>)nal>le inferejft in the weWare of chiefoP the empire, undei* the fi ra- 
the people; and, befides this, it p!e dcfignatron o? ttto benches ; the 
wasi in conftant ufage with the ecclefiaflical bench, and the tecular 
jfrandecs, before pr6fen£ing them- bench. In the lapfe of ages there 
(elves at court; to convene the free arofe a third clafs of national reprc- 
men of their refpedtive diftri^s,* in fentalives. In the refgn of Henry, 
order to receive informal ion of fadtSj the falconer, a great number of 
^nd charge themfeK'es with the re- towns were built, Doth on the fron- 
prefentation ^ of their griev:»nces.r a tiers, ^nd in the interior of Ger- 
cttftom which alfo pre%'ailed, it. many. Part of thefe held of dukes 
wiU readily be recoUecled, with and princes, and part immediately 
the ftates-gencral of France. Thus of the emperor. The latter were 
♦be marvafeif of Germany became calleii imperial cities, and their 
ftates of thee n^ pire. magiftrates were appointed by the 
After Chriflianity made its Way emperor, for the purpofe of exer- 
into the heart of Germany, n great citing, in his name, the rights of 
number of archbifjiops, biihopfr, fovcrcignty, and drawing certain 
Snd abbots appeared tjn the fame revenues for the imperial treafury. 
les'el, and in the fame rank, with the Thev derived profperif y from coni' 
fay chiefs, who, b}' «nd by,'admli ted merre ; which enabled t)tem topur- 
l^yem into their number in the public chafe the rlgiits of fovcreighs trom 
convents, not only in cor.fequence of the emperor, to form for thefefelrcs 
their refected flat ions and vahiaWe Republican conftitutions, and to ac-. 
poireflHons h\\i becaufe, the clergjr quire cortliderable domains; fbmc* 
jl!one, th thole days, were verfairt m times by money, fbmetimcs by ma»!i 
cither letters, or the befl modes of force. Occupied, almoft wliu/ly, 
lmnfa6ling public bufincfs. Thus in induftry and commerce, they 
IN? flates of the empire were di- gave themfclves but Httfe concern 
»^'ded into two orders ; the ecdefi- about the affairs of the empire, 
aftic ami the fecular. Among Ihe* The particular wars in which they 
ibrmer, were ranked 'archbifliops, were fometimes engaged, and to 
bflTiops, and abbots of royal foun- which thev were always expofecl. 
rfbtions : the abbots of other mo- rendered it difficult to eftabfifli a 
frallcfies did not enjoy the fame general peace, without fome parti- 
j>rii'ileges. To the order of prelates cipalion, on their part, in its f()r- 
iDvere joined, the grand-mafler of mation ; and their attachment to 
the teutonic order, and the grand- the emperor, from whom i\\cfy du- 
|>rior of the order of SI. John, of rived their polittcal privileges, point - 
' Jerufaiem. The fecular order was ed them out as a natural . fun pert 
rompofed of dukes, counts pa la- to the imperial' powc;r. againft the 
tine, landgraves, margraves, limple encroachments of the other fiati<. 
eobniSj aixl independent proprie- Th.cir wealth too, prelentcd the 
• -• amp I til 



v^\\q^ re{barce« whenever there. 
>«« a neccffity of impofing public 
coalnhaticm*. They were, there- 
fore, invited to appear in the diet<; 
•f the empire, by reprefcntaiives, 
chofcn by thcmrdves, out of their namber. But as their interefts 
fii(i not always co incide with thofe 
of the princes prelates, and counts, 
t^iey withdrew from thefc orders, 
framed a feparate college of their 
own, and communicated the refult 
of their deliberations to the other 
i\so Hates, in whofe allemblies they 
prefcnted thexnfelves only on liie 
molt fo?emn occafion*. 

During a period of confiderable 
Itrij^th, it was the policy of the more 
powerful among the princes, to re- 
tain, by ail means, the prelates and 
counts, as a part of their own body, 
ihnt they might not lean too much lo- 
wards the fide of the emperor. But 
it ^vaK not long before new and par- 
t.t ular interefts fvcca(ione<? a fepara- 
tl n in this college. The chief 
amopg the princes leciilar, ^nd ec- 
clofiafiic, by degrees, aflumed the 
prfviii-ge of electing the emperor. 
At firft, they mot together for con- 
certing whom thcyfliould j)ropore, 
ai'd recommend to the other princes 
rJlembied in the diet of the empire, 
vvhi> geneVally gave their voice* in 
^Avo^^ of the candidjitc fo propofed^ 
ar.'i always, if the chief princes 
^^ore unanimous in their rccom- 
^"?^dation. But it was not tiU the 
-ttocnth century, that the chief 
r''i'ccs affumed a formal, abfolutc, 
i^d exclufive right of ele^iion. 
Vmmg this period, the Hates of tlie 
'•npire came to be diridctj into 
^ TO** colleges, the Eic floral CoUcge, 
'•vCo/Ugi' of Princeu and the Col' 
i '/^ of the Free or Imperial Ci/ics. 
I .c rocmbers of the (?ccieiia(lical 
w'icjre were criginally fcven ; three 

ecclefiaflic,, a«d four fccular. . Tfa^ 
ibrmer owed theil 3ignity to.»the 
antiquity of their epifcopal fee?^ 
and, to the otlice of arch-chanccl-^ 
jors, which they perforiDcd at ti\e, 
imperial court, .and which 
them tliC management of all luch 
public atfairs as werJ! tranfa6ied, b/. 
means of letters, or writing. The 
elector of Mcntz, was arch-chancel-. 
hiT for Germany ; the <|lMClor of 
Treves, for the Gauls, or kingdom 
of Lorraine, when it became a 
part of the empire; and the eledor 
of Cologne, lor the kingdom of 
Lombardy, when that country loo 
became iubjed to the fovereiga 
power of the German empire. 
Subfeqiient chaiAges in France, and 
in Itaiy, did not deprive the ^wo 
latter princes of their eledloral dig* 
iiity and privileges, Tlie fecular 
princes of the electoral college were 
the Ibvereign princes of Boliemia, • • 
the palatinate of Sa^wonv, and Bran- 
denburg, who, in ViLe manner. 
owed their cle^oral dignity to the 
great officers of flatc, which they 
held at the imperial court. The 
elcdor palatine having accepted tJie 
crown of Bohemia, in 1C18, was 
overcome by the emperor Ferdi- 
nard 11. put to the bar of the em- 
pire, ftrippcd of his lvere:litary ter- 
ritories, aud the electoral dignity 
conferred by the^ emperor on hi« 
ally, the duke of Bavaria. This 
dignity was conferred to tfie duke,' 
by the peace oF Wcfiphalia ; but, 
by the lame trer»ty, an eighth clec- , 
torlhip was created, in favour olllki 
prince palagne, who was nomiiiatct! 
arch-trcafurer of the empir •, or. the 
ground, that it was inclirpenfably 
necellJry that every eiettor ftjould 
hold fome great ollice of ihite un- 
der the imperial crown. As thc^ 
two houfci of the |Mi!alinate and, 



Bwnris were bofYi dftKem brandies iheceffion ^Alfare to the Frenetic 
of the fame Rem, and as it was and, in one or two cafes tbe en'* 
imfeetithat, in thecouHeoftime, croacliments of powerful prtncesi 
fSie once might probably lalf into has been reducec from flxt)utwo» 
tte otlioTf by bereditary fucceflion, to about fifty. Tbey are divided 
It was fiipvlat^d, that the ele^or* into two benches, that of (he Rhin^^ 
ihtp iaft created ihoiild, from that and that of Swabia. 
time, be dilcohttnned. On the Befides the political divxion of 
re-union of the two branches of the the Hates of the empire into three 
palatine family, in 1777, the num* colle^est, it was divided^ geogra-* 
ber of eledlors would have been« phically, into ten circles^ or re* 
accordingly, reduced to the primi* gions, Hiaped into a kind of parti- 
tire number of feven, ifattnebe- 6ular counties, by the hand ofn^-* 
ginning of the eighteenth century^ ture ; before Belgium, orthecircfe 
the ele^oral dignity had not been of Burgundy, was ceded to France, 
conferred^ by the emperor, on the by the treaty of Campo-Fonnio^ 
docar houfe of Brunfwick Lunen- feoo to be ratified by another pact- 
burg, or Hanover. The college of fication. The members of thefc 
princes is compofod of a hundred circles, meet from time to time, to 
voices, or votes: of which fbme deliberate on their common into- 
' are parted, or fliared among diffe- reOs. In former times, when tlie 
rent perlbns, and, in fbme inftances, German ftates and princes were 
even whole bodies. For example, actuated, ^nor^ than at prefcnt. by 
the whole of tlie prelates have but public fpirit and a love of/theiV 
two votes, tlie whole of the counts country, aflemblies of the circles 
only four. Hence a divifion of the were frequent, and of great import- 
voices into trirHes and curiales; the ance. In proportion as particular 
former thofe of individual, the iat- intcrefls and views prevailed over 
ter thofe of whole clafles or bodies, thofe of the community, the meet- 
The imperial and tret cities, ings of tlie circles have become ir» 
which form the third college of the regular^ ill attended,, broken up 
Ibtes of the empire, are all of them hafiily by pilfol difputes about pre- 
conftituted on repablican plans of cedency, where the member^ were 
government; being mixtures of de- nnraerous« or difcouraged and over- 
mocracies and artftocracies, of ra* bor^e by fbme preponderating 
ther ariftocracies more or lefs mo* power, when few. Every circle 
derate. The city of Nurembersr has its diredlor, or prefident* 
alone is wholly anflocratfcaT charged with tlie general police 
jOf the free cities of Germany, there and maintenance o? the public 
are only four, which^ at the prefent tranquillity, as well as with the 
day, retain their ancient profperity execution, of all imperial decrees 
and confidcration. Frankfbrt-on- witliin their circles. In the adcm- 
the-Maine, and the three Hanfeatic blies of the circles, there is no dif^ 
towns of Lubeck, Bremen, and fcrencc between \oiccs viriles, and 
Hamburgh. Nercmberg, tJIm, voices curia/eJt, The vote of ihp 
^ugfbnr^, and others, have fallen fmailcfl count, or prelate, is equi- 
from tneir ancient fplendour. The valenl to that of the greal^li princes, 
Ikiimber of the imperial cities, by eten i^leflors ihtt excepted. And 


A qtseftiGns are difpofed of by a the date of 1 663, when (he ditU of 
plurality of voices* There is yet airembly, of the Qates of ihe empire 
another divtdon of the empire, be- became pemltincnt, neither the em- 
{^es die poUtical and geographfcal peror, nor the different member* of 
divifionn juft mentioned, ana dial the Aates, appear there in perfinu 
ifi a divtCion faunded on difference Every thing is tranfa^ed by deptt* 
of religion. In the colIe|^ of tlie ties» who are not, liowcvrer, em«> 
princes, as well as that of eic^ors, powered to conclude any bufineft 
tbe Catholics are the mod nurae- of importance, without tranfmttting 
rous: though of the princes, alt it, and receiving the inftr actions of 
thofcof the mod ancient and illuf- their conllituents. 
trious houfes are protc(^ants, with The reprefentative of the empe- 
thc exception of Aullria, Bavaria, ror^ in the diet, hai the title of the 
and the Pabtine. lu the college of principal comxniflary, becaufe it 
imperial cities, the proteOants pre- would be beneath tlie dignity of die 
ponderate. Howri'er, aithough the chief of the empire to (end adepatj 
Catholics prevail in the other two to the Hales. 
colleger, it was provided and fet- It is the prerogative of the emperor 
tied, by the peace of Wellphalia, to call meetings of the diet for any 
that the preponderatij^ namber and particular purpofe, and to lay before 
voSces of the Catholics, fliould not them the fubjeds of deliberation. A 
be of any prejudice to the Protel-^ propofition, or motion, is m^de in 
tants^ in ^ny queflion wherein the the diet, either by the imperial or 
Protefiants fiiould agree to make principal commiflary, in which cafe 
common caufe, and at the imperial the decree for making it, is called 
diet, form themlelyes into a fepa- a decree of commifBon : or, in UU 
nte and diftind Hodv. In which abience, direclly by a meifage from 
cale nothing reittained but modes of the imperial court ; in which cafe^ 
conciliation. If theie failed, the it is called an ai^tic decree. Bat 
Matter in quefiion remained unde- although the regahir iniliative of 
cided. legiflation belong to the emperor, it 

It ha$ already been obferved, is, neverthelefs, competent ibr the 
that the emperor, in moil cafes, ilates too to propofe any qoefiion or 
was retrained from" exercifing the fu^ed of dilcutlion : of which aa 
imperial authority without the con- xnflance was exhibited a few years 
fent of the dates. In order toob- ago, by the cledlor of Mayence, in 
tain this, the emperors, in former a motion relative to peace with 
times; were wont to aflemble, from France. But in whatever manner 
tmie to lime, to the flutes of the em- a propofition is made, it mud be 
pire in perfon. When all matters were communicated to the whole em* 
agreed on, the refult of their deli- pire. 

bcrations was reduced to the form Each of the three colleges meefii 
of a law, under the name of a re- fepdrately^ and deliberates on tbe^ 
ccA of Che empire, and the diet was proportions fubmitted to their con* 
broken up. As the emperors and fideration and dccifion, by the pre* 
priiy^s were prefent in the diets, fident or direflor : who reduces tp 
ifi perfon, there proceedings were writing, the fentc of what is deter* 
cairled on with expedition* From mined by the minority; andlaysitbe- 




lore the college at the ilex( meeting, neral decrees, in fome meiBfnre, 

for their confirmation. In the elec- qualified or cliaraderized by the? 

,toraI college, in general more con- title they bear, of Advices of the 

cordant than the others, the draught Diei, rcprelented by the diredors 

of what is underftodd to have been tp the imperial and principal coni- 

agr<*ed on, is not often attended niiflary, vvho tranfinitii it to hi» 

■with any difficulties : but it is very court. Thcfe advices the emperor 

commonly otherwife in the college may rejeft, "though not without 

of princes; in which the ifcetch or coming to an explanation. on their 

project drawn up by the dircflor, is fubje^s. The confent of the em* 

often rejc^led, and another pro pofed peror, duly declared, is callcil a 

to the coirege in its ftead. Thus Decree cf RcUification, An Advice 

it follows, from this mode -of con- bf the Diet, and a Decree ofRa/ifi- 

du6ting the (lelibenitic^ns of the catiofi, form together o cotictufum 

ftates, that there are three different of the empire. 

decrees, or refohitions, on all mat- From this Iketch of the Germanic 

ters that come before them : which conilltution, it is evident, that the 

three decrees it, of courfe, becoitjes tranfa6lions of the diet cannot be 

neccffary to reduce to one. For carried on ^itherwife than very 

this end, the direflors of the two flowly; and that \t is impoflible 

firft colleges proceed, witheut de- they (hould be kept fccrct. A very 

Jay, to a Conference. If it happens great influence on the a/lcmbly is 

that the rcfolutions agreed to by poflelTed by the emperor, wholfel- 

Iheir' refpedive colleges be funda- dom fails to turn it to his own «d- 

mentally the fame, or conceived in vantage. He is, himfelf, a mem- 

the fame Iprrit, it is not commonly ber of the elcfloral college, as kin;; 

iiiHicult for the two colleges to of Bohemia ; and the three ecclcfi- 

comfe to a cO)i>mon refult or con- aflical elcdlors are ufually of his 

chtfum. But if tliey cannot be party. In the college of prince.«, 

brought, by any mean«, to one too, be can commonly reclcon o^ 

oc*cY)rd, the queftion is dropped, the ecclefiaftical princes, as well as 

and there is an end of the bufinefs: on the fecular princes of the new 

irnlff* indeed, as fometimes hap- houfes, and ftlil more on the pre- 

pei:s in cafe^ of great urgency, they Jatcs and counts. As for (he col- 

aj^ree to refer the matter to the ar- lege of free cities, it is but very 

bii ration of (he emperor; foihehas rarely that they dare tudii the will 

ncf rii;ht to inlerfcie, Avithout fuch a of tlie cjiicf k^( the empire. It is 

relrrenve. After the co/icl.\f/.?n ol only the houfe of Brandenburg, and 

the two lir ft colleges, a fiinilar pro- the greater nart of the princes of 

I'cdure talcs pliice between thefe the old familic<, that can form, to 

Iwi) coIk*go<5, united in the fame a certain degree, a counter-balance 

Hcilpn, on ll'.e or.e parf, and the to tht*. newer of the eraperpr. But 

efilit'^c of iinpcfial ciliv^s, on the of thete great houfes, nieans have 

(;;!ser; The conlcr.t^fthi^ college generally b^'en tbund to draw over 

ii (oHinied bv a general decree of one or other to the imperial piut\ . 

fhc d?ct : \N liie!>, however, has not Oiie tlung is certain, that if the 

the force of a lavv, vvithout the ra; couris* of Berlin and Vienna are t.f 

lificition'of thevm^eror. * TLc gc- Que r.:ind, as was unfortunately, ih'^ 

• •• cale. 


tafe, at the commencement of the merly a world of difpulcs about the 

prefent war With France, all" re- ceremonial, according to which the 

liftance from any other quarter fub-de!egates from the diets were, 

xvouW be vain. On the other, a on fuch occaGons, to lake iheir 

tefolalt and fteady oppofition, on feats or places. In order to avoid 

rhcpart of the Pruffian monarch, in fuch an inconveniency at the con- 

theprefent fituation of the empire, grefs of Raftadt, il was fettled, tbat 

ivoald fuffice to fruftrate, in the all the deputies (hould be placed on 

<I«et of the empire, any projc6l of equal feat*?, and tliat there fliould 

the rmperor's. not be, as ufual, in themidftofthe 

The bufinefs brought before the hall, any table. The Inconveniencies 

d-et is fbmetiraes tranfacled by th^ neceflarily arifingfrom thisarrange- 

itaies, in a body, and fometimcs, as ment, h feems, were judged lefs 

»n cafes where difpatch is nccellary, than thofe to be apprehended from 

andolhers,by committees appointed the ideas of dignity or degradation 

^0 deliberate and decide in the that would arile m the breafts of 

i'.ame of the empire. Thefe com- the fub-delegates, from their pofi- 

nilttees, which may be confidercd tions, in relation ta that utenfil. 

35 committees, on a fmall fcale, are With regard to the manner or form 

o.lfed Deputations of the Empire, in which the deliberations, in the 

Of thefe there are two kinds: ordi* extraordinary deputations of the 

rary, or extraordinary; fuch as empire are conducled, it is precife- 

t'lofe appointed to deliberate and h the fame with that which takes 

dccideon que fi ions relating to peace place in the diet. The inv^fTJal 

f»rvvar: and it is in this kind ofde- plenipotentiary opLMis the* feflioa 

pufations alone that we are inte- with due folemnity, and propofes 

tefii-d. The members of an extra- the various points that arc to be 

«rdinary depulntion arc chofen by made the nn)jc6is of difcunion. 

n p!iira!ily of voices in the different Every thing that is proper for them 

collt'ges, and their election is con- to know, is communicated from 

firmrd by the emperor. At the head time to time through the miniftra- 

'^r fuch a deputation is the ambaf- tion of the eledor of Mayence : 

Jidor plenipotentiary of the em- who collects the votes, and pro* 

Ktor: in the choice of whom his nounccs the decrees; which de«» 

i'Tjperial majefty is not reftrained by cfees, when they are of a nature 

^T.s limitation whatever either of that requires the imperial fanclion/ 

Lw or cuftom. are either ratified or rejccled by the 

Although a deputation of the em- emperor, 

piro, as has already been obfervcd, In extraordinary deputations of 

Deadicton a fmall fcale, in dc- the empire, the fub-delegates are 

pulations extraordinary there is no furniflicd, by the emperor and diet, 

divifion of the members into fepa- with powers andinftru6lions which 

rate colleges. They form but one they cannot trnnfgrefs. The mem- 

Wy. Their prefioent is the elec- bers of the extraordinary deputa- 

tor of Mayencc, and the vote of a tion, at Raftadt, were appointed (o 

delegate from one of the cities, is early as 1795, on the firli overtures 

^quivs^lent to that of an ele€ior»I for peace. And although (here was 

pl«nipotentiary. There was for- afterward* a great change of eir- 

Vot.XLI. [KJ cumft4nces. 


cum fiances, (here was none in the 
powers of the deputation. Ofthofe 
pcnvers the principal were thefe : 
The deputies were empowered and 
intruded to make peace with 
France, onthe bafis ofthe integrity 
of the empire. Their deliberations 
were to be carried on not by any 
delegations or committees, but in a 
body. Tlie refult of thefe was to 
be prefented" to the imperial pleni- 
potentiary, who, if he approved, 
was to lay them before the French 
minifters. The anfwers of thefe 
miniders were to pafs through the 
^ Bands of the fame plenipotentiary, 
and to be communicated by him to 
the deputatfon. Although it did 
not feem necefiary, that there fliould 
be a renewal or verification of the 
powers with which the deputies 
were invefted, for the purpofe of 
negociation, yet, this was tlio«ght 
proper, on the wliole, and going to 
OP madje : but the French plenipo- 
tentiaries demanded, that the de- 
{)uties flaould be furniflied with un- 
imited powers; a reqnifition with 
which the diet thought k fit t« 
comply. V 

Befides the niFniflers of the ex- 
traordinary deputation of the em- 
pire, there appeared, at Rafladt, a 
great number of envoys .from par- 
ticular powers, and immediate mem" 
Bers, (as they were called), o/fhe 
empire.* It was confidered, tliat 
particular interefts are not always 
carefully attended to by general de- 
putations. The fmperial capitula- 
tion, at the eledion of Leopold, in 

1790, guaranteed to the dates, (h« 
right of fending to a general con- 
grefs their particular envoys, who 
fliould take care of their particular 
interefts, and be authorized to treat 
in the name of their conflituents. 
It was not under flood that they 
(hould have any right either of 
pleading or voting. They were 
only to prefent, in writing, to the 
deputation of the empire, their re- 
monfirances and their demands, and 
come to as good an underfbinding, 
and fcttlement of all matters of im- 
portance, as (liould be found pofii- 
nle, in the way of friendly repre- 
fentatron. They were not to be 
admitted to (it in the hall of the 
deputation, but hy the exprefs in- 
vitation of the depaties; and, in 
order that they might have an op- 
portunity of being informed, vtva 
voce, of any thing the deputies 
might choofe to communicate. 
Though they ranked after the depu- 
ties ofthe empire, yet thefe could 
not enter into any difcuflion, iu 
which the courts of the former x^^ere 
mterefted,. without previous confe- 
rences with them oi> the fubje^l. 
The number of deputies from the 
diet, and from individual ftates and 
princes, amounted to one buadred 
and feventy-three, and, together 
with their clerks or fecretaries, and 
other attendants, under different 
denominations, exceeded f\x hun- 
dred. For, not only was the Ger- 
man empire threatened with a great 
lofs of territory, but with the fub- 
' verfion of its ancient con(iLtution. 

• There is- a great number of immediate members of tb§ empire^ who enjoy the greater 
part of the rights of foveretgns, but who have no feat or voice. at the diet of the empire. 
Of this dafS) the principal are the immediate nnhujfef whjch is divided into three circles; 
thofe of Suabi.1, Fninconia, and the Rhine. Each of thefe circles is fubdiviided into 
cantons, of which cantons, each has its own cOredlery, chofen hy the whole of the 
niembers. It confiftft of a prefident^ or head-man^ fcvcrai counfcUors^ and a chancellor, 
or fyndic. 



At lIicconin"<'fl<iS for pacification, the emperor and king of Pruflia. 
wltii the CJeroian empire, vv(e often The French plenipotentiaries, 
£nja{nba(1adors from other powers, though, on the yvhole, rifing in 
Hiicilier in the charader of media- their demands on every conceflion 
tor<. or as being intf-reftcd in the on the part of the empire, were 
[irriervation of the Germanic con- yet fomelimes forced to relax in 
/iifiifion. Befides the minift^rs of their pretenfions, and to afliime the 
PruiHa, Denmark, and Sweden, all appearance of greater moderation, 
of (hem ftates of the empire/ en- by the courfe of great events, fo- 
voys were iewt to the congrels, at reign and domeiiic. Tlie negocia- 
Raftadt, frc>in the Helvetian,. Ba* tion was a game of racketl, which 
tavjan, Cifalpine, and Ligurian was broken up by the approach and 
republics, and alio from 1 he pope ; entrance of, a Ruflian army into 
though it dees not appear, and Germany. It would ferve no pur- 
could not well have been ex- pofe of either entertainment or in* 
peded, that thefe five envoys fliould - flrudion to record all the propofi- 
bve taken any fliare in the ne- tions and counter propofitions, and 
l^ociations. Tliere is not a doubt capricious turns of iuch proceed- 
Lut a greater number of foreign ings. Yet a few of thefe may be 
n.mifters would have attended the thought worthy of being relatea. 
fongrefs of Rafladt, if it had not The mini fier plenipotentiary, on 
hfeii expreflly fiipalated in the the part of his imperial maje^v> 
Jreaty of Campo-Formio, tliat a pa- chief of the empire, was the count 
f fication between the German em- Metternich : thofe appointed, at 
ptre and French republic, (liould be fir/1, on the, part of the French re- 
fonduded v\^ithout the intervention public, were, the citizens Buona- 
ot any other power. parte, Trailbard, and Bonnier. 
The unlimited powers granted to Buonaparte was called from nego- 
thedeputation of the empire tended, ciation to arms; Trailhard, in the 
Ih a very confiderable degree, Ao progrefs of the negociation, was 
cxpt»dite the bufinefs of the con- elected into the dirediory: and fuc- 
jrrefs yet Hill the variety of inte- ceeded, in theembaHy to congrefs, 
rcfu and influence that pervaded by the citizens Robert Jott and 
the deputation -oi* the empire, left Jean Debrie. 

but Ii4tle. hopes that this aflembly By (ecret articles, fubjoined to 

nould bring matters to any fpeedy tlie treaty of Campo Formio, Ment2 

^^r certain conclulion. The Ger* and Ehrenbritftein had been given 

man empire, already disjointed and up to the French : and oth,er ar- 

^'.ftrocted, was rendered more and rangements had bet»n made, by the 

m(»re loofe and unfteady by paffing treaty of Bafle, in 1795, at the 

• vents. The councils of France, expenfe of the empire, forthepur- 

»oo, were fla6)uating, for finwlar pofe of certain amicable arrange- 

reafons. The congrefs at Raftadt ments between the P>ench repiib- 

was a barometer that indicated the lie, on the one part, and the kin^^ 

riiiug or falling power, or profpedls of Pruflia, the duke of Wurtem- 

"( different parties concerned. The burg, the margrave of Baden, and 

^*iputies of the empire were obliged one or two 'German powers more 

to (hape their conduct by that of on the other. Mentz was, accord- 

[K2] ingly, 


inglv, notwithftanding the treaty }Jcace, the return of that ancfcnt 

<yf Campo Formio, riimmoned by confidence and frit»nd(liip which, 

the Frencli general, Hatry," to fur- for the intorcft of fufJering huma- 

render, with the lYienace, that he iiily, (hould be reftored between 

would fvibjedl the territory of that the two nation." To thefe com- 

eled^orate to all tlie calamities of plaintji no reply wa^ made, not 

war, if that city did not . open does it appear that any was infiHed 

its gates to him. The menac'C was on. The plenipotentiaries, after 

afterwards put in execution and not a little difcufiion on the fubje^^g 

the gates opened; and^ for the tor- of defignations, titltjj, and a palT. 

trer<? of threnbritflein, itwasclofe- port, /or a French citizen, named 

ly befieged. The count de Metter- Bocher, entered ferioufly on the 

iiich publicly complained of tiiefe bnfinefs for which the congrefs was 

violations of the treaty, in a note called, on the (eventt»enth of Janu- 

addrefled' to the citizens Trailhard ary, I79d. Citizen Trailhardl, ha* 

and Bonnier, dated at KaAadt, ving ftated, as an incontrovertible 

the twenty-fourth of December, fad, that a w«r had been provoked 

1797. "He had learnt," ho (aid, by the German empire, proceeded 

" from all quarters, that the French to reprefcnt, that his government 

troops, without any provocation had an inconicftible right to an 

whatever, had palled the lines indemnification for all the iacritices 

niatkcd oat by the armiftice, that which it liad made<; and (hat, in 

they had fummoned the fortrels of compliance with its principles of 

IChrcnbritftein to furrender, had loyalty and juftice, whole objecl 

pafTed the Rhine as well as the was to terminate the calamities of 

Nidda^ near Openheira, and that war, and to eAabliOi peace on the 

they had formed lines of circumval- mptt folid fi)iindation, lie propofed, 

lation round Menlz." On the Tub- foV the firfl bafis, *'That the courfe 

jedt of grievances, the count pro- oi the Rhine fliould be acknow- 

ceeded lo mention another, which ledged as a boundary. To tin's 

was, "The political organization propolilion, the count Met temicb, 

that the French 'would, by force of in a note of the twenty-feventh of 

arms, compel a people to accept, January, replied, " That, by the 

who were acculiomed to a confiitu* new frontier propofed, Germany 

fion which formed their hanpinefs. ' would b«r difmemberedi indepen- 

Such an enterprize," he oblerved, dently of \he circle of Burgandv, 

" was in dired and avowed oppo- of the moft confiderable parts of 

lition to the fpirit of the French the three circles of the Rhine ; and 

conftitution, and which "could re- that, by fuch a difpofition, fcveral 

fult only from a deliniUve treaty of /lales, the cxifting nobility, and 

peace, that (houid cfiitblift) fuch a other members of the empJi'fe,wouh! 

people Under the dominion of lofc either the whole, or, at Icafi, 

France. Befides this attempt was a great part of their poflcfUons. 

made during an armiftice, religi- Tiie ceflion, to PVance, of the 

oully obferved by the tlales of the provinces beyond the Rhine, would 

empire, and at the moment of a lliakc, to the very foundation^, the 

neg(KMation, whole objed wa<? to Germanic conliitution, and ditahle 

uiiure, by a tbiid and durable the empire from fupporting its j)oli- 



tical exifrence, and maintaining the III. That ^11 hofiilitics and con- 
relations which it hitherto pruler-* feqiiently aif contributions and re- 
vcd with tlie Other dates of Europe, quilitions, of' every denomination, 
Bv the preliminaries, fettled at fliould ceafe, frr>m that moment, 
h^^beu, on the eighteenth of A- and without any future renewal. 
pn/, 1797, an afTurancc was ^iven, IV. That all fale or alienation of 
i:>^t th^mpire fliould preferve its the poflefTions, fituatod as well on 
info^rity : and this alTiirancc was the German territory as out of if, 
a^fi* confinned afterwards, by the belonging to tiie flates of the cm- 
flennitivc treaty of Campo Formio. pire, and other members of if. 
The emperor and empire, it was thould be difcontinued : that a ftop 
frated by the imperial )^enipo« en* i fliould be put to the deftruftion of 
tiary, confidently expected, from foreil«, the fale of woods, as well 
the jaftice and gencrofitv of the as the luppreflion of ccclcliaftical 
French ^ov^emmcnf, that it would and pious foundations: and, that 
he difpo(ed to fubf^itute, in/lead of thofe faithful fubje6ts, who had ma- 
t^e propoiltion already made, a ba* nifefled a zeal for their maflers, and 
ii^ of negociation loore accordant particularly thofe who, being ftill 
to that which wi« ftipulated, in in the civil or military fervice of 
£i\our of the empire, by the pre- the princes and lords, had, with- 
iiminaries of Lcoben. Some pro* out any juft reafon, been clafled as 
pofations," be farther obfervcd, emigrants, and had their properties 
*' were indifpenfably neceilary to fequcftered or fold, (hould be free 
i^^ made, concerning the wretched from all fature perfecution : that 
liite of thofe parts of Germany, thofe fen'ants or fubjc61s, who had 
at thai moment occupied by the inhabited, to the prefent moment, 
French troops. The propoiitions, the countries, fome time fince, or 
t^ be made on this head, would be more rdcently, occupied * by the 
tivoarably received, fince they reft- French troops, (hould not be dif- 
*^lon conventions fettled with the turbed by the arre/l of their per- 
^rench natioi\, were in ft rift con- fons, or fequeflrat ion of their goods; 
iorioity to the law of nations and and that they (hould be permit- ed, 
tne natural confequence of nego- on the contrary, to remove with 
ciatioas, now entered on, for .the their effefts and to follow their 
porpole of arranging a definitive mailers : and that, in thufe parts 
treaHr. They >vere rclblved into of Germany, where there were 
lii<^ following heads: any French troops, none of the 

I. That, in confequence of the |^enal confoquenccs of emigrations 
preliminaries of peace, ligned at fliould be exercifed again/l thofe 
l-eoben, the armiltice (hould be who had withdrawn from the thea* 
I'^ttlyobferved till a definitive trea- Ire of' war and the countries that 
ty (hould be concluded. were occupied by the armies. 

II. That the French troops fliould V. That, in all the difl^renf 
remove, altogether, from the right places, whether occupied or not by 
Hank of the Rhine; and, refpect- the French troops, a flop fliould be 
in^ th« lef^ bank, that they fliould put to all thofe new doflruies and 
r-rire beyond the lines fettled by revolutionary difpofitions, whofe 
l^ie armiftice. objeft was to feduce fubjecls from 

[ K 3 ] the 



I34y ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. . 

the conftitution which was fuited 'engaged in the war from no other 

to them, and to aflbciate them with caufe than that it was attacked it- 

(he republican fyftcra. felt', According to the Germanic 

VI. Finally, to prevent the total conftitution, the empire con Id not 
ruin of the countries, occupied by engage in a war without a refo la- 
the French troops, that the number tion of the diet to that efled, rati- 
of thefe ftiould be proportioned to fied by its chief. The refoIutiOn 
the means and refources of thofe of the diet, on the twenty-fecond 
countries. of March, 1793, expreflly decla- 

This an fwer from the deputation red, ** That, , fi nee JFrance made 

of the empire, to the propt)fition, war on the empire, by a6ls of hof- 

that the Rhine (hould be cftablifti- tility, without iiny formal declara- 

ed as a limit of the French republic, tion ; iince (lie had attacked and 

the minifters plenipotentiary of the difpofled, by means of her armies, 

republic tranfroitted to their govern- the countries belonging and ftatcs 

ment. At the fame time, they flill of the empire, this war, underta- 

infifted, that the indemnity requi- ken by France, and declared by 
red by the republic was equitable. ' adls of hoftility alone, mud be con- 

The boundary of the. Rhine was iidered as a war common to all the 

effential to its fafety, and the tran- empire.'' The French plcnipoten- 

quillity of the empire was flill tiaries replied, ** That the open 

more immediately interefted .in ^nd fcandalous protecljon. given, 

forming thofe limits. notwitbftanding the moft ardent re- 

Meanwhile, the French not only monflrances, to the emigrants, ni'ho 

declined to retire beyond the limits werje brought back to threaten the 

fettled by the armiflice, but pro* French frontiers, was the firft a^ 

cceded to inveft Manheim and to of hoftility again ft France, which 

other a6i8 of aggreffion. The im- not only wiftied for peace but muf^ 

perial plenipotentiary did not fail be acknowledged to have been' 

to make loud complaints of fuch deeply interefted in maintaining it. 

condud), as well as of various fla* The^ continued refufal, to difperfe 

grant attempts to excite, throngh^ the aftembling of thefe implacable 

out the territories of the empire, enemies, compelled France to take 

a fpirit of infurredlion. In thefe fuch meafures as were neceflary for 

attempts, Jhe plenipotentiaries, on her fecurity: but, fb far from en- 

the part of the republic, di fa vowed deavouring to fufpend them, hy 

all concern or participation, and giving reafonable fatisfa£tion, the 

iiiid, that the executive directory empire proceeded to. declare itfelf 

hdd taken very flrong meafures to in a ftate of war. Thefe fa6is 

difcover and ptnifh their authors were of fuch public notoriety, that 

and accomplices. As to the con- they could not becontefted. But 

flant a6)s of aggreflion they were fucn difcuflions were equally endlefs 

lilent. Difputes were alio conti- ai d unimportant. It was not by 

Dued concerning the origin and ap-peals to any principles of juftice, 

commencemcntof the war. Count or to any thing that had pafted, 

Metternich confidered it as an in- that the, points in ^queftion were to 

controvertible fa6l, that the empire be fettled, but by the prefent fitua-r 

did not attack France, and that it ticn of aflairs and future prolpedts,. 

^ That 



Tial the Rhine (hoiild form the 
V -i ,dary between the French and 
TnTmn empirt-s had been a (Tented 
t >, in the lecrct articles of the trea- 
tvofCampo Forraio, was no fe- 
cret. The whole of Bavaria^ be- 
yond the Inn, was to be the com- 
penfation for this cellion. Bavaria 
\\a'j to receive, in retpm, a part of 
Suabiaand certain ftatcs in Fran- 
conia. No doubt was enterta'ned 
«f the ^pod nnderftanding that ex- 
isted, on this point, between France, 
Pruliia, and Auftria. l^iat the fyflem 
offecHlarization, which was to make 
up the refpcQive lofTes, had been 
previouftv ngreed on among thefe 
three relpcdive powers : but the 
depatation of the empire were not 
prepared to make, at once. To great 
Sacrifices. The French plenipoten- 
tiaries reprefented, that the ceffions, 
on the left bank of the Rhine, were 
of no great confequence,. as an ad- 
dition of territory to fuch a repub- 
lic as France, while the boundary 
of the' Rhine was eflabliflied by 
i^atare, aiid would equally conduce 
to the tranqailhty of both empires. 
The deputation of the empire, on 
the contrary, flated, that, by giving 
up ti:e left fide of the Rhine, and 
the indemnities propcjfed, thirty- 
<me fccular and thirteen ecclefiarfi- 
CTil ftntos of the empire would be 
l*jl)jeciod to lofles, which amounted 
tn upwards of eleven hundred 
iquare-niiles • the population of 
which was upwards of three mil-' 
lions of inhabitants. 4^'rance had 
<^rawn from this country, lince the 
begrrnning of the war, in requifi- 
tion^ and contributions, more than 
eighty millions. For fertility and 
lituatfon, it wa^ erne of the firfl 
provinces of Europe. The French 
plenipotentiaries, not, probably, 
difcouraged by this h& argument. 

perfifled in their fir/1 prr>pofition<;, 
from which, they declare.'!, they 
would never depart. France, they 
faid, demanded the V-ft fide of the 
Rhine, not fo much for the pur- 
pofe of aggrandizement as for that 
of fecuring to the republic a deler- 
minate and fecure frontier. Tho 
deputation was flill indifpofed to 
make lb large a facrlfice. But, ou 
the third gf March, 1798, the de- 
putation, in a note of the third of 
March, agreed to a cenion of half 
the territory demanded ; and this 
they did in con(ideration that the 
French government, according to 
the declaration of its miniftcrs pie-, 
nipotentiary, had no view of ag- 
grandizement, and that its princi-^ obje6t was to procure natural 
and determined limits for both 
France and the empire. As a line 
of demarcation, of this kind, they 
propofed the Rhine and Mofelle^ 
leayirig to the French government 
the choice between the cQuntries of 
the empire, fituated beyond the 
Rhine, , on the right bank of the 
Mofelle ; or thofe on the fame fide 
of the Rhine on the left. But, in 
confenting to fuch an important 
ceflion, they declared, it would be 
abrqlutely neceffary to make every 
poffible j)i ovifidn to allev late the con- 
dition of thole Hates of the empire, 
of the nobles, and oth^r members • 
of the Germanic body, who, hy 
fucH a difpofition, would Aifiaiii 
very conliderable lodes. Nothing, 
in the way of negr.ciation, on equal 
terms, could have been more rea- 
fonablethan this propofition, which, 
in the llyle of common bufinefs, 
was a fair divition of the difference. 
But the French plenipotentiaries 
peremptorily declard, that the 
boundary of the Rhine was a bafi*; 
of negociation from wiiich the re- 
[K4] public 

136] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Imblic would never depart. The eflates; which principle was a//o 

mperious demands of France, as adopted by the depiitalion of the 

might naturally be expefled, gave empire. But in the difcuflions 

rife to very aniniitted debates in tjiQ which enfued, pn fJie application 

'diet of the empire. The duke of of this' general principle, there wa.< 

Bavaria not only refufed to agrt-e a great interference and oppofttinrj 

to the ceffion propofcd, but went of intereljs; and it was ,evident, 

fo far as to propofe, to the other that each ftale tliought only of its 

ftates, to invite the empire, Rullia, own aggrandizement, andof tiirow- 

Pruffia, and England, to oppofe it ing the fum of damages and lofles 

by main force. But the defliny of on thofe who were the lead capable 

the empire was ih the hands of of defending their own interelis. 

Pruffia and Aullria. After mutti- The flates ofthe firft rank did not 

piled fittings, long debates, and dlHemble that thefe lofles were to 

the. interchange of preparatory fall on the fecondary llates; and 

notes, the deputation of the em- thefe, again, (hiftea Lhem off on 

pire, on the thirteenth of March, thofe of inferior order. The Aiili 

finally confented to the ceflion of triah miniflers propoled the great 

ihc whole left fide of the Rhine; fecularizations i the ecclelianical 

but on the conditions that the ^edlors demanded to be indemni- 

French troops ftiould immediately fied by thofe of the prince bitbops; 

"Withdraw from the right bank of the prince bifhops required the fup« 

the Rhine, and that allmilitary en- pfeffion 'of abbeys, monafteries, 

gagements and requlfitions fliduld and the inferior prelacies. Manyj 

immediately ceafe ; that the French in order to lighten the ftroke with 

republic (hould immediately with- Which they were threatened, and 

draw all its troops from the right which they had not the power to 

fide, and, confining itfelf to the avert, began to fortn a fund for 

countrlesof Germany, which fhonld their future fiipport,- by putting to 

be ceded to jt, on the left bank of fale not only their moveables and 

the Rhine, fliould not form any far- other portable objedlsf, but alfo con* 

ther pretenfions, on the empire, of fiderable portions of their landed 

any kind; that indemnities fliould property: fo that, in cafe of the 

be fixed fur. the ftates which had fecularizations exp^ed, the new 

f iftaine.l any lofs on the left bank polleflbrs fliould have the lefs be- 

of the Rhine ; that all perfecution, nefit, unlefs a law ibould be 

of whatever kind, in the countries pafled for inX'alidating fuch dila- 

to he ceded, Ihould ceafcj aiul in- pidations. 

dividiials be fafe and fecure in their It was decided, by thedeputationi 

perfons and properties. Tiie Ihatthey fliould begin witli the total 

French ])lenipo(en(ianes agreed, fecularization of the abbeys and prl- 

that the ce/Iion of ail pofts, on the vate prelacies. If thefe fl>ould not 

right bahk of thcRhine, fliould be be fufiiclcnt to cover tlie balance of 

the firfl confequence of a final p^- the lofles, a partof (hepofreflionsof 

rificatibn. They alfo agreed to the tlie prince bifliops fliould be taken 

principle bf indemnities, which, to their account. Auflriaand Pruf- 

theyi laid, were to be found in a fia declared, that, in order to avoid 

fecuIarii^aUon of the ecclefiafiical too great a number of tecuiariza- 



Tions tliey would content them- 
(e\ve$\vith moderate imiemnitie*?. 

Thefe two point«i, tJie ce/llon of 
tt« left fide of the Rhine, and the 
principle of fc?t*ularization hein^ 
fli^eetl on, the deputation of the 
pinpire requeued to be informed of 
the total amount of the Ioire.<i to be 
indeionlfied, and what other pre- 
tenOons the French bad to ftate. 
The principal of thefe, fpecified in 
3 note, delivered by the Frenrh 
miniilers, on tlie 5d of May, were, 
that the naviojation of the Rhine 
fhould be common to both nations 5 
the filppreffion of the right of tolls ; 
the equalization of cuftom-duties on 
both fidej the river; that all the 
iflands in the Rhine Ihould be left 
in poflelTion of the republic ; that 
the navigation of the rivers, which 
empt^ tbemfelves into the Rhine> 
and alfo that the navigation of the 
great rivers- of Germany, particu-. 
iarly the Danube, (lioiild> irt like 
manner, be free to both nations ; 
to retain pofleflion of the fort of 
Kehl, and, to a certain extent, the 
territory adjacent ; to demolilh the 
fortrefs of Ehrenbritftein, which was 
flill held in clofe blockade; and 
Caffel, as forming a part of the for- 
tifications of MentZ) already given 
up to the republic, to remain i ike- 
wife in its pofleffiou. The amount 
of thefe and other propoljtions was> 
io fad, to open a free entrance for 
the French troops into Germany, irt 
caie of war# aud the extcnfion of 
the principles and intrigues of the 
i''public. in times of peace, by the 
coouuand of the whole internal na- 
vigation of Germany and Hungary, 
ffoai the Rhine, even to the Eiixine 
and Baltic. But tJiefe^ inordinate 
as they were, did not define and limit 
the full extent of the demands of 
^e repa&lic« which ftill role on every 

conceflion. The French plenipo- 
tentiaries, July 19lh, faid, " Th« 
firft objcft of the ncgf»cIation» 
was the celfion of the countries fi- 
tnated on the left' bank of the 
Rhine. Then followed the mode 
of iiulemnitv, by the means of i'c- 
culari7«ation. But the determina- 
tion of thefe qucftions did not pre- 
clude the confideration of others. 
There were other propofitions 
which they had to make, which 
were nothing more than the natural 
eflecl {)f the progreflion of ideas ; a 
fucceflivc difplay of a regular plan, 
which they had already annc>unced. 
Of thefe propofitions the principal 
were, an immediate abolition of 
the tolls, and flaple duties, and alfo 
of the corporation of boatmen, vvho 
were in the poflMIion of certain 
privileges inconfiftent with the 
perfect freedom of navigation; and 
that in the treaty of peace a fpecial 
claufe might He inferted, by which 
a ftipulation (liould be made for the 
ceffion of Fric-kthal, and that all 
the rights which the German em- 
pire might claim on that territory, 
fliould be relinquiflied to the PVench 
republic. On the note containing 
tliefe fentiments and propofals, the 
/deputation of the empire obferved. 
that the negociation would never 
attain a fixed point, if the conditions 
of peace, already agreed on, (hould 
be continually interrupted h^j ncvv 

It was impoffibl^ that tw(j parties 
could confide in each other, who 
had agreed to the fccrrt articles of 
ihb treaty of Campo-Formin, and 
who meafured their rights only bv 
their power. The public arlicN s 
of that treaty were continually vio* 
latcd by the French. The aug men- 
tat Ton of troops was complained of 
on both fides. The emperor watch- 

1S8] . ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799, 


ed, with jealoufy, the motions of Pruffia, down to the fraalleft impc- 

the French, and the French thofe rial city, OT other member of the 

of the emperor. The negociation empire. 

was continued, particularljr' on th« While the- French plenipoten- 
, part of the former, more from the tiaries paid fo little regard, on the 
view of gaining time, aid adling whole, to the rights of the empire, 
according to'circUmllances expedt- they affeded a particular concern 
ed, or merely contingent, than from for the interefts of the free imperial 
any fincere hope or defire of pacifi- cities of firemen, Hamburgh, and 
cation. The plans puriued in Italy Franckfort. They demanded, that 
and Switzerland prove; that the thefe cities might preferve their 
genius of the republic was ftill bent political exiftence, and be confirm- 
on war and conquefl : which were ed and maintained in the plenitude 
not only fuited to the temper of fo of their conft it utional independence, 
great a part of the nation, but which The deputation of the empire, with 
leemed indifpenfably neceflary for regard to this point, acknowledged, 
the fccurity of the adminiftration " that the prefervation of thefe, as 
and the ftabiHty of government, well as of all the other commercial 
But, befides this general or national cities, was highly interefting to the 
intereft,that all things (liould be commerce 6f the whole empire, 
left or thrown, as much as poiTible, All thefe free and independent ci- 
into uncertainty and confufion. ties, they obferved, formed the third 
The diredory, and their agents, ftate of the empire) and on that ac- 
were indifputably influenced, in count, as well as from their light- 
their conduct at Rafladt, by a re- ful conflitution, were under the pro- 
jjard to thcir^own private and per- tedion of the laws. , The deputa- 
tonal interef^s. So profound was tion of the empire confidered it as 
the corruption of the rulers of an eOential duty to attend to the 
France, at this time, that they did maintenance of the imperial dates, 
not hefilate to offer their protection and the Gernwnic cOnflitution, and 
to different parties, to fale, at to comprehend, in the with cx- 
Raflad|, a^ in other places. From prefTed by the minifters plenipoten- 
the»^time that the principle of in- tiary of the French republic, all the 
demnities and fecularizations was ftates and members of the empire 
agreed on, they had the moft a- in general/' The intervention of 
bundant means of pradifing on the the French, in behalf of thofe towns, 
hopes and fears, the cupidity, jear y^^^ not only unneceHary and imper- 
loufy, and refentmcnt of ftates and tincnt, but in the higheft 'degree 
princes. A kind of lottery was violent and imperious. It corref- 
effablillied of principalities?, bi- ponded to the fecret efforts of the 
fhoprics, abbacies, and various plenipotentiaries to (bw the feeds 
other acquifi tion s and exemptions, of jealoufy and dilcord among the 
in which the prizes were difpofed different ftates and meraber^of the 
of, chiefly by the favour of the empire: particularly to a rumour 
French directory. A principle of they were at pains to circulate, that 
the moft flagrant injuftice and ra- (he flourifliing cities of Bremen, 
pacity pervaded all ranks and de- Franckfort, and Hamburgh, were 
grees from France, Auftrla, and cpveted by certain potentates, from 




vhofe jjrafp it was, by the power- 
ful TncJbrHHi of France alone, that 
ihoY could be protecled. Whether 
the reports, which were fpread at 
tlie time, of money being font to 
Paris, for the private pocket of the 
direclory,, by all of thofe towns, 
were well founded or no, it is cer- 
tain that a formal embally was fent 
to the French government, by the 
(innate of Breni\;^i, to folicit their 
influence for obtaining the fuppref- 
f:on of the ancient toll of Elsflet 
on ihp Wefer, as being a very great 
interruption to its commerce with 
Bremen. That toll formed a very 
<onfiderable part of the revenues 
L'j longing to the courts of Olden- 
burgh, who, in. return, had for 
a^es kept up certain embankments 
which were neceilary for the navi- 
^ratjon" of the river. The gcnera- 

(iimed demands of the French ple- 
nipotentiaries, ** That> they were 
not qualified to enter into any en- 
gagement on that fubjedl, inafmuch 
as the legation of Holftein Olden- 
burgh had offered to the diet, very 
ferious reprefentaiions againfl any 
fupprefllon or reftridion of the faid 
toll ; declaring, at the fame time, 
in very pofitive terms, that it was 
not in the power of the duke him- 
lelf to cede an objedt of fuch im- 
portance, without the confent of 
thofe who had a hereditary ri^^ht, 
which was equal to his, to the 
duchy of Holftcin Oldenbufgh ; 
particularly the crowns of RufTia, 
of S\vcden, and of Denmark. The 
Dani(h legation had formally acccdqd 
to'this declaration, which had (ince 
been flrongly (upported by that of 
Pruflia.'* The French plenipoten- 

hty of the deputies in the diet of tiariefi replied, *' That there could 

ti.e empire appeared to be per/c6lly not be a doubt but the lofTes, rcf ult- 

ir.different to tlie juft rights of ing from a ceflion of the toll at 

Oldenburgh : but they were fire- Elsflet, would be indemnified in the 

r.'.f.wViy defended by the AufJrian, fame manner as all thofe which the 

Hanoverian, and Saxon minifters. a6lual pacification fliould occafion." 

And the deputation, in a note ^of But the deputation infi fled, that as 

tie eighteenth of October, declared, the minifters of Holftein Oldon- 

" that as the loU at Eisflet, wiiich 
had been guaranteed to the counts, 
now dukes of Oldcnburgh, by the 
tenth article of the treaty of Munf^ 
ter, was colleded in a port of Ger- 
n^any, which had not been taken 
pcffeffion of in the courfe of the 
war; and, as the deputation of the 
empire, did not poflefs the power 
of determining upon this object, it 
tnofl be left to the French govern- 
ment to conclude, with the ducal 
\'i\iit of Holftein Oldenburgh, luch 
an arrangement as might, in fa^, 
!« beiMficial Co commerce." In 
anodicr note, dated the twcnty-firft 

burgh, of Denmark, and of Prutlia, 
had repeated, in writing, to the 
deputation of the empire, their de- 
termination to oppofe any fupprof- 
fion of the tolls of EUflet, it would 
be altogether fuperfluous to enlarge 
farther ron this object. This was 
deemed Hrong and inexpugnable 
ground. There wa<j no other than thi??, 
or fuch as this, that could be f<)fely 
refled on : no fecurity or protedioh 
in the Germanic conflitution. AW 
the German Hates and princes 
therefore, at this time, that had not 
entered into collufions and ferret 
agreements with the French repub- 

ot Norember, the deputation far- lie, was arrafiged around eitlier the 
tber declared, in reply to tfc con- emperor, or king of Pniffia, who 


140] ANNUAL REQISTER, 1799. 


r • t 

began row to be confidered and, fions of the French plenipotcnli* 

afterwards, afTumed the chn racier aiies. 

of pioteclor of the neutrality of The tide wan now turned and 
the north of Germany. Froni the the tone of the oppoCte parties 
moment it was feen that the courts reversed. The French made one 
of ^ Vienna and Berlin could not conceflion after another ; the depu- 
draw togetl'.er, and to the fanie tics of the empire ftood firm ; and 
point, every Aaie of the empire thofe of the leading |X)wers noani- 
fnllowed their example and Yheir feiled a difpofi lion rather to rife iijy 
iortunes. ' thcirdemands than fail. Thedcpu- 
At the openmg of the congref^, tation acquiefced, however, in the 
the afcendency of France bore principal bafe<; that had been pro- 
down all oppofition : Pruflia had pofed for pacification. They ceded, 
efpoufcd itsintcrefts; and Aufirla, to the French republic, the coun- 
influenced hy private vic\v<; and en- tries on the left bank of the Rhine, 
gagements, had fomctiiTe'? hufhed They acknowledged the Thalwagg, 
into fllence thof^ remonfirants a- or middle and navigable ftream of 
gainfl the claims of France, whole the Rhine, as (he boundary of the 
rights of fbvereignty were to be empire. They admitted the dif- 
made the facrificc of peace. But Iribution that luii been pjopofedof 
the frefh pretenfions of the French, tbc iflands ; the Aec navigaticfn of 
which have been already mention- that river J the maintenance of the 
ed, after iheccfFion of the I(*ft fide towing path«i; iho re-eftab!itlimcnt 
of the Rhine and the admiffion of of commercial bridges, and the ron- 
the principle of fecularization, ap- ftrudion of new ones, provided their 
peared fo extravagant to both thefc neceflity (hould be acknowledged ; 
great power*?, ihat they determi- and that the conient of the emperor 
ned fo oppofe them: a refolution, and empire (hould be'obtained for 
in which tbey were confirmed, or, erecting thenl. The deputation 
rather, perhaps, to which they renounced all the rights of the ^m- 
were excited, by that coalition pire to the Auflrian Low Countries 
againd France, which quickly fol- and to Savoy, as well as to confi- 
lowed th'^ naval vi^ory of ih^ E"g- tlerable fio^f^ of the empire in the 
lifh at Ahoukir. The imperial ml- Cifalpine republic. ft refolved 
niftcr, who hncf, at firft, tupporte<l that the fortifications of Ehrenbrit- 
T/je pretenfions of the French to fiein, fituated on the right bank of 
the left bank of the Rhine, on iVtn the Rhme> (hould be dcmolKhed. 
principle r^'peatedly ftated, wai For the fecurity of Mentz it ron- 
ttie firft tliat raifed a fiandard ()f ff^nted to give up the ifland of 
oppofition to their n^w refjuifitions St. Pierre, though fititate on the 
and afierwanls determined refift- right fide <»f the Thalwag^. It did 
ance, tnoiit|;h the intercfrs of Fru<^ not refift the propofition, that the 
tia were in ojppofition to thofe of empire ()v>u Id not confirudl new for- 
the emperor ; though the hing had tifieations at Kehl and Caffel, with- 
declared th:it he would obferve the in a di fiance of three thoufand toi- 
moll exact neutrality, his minifiers fes. And, laflly, the deputation 
thought themfelvCs equally obliged of the empire charged itfelf with 
to pjotefl againll (he new preteu- the particular debts, as well as t ho fo 



coritra£tc<l (or fupporting the war bach, the Au^rian plenlpoten'linn', 
of the empire, of the ftates on the remained, but entered the (amo 
lef'r bank of the Rhine, which were proteft, and declared, that thfe con- 
^0 be indemnified on the ri^ht bank! tinr;ent of Anftria was ready U% 
Pl^ the French plenipotentiaries, march, in order to pn)te(5t tiie cin- 
fiioa^h, among Other ceflions, they pire from farther aggreflion. Thii 
a^Tecd that the laws refpedlinjfemi- declaration . was a pretty certain 
grants (bould not be applicable ei- proof how the iicgociation Would 
t/er to the countries now ceded to terminate. The approach of th« 
France, or to Menfjc, infiftcd ftill, Rullians had overturned all that had 
that they (hould remain in full force, been efletled towards peace, in the 
wi(h refped to the countries which Anflrian councils and thofe of the; 
liid been already united, and which other ilates that adhered to Aiiflria, 
rj*>vv tbrmed French departments. On the other hand, the fame err- 
and rtfafed to ivithdraw the troops cumflance prodwed an oppofite 
to tk* left fide, till a pacification effed on the cabinet of Berlin, joa- 
had taken place. They infifled, lous of an alliance between the 
liktrvvife, on the ceifion of the two empires. It wa<? in confer 
Ffi'kf'ial, the toll on the Wezcr, quence, probably, of thi^ difpofi* 
and the acqiiifition of the ifle of tion in PriiHia, that the deputation 
Badcrich, oppofite Wcfel : the of the empire, on the tenth of De* 
<t)ntinued poHelfion of which ifle, cember, were compelfetl, in conle* 
l<»r tile fafety <»f tiiat town, had quence of the catcj^orical ar.fvver 
been refolutcfy claimed by the mi- dcimandod to the French ultima- 
rr.ii^n of Praflia ; and they dccla- ttim, to fubmit tlioir opinions, and 
f<^^f in a note of the fixth of De- declared that tlury acceded to alj 
< ember, that if, within faven days, the articles propoled by the French 
tko deputation of the empire ftiould minillcrs. But, in making this 
r.jt have ^ivcn and tranfmilted io declaration, they cxprei!cd their 
t' t*m a categorical and fatisfadory hfjp^s that fuch points, as yet want- 
ar.lwer, relative to all tl/e points ed mofe mature exami.'i.iiion and 
ftiil in conteftation, their powers farther inve/tlgation, won!d be left 
v'ould ceafe. A mnjority of the for definitive rc*;ulation till the for- 
''f'putaiion agreed, without any maUon of the articles of p«*acc, 
larther conditions, to the French 7'hc* Prullinn miniliers, at the flime 
rrnpofitions. But the miniliers of time, add relied a note lo the deou-^ 
Auftria, Saxony, and Hanover, lation, fiafin^, that the king, tlieir 
<:>iUendiTig a^ainl^ all ferthcr cef- n.afttr, unwilling to throw any /ar- 
f»on, and particularly with regard IherobHacles in the way of peace, 
t'» the four points of the emigrants, by new oppofition in the ciitical 
the toll on the Wezer, the illti of ilatc in which the empire then 
H'iderich, and the Frickthal, de- fiood, aijd expofe it io new dan- 
^■ared that they would never relax gers, acceded to the vote of depu- 
^'ft[lJ the refolations they had form- tation; relerving to themfelves tile 
**d. The two lafl, feeing that the power of recommending, likewife, 
ff:3Jnrity of the deputies gave way, the interclls of Pruffia, at the con- 
ptoiefied again/} their vole and left c^lylion of the jjeace. The coik lu- 
tiic chamber. The count of Lehr- lum^ rcmillcd (o the imperial com^ 



142] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179£». 

mil&ry, _was fawdioned ; though tries on the right bank, which were 
with expreflions of much diflatisfac- ftill occupied, from the arbitrary 
tion at the impetuofity which they and vexatious impofitions of French 
had forced into the negociation. commiiTaries. Thefe requiHtions, 
Itfays^ 'J The decree of the irape- relative to the a6tual ftatc of things 
rjal commifllon, to the deputation of on the right kjank of the Rhine, 
the empire, has fuiiicient motives to were almod immediately anfwered, 
determine it to make ftill farther con* by a note from (he French plcnipo- 
celiions, in the prefent circumHan- tentiaries, dating, that if tlic diet 
ces, the cpmmiifioner of his majofty, of the empire con fented to admit 
the emperor, will not oppofe its Ruffian troops ii>to the territory of 
painful proceeding, (ince it beh'eves the empire (above noticed) or if it 
(hat thefe will be the means of ob- did not exert all its power to op- 
taining peace. But this determina- pofe their entrance, it would be 
tion wiH be entirely mifunderffood, considered as a violation of the ncu- 
if it fliould be fuppofed to proceed, trality, on the part of the empire, 
from any other motives than a defi re the negociation at Rafladt would 
to avoid any divifioiv with the de» be dillblved, and the republic and 
putation of the empire," the empire would be exa6tly in the 
As all the effential parts of the fame pofition, with refped to each 
lirft bafis of the negociation were other, as they were previous to the 
how definitiviely fettled and conelu-. fignature of the preliminaries of 
ded, nothing remained but to apply teoben, and the conclufion of the 
the acknowleged principle or in- armiftice. To this note the mini/^er 
demnity by the means of feculari- plenipotentiary of ih^ head of the 
kation, which formed an integral empire, anfwercd, that the Frencii 
and indivi/ible' part of the future government, inftead of giving a fa- 
treaty, that the refpe6live nego- lisfaciory anfwer, conformably to 
rialors were to conclude. But as the law of nations, to the urgent 
this objed required mature del.ibe- demands of the empire, relative to 
ration, before it rame under diicuf- the actual poAure of affairs on the 
iion, the French plenipotentiaries right bank of the Rhine, had en- 
declared that they would, in a fliort tered on a new and very different 
time, prefent their proportions on fubjeft. This objedl, which was 
this head to the deputation ; which, not within the department of the 
in the mean time, continued its de- de'putation. of the empfre, count 
liberations on other points, and de- Mettornirh acquainted the pleni- 
creed, on the thirty-firft of Decern- potentiaries, had been fent^ agroe- 
ber, that a note fhonld be prefented ably to the contlitution, to be de- 
lo the F'reiTh minifters, requiring termined by the empire, united uii- 
them to realize the promife which der its head, and that the republic 
they had given of leffening the mufl wait the rcfult of fuch a deter- 
weight of military contributions on mination. That the diet had re-» 
the left fide of the Rhine, of raifing folved 'to take the inftru6lions of its 
the fiege of Ehrenbritffein accord- conAitucnts, and that it had notiticti 
ing to agreement, and that the to the deputation of the empire^ 
French republic would take the ne- that no overture, orrequifition, had 
cellary meafures to proted (he coun- been yet made to the diet to grant a 
4 pallage 


pa(^ fo the troops of RuiTia. It hardy and fpirited horfes. The 
was not 1o be ex|>e6led that the im- open countenance fliewn to the 
perial minifter's anfwer to the re- Ruffians, by the imperial court, 
inonfirance agatnfl tlie march of the was confidered as a declaration of 
KufSans into Germany (liould be war againft (he French republic, 
/atisfaclory to the French negocia- The fortr^'fs oi Ebrenbritilein, 
tors : to whom it was quite appa- held in clofi; blockade by the 
rent, that the head of the empire French, who made no fcruple of 
was as unwilling as iUe diet at Ra* breaking a Aipulation in the ar- 
tiiboi^was unable to bring the point miftice, for the admiilion of a re- 
io qoef^ion to a fpeedy and friendly gular fupply of provifions, (b long 
concluiion. defended by its natural ilrength. 

The Ruffian troops, commanded the conijancy of the garriton, and 
by the renowned general Suarrow, the military Ikill of its commander, 
in Dumber (ixty thoufand, and colonel Faber, at length furrender* 
marching in four divifions, of fif" ed, January, 1799. The French 
teen thoufand each, having halted found, in Plbrenbritflein, an im* 
forfome time at Ohnutz, and Biltz, menfe quantity of (lores, confi fling 
in Moravia, arrived at Brunn about of 192 pieces of artillery, about 
the middle of December. The in- J 00,000 balls, bombs, and grenades ; 
fantry were arranged in the Pruffian a million of cartridges ; about 
uniform, and in fine condition. The 450,000 weight of powder; 5,000 
Coijacks were accoutred in the mufkets, and other articles in equal 
Turkilh ftvle. They wore long profufion. Thofe alone* were want- 
beards, and coats of all colours. Be- ing, which were neceflary for life, 
fides the Turkifh lance and fabre. The blockade of this place coin- 
they had piilols and carabines flung menced in April, 1797 : fo that it 
to their girdles. The arrival of fo was among the longeft in modera 
decided and formidable an enemy, hiflory. By the redudlion of this 
to the French republic, was a plea- place, the French became mafters 
fing and animating fight to the of the two banks of the Rhine, from 
court of Vienna, the Auflrians, and Schaff-haufen to Dufleldorf. The 
ail the partizans of Anftria. The ponblTion of thefe places, with tliat 
emperor and eroprefs, the palatine of Mayence, already noticed, open- 
of Hungary, the duke of SaxeTef- ed to them the provinces of Fran» 
chen, prince Ferdinand of Wir- conia, Hefie, and Weflphalia. At 
temherg, prince E/lerhazy, the Ruf- the fame time, the French troops 
fian ambafTador count Ra^moufky, that were flationed between Co- 
and other perfbns of high diHinftion, logne and Mayence, alon^ the left 
attended by the firft regiment of of the Rhine, repalling that river, 
imperial horfe-guards, were prefent were joined by thole who had form- 
at a review, which was welcoming ed the blockade of Ebrcnbritftein, . 
the Ruffians, on the twenty-feventh on the le&. 

of December; and admired the While the note of the French pie- 
quick evolutions and rapid move- nipotentiaries, rel'pc6ling the march 
ments of the infantry, . and* the of the Ruflians, was under the 
dexterity and ea(e with which the confideration of th6 diet, at Ratif- 
Coiiacks managed their little, but bon, the French m in ifiers at Rafladt, 


1.44] ANNUAL, REGISTER, 1799. 

declared to tJiedeputlcs of the em- which h^s been granted to tlifm. 

pire, on the thitty-firft of January, The emperor, however, has re- 

that they had orders neither to re- mained filent. The executive di* 

ceive not remit any note in any of re^lory, therefore, finds itfelf com- 

the p<)ints of the ncgociation, til! pellea, by the ^bfolute neceffUyof 

they had received a categorical and felf-defence, and the obligation im- 

i'atisfa6)ory anfwer to that which pofed on all jrovernments to proricic 

they had remitted, on the fecond of for their fafety, to command the 

Tannery; relative to the fame fub* French armies to take thofe pofi- 

jefl. In the mean time the Ruffians tions which the exifting cirtum- 

coiitinned to advance. The empe- ftances require. But, at the fame 

lorofGermanyaflembled his troop!* time, it declares that its wifli for 

on the river Lech. And the French peace is unalterable : aj»jd, the mo 

army, having, as already obferved, ment that his majefly the emperor 

nMrr6(Ied the Rhine, jienetrated (hall announce, by ^n amicable dc- 

into Snabia, under the command of claration, that the Ruflians haw 

general Jourdan. Official informa^^ evacuated his terrkories, and that 

tion of this invafion, was, on the bis troops have relumed to the po- 

* firll of March, 1799, communicated fitions regulated by the convention, 
to count Metlernich, by the French at Raftadt, the French armies dial! 
plenipotentiaries, at RaAadt ; who riI(o re-enter their former limits." 
remitted to bim, by order of the This proclamation was accotnpa- 
dirc^ory, the fdlowing proclama- nied by an addrefs from general 
tion, figned by the prefideni, and Jourdan, to his army, on their en- 
dated the twentieth of Februarv, trance into Germany. It was dated, 
1799: ** The troops of his majefiy February the twenty-eighth, an! 
the emperor, king of Hungary and was conceived in the fame fpiri? 
Bohemia, in contempt of the con- with that <>f the proclamation, av 
vention concluiled at Raftadt, the far as it related fo political objed^. 
ele\'enth of Friinaire, (December It alfo enjoined the ftri6^eft military 
the firft, 1797), anno. 6, have re- djfcipline under the fcvereft penal- 
patTed the river Inn, and have ties. The French minifters, Ut a 

, (Quitted the hereditary flates. This note which ibey remitted at the. 
movement is connc61cd with the fame time to connt Mel tern Ich, fig- 
inarch of the Ruflians, who declare nified, that they were authorized to 
aloud, that they are coming to at- declare, that the mnrcli of the army 
tack the French republic, and who ought not to be confidered in nny 
are already in the dominions of the other ligfjt than that of a prccaiilion 
emperor. neceflitated by circumfiances; that 
Ever failhfi^ to its engagements, the dcfire of peace, on the part of 
filvvays animated with the fincereft the French government, continued 
deiirc of maintaining peace, and to be ardent andfincere; and that 
ever dil pofed to attNhitte the feme the dircflory pcrfit^ed in the in ten- 
leiitimenis to his roajefty the emjxf- tion of concluding peace, with tbo 
ror, the Fiench government has de- empire, on the fuppofi tion always, 
manded of him arfatisfador;y decia- that the empire would declare it- 
ration, refpcfting the march of the felf agajull the march of the Ruf' 
Rdfian troops, , ^ni the paflage iians. 


The dvputalion of the empire 
having t»ikt»n the prorlamnfion, to- 
p!«'.l:ef with llie note of tlie J-Vench 
I'jimi.ers, and ihe arldrcrs to thcar- 
Jr>}'f into ccrJivl('rjii(-.n, Ciime. to 
aJcJernn nation, ih..! all tliefc pieces 
in k:M he ftMit to tlic general diet 
'Mh'j c/iipir*^', at Ratllbpn; ijiat it 
fc'j'd be oblerved to the diet, at 
CUinetime, that the majority of 
t'cdfpuiation was convinced^ that 
ii-ter this note, the diet ought to be 
J't .'.'jaded haw urgent it was, (hat 
• " fi?'pii(a»ion fhoiild be invefted 
^:ih lull powers, to give ananfwer 
•» Ihe Hole of the French legation, 
t'-ibefccond of January, (concern- 
ing the march of the Ruffians,) in 
oHer to rerume the negociations 
^^•dj had ])c-«*n fo long fnfpended ; 
tj'at the prelent fubjecl of delibera- 
tion (hould be remitted, as afual, to 
tU* coram ifliiry of Ms imperial ma- 
jt^rt V ; that lie (howld be requefted 
t" impart to the French rainifters, 
the decilion of the deputation, and 
J exprcfs its ardent defire of con- 
» -I ring, in all poifibje efforts, lor a 
1;K wlv and lafling peace. The im- 
P^naf com miliary was not influ- 
•*^redby the lame pacific difpofitions. 
iJy a niite, tranfinittcd the fourth 
t March, he informed the deputies, 
Ihat the imperial commiflion could 
^'^ approve the condufian^ fijicc. 


from the aflual fituation of affairs, 
their anfwer fhould have been re- 
il rained to the iimple acknowledge- 
ment of their having received the 
French minifier's note, and com- 
municated it to the general diet; 
atid that all (art her dctlnration 
il)ould have been rufpciulcLi till the 
ulterior decifion of the eniporor and 
empire, agreeably to a t:^;;*- 
cliijum of the deputation. TiiC 
views that dif!ated this note of the 
'imperial roiiiiflcFs, could not^ be 
mifanderflood. But a prelude to 
the renewal of war, ftiti Icfs equi- 
vocal, was exhibited fbon tbere^ 
after, in the expulilon of Bacher 
and Alqiiier : the firft, the French 
rcfident at Ratiibon; tlie fecond, 
the French ambafbdor at Munich* 
On the fourteenth of Mafcfi, they 
were, ordecH to quit thole towns 
within the fpace of twenty-tbdr 
hours, and to retire within the 
F^ench advanced polls. The 'ex- . 
puliion of thefe m millers wis not 
effedted without oppoiition on the 
part of certain members of the 
diet, as well as that of the ele^or 
of Bavaria: but, as the ord^r was 
accompanied hy military force, 
Bacher and Alquier were under 
the nccellity ©f obeying the requit 

Vol. XLI. 


C H A P. 

146] ANNUAL REGISTER, it 99. 


Attack on ike French, by the King of Naples, — Secret Motives ajfigned Jor 
this, — Fqfition ef the Neapolitan Troops, after their Repvlje Jrom the 
Roman Territories. — And of the French.^^The different Divijions of the 
Fren^ Army draw near to Naples. <*^Amidfl general and cotiflant^fffur^ 

• regions, of the Natives of the Country, '^Armiflice propoftd by the Neapo- 
litan to the French General for an Armifiice. — ReJeSled.-'^Mqff'acres of the 
French.**^Perilous Situation of the French Troops. '■^Dejperate Refolation 
<lf\ Championet, — Uuexpc&edly relieved from his Embarajfintnt by an 
Offer, for the third Time, of an Airmifiice, — The Neapolitan Troops eta* 
cuate Capua, '^--IVhefig they are fucceeded hy the French GarriJon.-^Dijffatis- 
fa&iofi tfthe DireStory with Championet, — The Royal Family of Naples at 
Pakrmo^^Regency appointed, at Napltj, An his Abfence^—Champiottefs 
yindicatien of his ConduQ fo the Dircdory.'yCommunication betueen 
Championet and iiie Malcontents of Naples, — Violent Fermentalion in No- - 
ples.^^'CanUfl betueen the Royalifls and Revolutionifls, -^Retreat of tJk 
flceroyn-^Ejcape if General Mack to Championet, ^^'Total Diforganisafion 
of the Neapolitan Army, ^^Affaffinaf ion and Rapine, -^NapUs affauUed by 
.the Fre9ich Army.-*-Ohfiifiately defended hy the Lazzaroni, — Aiomeittary 
Ceffation from mutual Slaughter,''^ Improved by Championet. — J'FhoJe 
Prqfejions of Humanity and RefpeQ for St. Jafinarius draw over the 
Lazzaroni to the Side of , the French, — Miracles. ^^Advcrlifement, by the 
Archbifhop, to the Citizens of Naples. — Proclamation of Championet,^-* 
EdiB,qf the Prouijionary Gotcmm^tt of the Neapolitan Republic. — Under 
impq/ing Forms and Names in the Hands of the French General.^-^ontri" 
htliofu, — Trophies ofVidory and Ambtiffadors fent from Naples to Paris, 
^^The whole public arid much of the private Property of Naples claimed, by 
the DireStory, for the Fretich Nation.'^^ivil Commijfaries fent for the 
Purpofe of taking Poffefjxon of this. — Ordered, by Championet, to quit 
Naples.'^^The Decree of tl^c Dire&oryt on the Subje6t of Neapolitan Pro^ 
perty, annulled by a Counter-Decree ijfued by the General."^ Indignation of 
the Dire&ory. — A Decree for arrefiing Championet with otfter Gene* 
rals, and trying them for DifobediencC'-^Another for bringing Perfons, 
accuftdn by public Famt, of Robbery or Dilapidation, to Trial by a Court" 
Martial,— ^The/e Trials prevented by new Struggles and Changes at Paris, 
^-yFrench Invqfion of the fmaU Republic qf Lucca,— Fa&ions there. — Re^ 
volution. — And Contributions," 


HILE (he &rce of negocta- tadt, miliary preparations were 
lion was carried on at Raf* continued on both fides of the 



RKme and in Italy. Notwithfland- rals, who were not admitted into 

in^ the treaty of Campo Forraio^ the the fecret. 

coRtinoed encroach rnents of French • Championet, after the repulfe 
anobition provoked a war, in which of the Neapolitan troops, encamp- 
il was almoft certain that the houfe ed at Santo Germano, the fpot from 
pfAuftria mud fooner or later be whence his Sicilian majefly, but a 
iiiFOived. few weeks before^ had ifliied his 
• The courage, with which the proclamations of deliverance from 
l.'n^ of Naples, after the naval the French yoke to the Romans, 
vi^ory of Aboiikir, ventured to The king and general Mack, as 
attack the French, on the Roman mentioned in our laft volume, had 
lemtories, was confide red, by many haftened back, with their defeated 
politicians, as a fpur to the empe- and diroiniflied forces, from the 
ror to depart from that myfterious Roman territories into thofe of Na- 
inadion in which h^ had remain- pies. The king, with part of the 
ed, after many provocations, on the troops, repaired to his capital: the 
one hand, and encouragements, on general, with the remainder, join-. 
the other, to rejoin his former allies ed the garrifon, and undertook the 
ill an appeal to arms. By others it defence of Capua; from whence, 
lias beei) affirmed, that the Neapo- on the thirty^-firft of December, 
htan court, as well as that of Vienna, 1798, he fcnt a letter to Champio- 
with military preparations and pre- net, propofing an armiftice, limit- 
ran tions mingled political negocia- ed or uivUmited, on account of the 
tion. It was fecretly agreed on, they feverity of the weather and the 
^aid, and underftoo<i, between the badne/s of the roads. The French 
pre\'aih"ng party in the diredory general returned for anfwer, that, 
2nd thofe courts, that, after fuch as his army had overcome the diffi- 
a fiiew of reCftance, as might pre* cultics of both the way and the 
vent murmurings or worfe "efTed^s, weather, with their ufual patience, 
on the part of the French nation, he lliould not halt until he had 
li'e eccleiiaftical Hates iliould be made his entry into Naples. 
j;iven lip to the arbitriment of Championet, in purfuance of his 
the coflrt of Naples. The terms, plan, moved his head-quarters from 
«>n which this cefTion was to Santo Germano to Teano. 
he obtained, were the fame with The left wing of the French ar- 
t.Kife on which a majority of the my, under Diihefme, in the midft 
individuals, compofing the direc- or repeated attacks, 'both by the 
tory, offered peace to the Ame- Neapolitan troops and large bodies 
Ticans the Portugueze, and other of infurgents, marching tilong the 
nation^; and it was determined, coaft of the Adriatic, through a 
according to this account of mat- country interfered with rivers, pro- 
lers, by the dire^lory, to facrifice ceeded towards Pefcara. A mafs 
iHc fmall army, under Charapio- of infurgents* to the number of fix 
net, to their private interefts. If thoufand, had taken pollcflicm of Te- 
lii-ie reports be well-founded, ano, in the rear of the French army* 
'M? rdfiHi views of the direc- and there maflarred every perfon bo- 
l.r< were counteracted and dif- lonj;ing to the French. Duhcfme, 
r pointed hy the French gene- iHlfcoiitiiuiing his nfarch, fent back 
*'^ [h-2] detachments 

148] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

d "^tai^hnicnts to reduce the in fiirgojits. iifnns, roufcd in a clofc cncoun'er 

Takin;r advantage of the impMliqn with tlw French, fomul prolc^lion 

that had been made on the XeajMv in ihlir retreat from the artillery of 

]i(ans, by the rcpcatf'd checks ^iven that ci!y. The French, who had 

to their atLaeks, and partieu'arlv Uy pnrflied' them to the very wall^. 

a victory over thera r.ear tlie fiver were forced to retire with very con- 

Vomar.o, hi.^ appeared befo.e Pc- fiderable lofs to" Cajazzo, where? 

fcara without artillery or ammu- Mac;ionald, havinj^ left a refcrve at 

nr( ion, and by threats of a general Calvi, in the Terra di Lavora, 

fack on the one hand, and pro- took up his pofition. Thispofilion, 

mlfcs of protedlioi) and fiivovr op in the face of an army ^et nuir.c- 

thc other, inducecj the garrifon to rous, covered by a riv^r, protecled 

open the pitcs of tliat important by a flcong place, inaftcrs of thtr 

ibrtrefs, which was the key of the left fide, and ajl ijie fords of liie 

Adriatic, and the poilcfllon of Volturno, with the means of draw- 

wJiich was equally fiibfervient to ing conlidera'ble re-inforcemeiits 

the pro;;rcrs of the left wing of the from the capital behind : this poll- 

afmy towards Naples, as that of tipn of M«icdonald, in fuch circum- 

Oa?Ja, on the Mediterranean, al- /lances, y was daring ar.d dangerous, 

ready in the pofTeffioji of the French, It was, however, the refult ofcir- 

Tinder gciicral Roy, was to the ad- cumllanccs of which the generals 

vanccof Oc right. The centre of in chief had not probably the cc»ni- 

tfie army, under general Lcipoine, niand. His ovyn plan wastoha\c 

lia.'ing crofll'd theAppenlnesin fine waited at Cajanello, to coixen- 

of t!ieir mofl d'Uicuit pafles, con- trate his armies, by the divillons of 

tnuinlly cxpofed to the mailacres of the left and centre, and not to have 

the infurxert peafantry, wherever advanced into a country, every 

they ci 'lid meet with little refift- where in tnfurrcclion, until he had 

ance, Jorcel the p< 1^ of Popili, a force fitted to flice the dangers to 

wliere t!i' centre of ihp Neapolitan whicli lie would be cxpofed. T!»'j 

army was liroi.gly r: trenched, and precautions intended by Champio- 

thereby prevented fiicju'ndion of the net were juAified by the event. Oa 

centre of the French army with its his return to the head-quarters at 

Je*L While th'j centre diyifion Teano, from Venafro, whither be 

f(;rr.iod its communication with th<; had gone lo concert the operations 

ri"ht by Venairo, general Roy, of the fjege of Capua with !_>•!- 

I^ovlng a f^nrnlon at Gasta, nwirch- moine, he found difpatclies from 

ed Oil towards Capua with the re- general Roy, informing him, that 

niai^dcr of his column, and took a prodigious number of infurgenis 

his pofiilon along the Volturno, a had allombled at S)fia, threatening 

rjver falling the gulf of Carta, to cut down the bridges at Gari;^- 

wiiicij covered Capua, towards the iJano, and even menacing thecan^p. 

le:i. ((vneral Alacdonald, who Stronej detachments were ft-r.t 

coramnr.ded the main body of the agahih tliem^ in order lo rc-eita- 

rij^ht wlr.iTj^ had fallen dpwn fiom bliAi the communication between 

Caivi, and v^as marcliing onward, the left wing of the army and the 

in orcer to reconnoitre the ground centre. The infurgenls not only 

Uicund-Capiia. A body of Nei^jv)- f>ppofed the pallagc of the Frein-ri 


V'>o;>«, but 'beat ihem, aHcr they quarters bad heen attacked, had 

Ifjd been reinforced, in fuccGlTive crortl'«i. the Voltnrnd. No farther 

< iV'JirLments, and at length forced intelli;reni-e could be obtained of 

r.i ■.Ti (0 retreat. Other bodies of the left vvinjj under Duhefme. It 

 ' .^cnts, diirinsr theie conflicts was believed at the time, that 

u.ihthe F*rench troops took pof- he had been farroundcd h^- Infur- 

Ic/'.onofihe bridges on the Garij^- gents. 

lar.o, uliich they cut down, ("cizcd Tiie jjathcrin^ /lonn of general 

ineparkofreferve belonging to the infurreClion gained on the rear of 

.Tiny, bnrnt tlie ammunition wag-, the French army more and more. 

;jcn^, plundered the baggage, and The ftandard of revolt was raifed in 

made them felvei? maftcrs of all the Santo Germano, and the whole of 

iK^iiiioni that had been occupied the adjacent country. Championet's 

bv the French. While thefe tranf- baggage and ecyrirpage were pil- 

-aion? paOed in the rear of the laged. Gnc of his aids-de-can) ps, 

i rench army, commiflioners from it has been afferted, was burnt 

fhe viceroy of Naples prefented alive. Another was t^ken prifoner. 

fliem^efves at the licad^quarters be- At Tendi and Ihi, there vtas an 

I'fe general Championet, offering indifcriminate matfacre of Fn^nch, 

if> Jurrender the city of Capua, and travellers, and all ihaft were found 

• ''draw a military line, on which in thofe '|)iaces. 

t it^ oppofite arhiies fliould wait the The French troops, thus fiirround- 

"nl*-rs of (flieir rcfpe^ive govern- ed, were left vyitliout provilio^is. 

^nts. Cha«ipionet, though afto- Their number was confiderablv di- 

' xed that fuch propofilion^fliould minified, by the ninnorous detnci:- 

' - pjade to hiai in th.e prelcnt dif- ments fent out againft f:)e rebels. 

i>'Mefl ftate of the French army, The burning of the park of artillery 

'-'uled to enter into any difcuflion and ammunition-wnggons, left each 

'I 'liem, on other terms, than the Jofdier only a fingle round of car- 

• irrL-nder of NaipleS. The fatne fridges. The comnniiiication with 
fi'opofition^ were repeated the next Rome was cut off. A jun61ion wiiK 
i>i\ , and met with the fame refufal. the left wing was become impofTibje. 
1^ A Championet, on returning from The Neapolitans were making dif- 
*'.':< conferrtnce to head-quarters, at pofitions for a general attack.- And 
l«ano, finmd that the troops ap- a landing was expelled, about this 
t'ir.ted to furround it Jiad fallen time, to take place, at the monlK 

• if.k, and that the town was ci'acu- of the Oarij;l!nno, of troops, that 
afd. had embarkeil at Leghorn, and 

The infurgents, having gained which were Ui fail on the rear of 

fhe heights, were prcfjaring for an the French, while general Mark 

. uack. Tlrefe bands were difpcr- made an alUick in front. In this 

t'i; but, on the fame evening, extremity of fortune, Championet 

Lnampionet received intelligence had called in all hi5 pofts, refolvcd 

th,.i tJio infurre^tion y?as general, to conquer Or pcriH), when a trum- 

u»ai every part of the kingdom was p"i prelentcd itfclf, l!ic third time, 

«i arm&. and that Ih^ infurgents at the advanced pofis of the Frcjich 

v.r>re commanded by experienced Lr/ny, ajmonn^^iug the arrival of the 

oji'jers, Lemo lie, whofe head- former depiitaUon '^'ilh rr.»»re r-jc. 

[ L 5 J ter^live 

150] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1199. 

tenfive powers. An armiftice was 
immediately concluded between 
Championet, and, on the part of 
Naples, Ihe prince of Milliano. 
The principal conditions of tl\is 
were, the furrender of Capua, with 
all its (lores and artillery ; the pof- 
feflion, by the French army, of the 
country as far as Acerra, before 
Naples ; Benevento, and a tract 
from thence to the Adriatic,^ to 
ferve as a line of demarcation ; the , 
evacuation of the Neapolitan ports, 
by the (hips of lioAile powers $ and 
the payment of ten millions of 
livres. This treaty was to be rati- 
fied by the refpedlive governments 
of the contraftipg parties : and, in 
cafe of its reje6tion by either govern- 
ment, no holi ill ties were to take 
place till after three days notice. 
-—The armiflice was concluded 
^and iigned, on the twenty-firft day 
of January, 1799. . The Neapoli- 
tans evacuated Capua on the next, 
and proceeded to Naples. They 
were, on the twenty-third, fucceea- 
ed by a French garrifon. The reft 
of the French army encamped with- 
out the city. Championet, dilem- 
barraded from a formidable oppofi- 
tion in front, cleared the country of 
infurgents in his rear. 

The French diredlory, quickly 
informed, and before the arrival of 
any official liifpatches, of the armif- 
tice between Clmmpionet, and the 
government of Naples, wa& fb high- 
ly didatisfied with it, Uiat a let- 
ter, by their orders^ and in their 
came, was written to Championet^ 
m the snoA (evere and infulting 

terms.* But when Championet 
had ^plained the reafens of his 
condu6l; and which were altogether 
irrefragable, that letter was re< 

By the time that the arm I A ice 
was concluded, the king of the two 
Sicilies, with the royal family, had 
been for fome days, after a tempcf- 
tuous voyage, fafely landed in Pa- 
lermo. It was not witiiout much 
relaflancc that tlie king quilted the 
feat of his government. Artifices 
were ufed by the party who urged 
his retreat, \n order to bend him to 
fubmiilion ; fuch as pretended con- 
fpiracies and popular infurredions. 
At length, having created tlie prince 
Pignatelli viceroy, he embark^ ou 
board the Britifh (liips, commandeii 
by lord Nelfon, during the night of 
the firft of Jannary, with his 
court, accompanied by the Britijli, 
Auflrian, and Ruffian ambafiadors. 
For the tranquillity of the city, a 
civic guard was formed : the officers 
of which were taken equally from 
the clades of the nobles and pri- 
vate citizens. Large fams ol' 
money, as well as arms, were di- 
flributed among the Laaszoroni, for 
the purpofe of retaining and eih 
•couraging their wonted loyalty. 

At Cafcrta, which Championet 
had now made his headquarters, he 
received intelligence of the left 
wing of the army, which had been 
embarraffed, on all hands, by in- 
furgents, as had been fufpeded, in 
the provinces of the Arbruzzo, 
Duhefmoy .afler the reduction ot* 
Fefcara, extended hii line to Qrtoiu 

* According to what hat already beofi briefly ftatcd, it was the wi(h of the ruling 
fa^iion of the dired^ory to facrifice Championet and his army to a fccret treaty with the 
king of Naples On this point we have not learnt any thing tliat can be confidcred as 
certain'. It appears, that an animofity had been con'ceived by the directory againfl 
Championet on other accounts than his ignorant counter-adion of their fccret dcfigns. 
if fuch reatly cxiftcd, in favour of the couru oiVlmni and Kapln.' 



and lanciano, and then direded lity and generofity of the French 
his nnich towards Popoli. Afier army, began to declare (heir inf en- 
various dangers and efcapes, he tions more openly. General Le- 
radwd Suimona and Venafro, moine was now fent to Paris, to 
and finally joined Chnmpionet, at receive in(lru6tions from the direc- 
his bead-qoarters at Caferta. Mac- tory, refpefling the nature and form 
donald, who, from fome difguft, of' government to be given to the 
bad given up his commidion, was Neopolitans. The crifis expe^ed, 
replaced by the general Dufrefne. was precipitated by the following 
Ckampionet^ in a confidential circumdance. A FrencJi agent had 
note to the diredlory, accompany- been lent from the general, under 
in^ his official letter, had ftaled, a fafe condud, to Naples, to haflen 
that a fufpenfion of arms, with a the payment of the money agreed 
f*oventment b perfidious, was no- on by the treaty. He was received 
thing more than a liratagem of war; very cordially by the viceroy : but 
that fach articles had been inferted his vi(it and the obje6l of his milSon 
in the treaty as would lead the Ne- were no fooner known, than a vio* 
apoliuns to break it in various lent fermentation was excited 
^ys, and thereby furnilh an oAen« among the Neapolitans. , The 
iibie ground for the re-com- French agent was in danger of af^ 
inencement of hoflilities when he faifination; but faved by the French 
pleafed ; that, at the time in party. An individual of this party 
which they (liould receive the news was killed. Some abetted the deed 
of the capitulation of Capua, he of the aflaffins, others were eager 
ihould be mafter of Naples, having to avenge the vidtim. 
means of revolutionizing it, from Frosn this moment the two par* 
hishead-quarters, at Caferta, through ties, the royaltfis and revolutioniA^, 
the correfpondence which he was were at open war. The Lazzaroni, 
about to open with the. di(afre6led who were in the royal interefl, took 
party, and who, as appeared by polfeifien of all the arms; and, form- 
their condufl towards the viceroy, ing themfelves into bands, ran 
had not been Grangers to this ufe- through the Areets, invoking the 
ful treaty. In purfuance of the de- names of the king, and St. Januarius, 
(i^ he had intimated to the direc- General Mack was noted as a trai- 
torv. Chanipionet found means of tor, and the remains of the arm/ 
opening a communication with the which( he commanded, as jacobins, 
malcontents in Naples. For that corrupted by French gpldf. Even 
end, a committee was formed, the viceroy wa^ become an objed of 
which received, from time to time, fufpicion, and, appreheniive of the 
accounts nf what was paffing in the danger that awaited him from both 
city. The emiflaries, fent from fides, prudently withdrew to his 
thence, carried back inflruflions to barge, which lay in the bay, and 
the revolutionary party, who, ha- fet fail for Sicily.' The foldiers, 
ving come to a determination to co- terrified by the numbers and the 
operate with the Frencl), for the menace!) of the Laaszaroni, deferted 
deftrudion of the old government, to the French r«nk3, and in two 
and having received new alfu ranees, days the Neapolitan army was quite 
which led them to rely on the M^ disorganized and anmhilated. Ge- 

[ L 4 ] neral 

isa] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

n^ral Nfack, abandoned to ihe ca- 
prici us fcry of the Lazznroni* de- 
nmnded an aiylum from Champio- 
net : but h\^ dangtfr became fo ini* 
minenf, thnk he arrived at Cafcrta 
on the heeU of the officer whom 
he had font to aik for prote6)ton. 

Chnmptonet received Mack with 
kindneCs and gave hhn a paffport 
and efcort to accompany him to 
Milan. Here^ however, he was 
arreted, by order of (he diredory, 
as a prifoner of war : an a£i to which 
Championet was not in anvwife 
accel&ry, and which he reprooated 
with great indignation. 

The La£aaron}| cxafperafed at 
the cfcffpe of their prey, collefled 
themfelves into a booy, and roAied, 
like itsddmen, on the French ad- 
vanced po(if{» at Ponte Rotto, rout- 
ed the aidvanced guarfis, and pene- 
trated even to the Ime. Numbers 
of the rftgged mattitude were killed, 
and difnerfed. The rcfl returned 
to their flat ions. Prcviou*:y to 
this attack, ih^y had made tnem- 
felvcs maftcrs ot Caftcl-Nuovo, and 
of the fort of Camina, and had pro- 
claimed, Uiat they were going to 
exterminate the Kn»nch, and their 
partizans, the jiicobiiv>. Under 
pretence of fcarching lijr thof« dil- 
iiflec>ed perfons they had be^im fo 
break open the h()uf<?s of the inha- 
bitants, and to commit vari<ius de- 
^ix'clalieiYs. Naples was al)ont to 
('given up (o every kind t)rhorror, 
\vi^en the you ni^ prince ofMollilerno, 
tjfa tiimily \vl)kh fta^l confiderable 
vei;;lu with the people, mingh'ng 
wiMi tlie I.p:?z?.ronf, perfuac'ed 
them to chooll* liirn tor their genernl. 

Tl:e prince, in concert with the 
reirnlnj^ autlioriiies of the citv, had 
begun to re-efia'jiill'. order, and to 
eiter into neg ciation with the 
French general, when the Lazza- 


roni, ill formed of his di^figns, re- 
volted Sl/:^\iA} their cliler. and re- • 
newcd their pllip^e: Thofe whom 
thev coniidered, or pretended to 
conlider as jncobins, were the ob- 
ject'? of their fury, a?» their properly 
was of their rapaeil^'. Among the 
vi^rims of ^heir capricious fury, was 
ZjHo, comptroller of finances; the 
duke Delia Torre, with his brother, 
Clement Filomarino, Whom they 
maOacred and burnt : though nei- 
ther of ihcie noblemen had ever 
been fignalized for what wa< called 
f^tfiotitm ; and that the duke was 
diftingu idled only by hislove of the 
arts and bv multiplied ac)s of be- 
neficence. There was a celebrated 
clock and watchmaker, one Villo- 
Hani, who was much about the 
duke. Tlu!^ man, who was a great 
patriot, wasofcourfe obnoxious to 
the Lazzaroni, who, not finding 
him at home, went in fearch of him 
to the duke's palace. Miffing their 
intended vi^lim, they WTcaked their 
fur\ on his patrons. 

i'he only means that -remained 
to Molliterno and his friends for 
Ihving the i:lt\, were, to fcizc on 
the fori*, and to e;d! the French to 
ih^'ir allilinnce. Thev gaiiied poi- 
U liion of the cr.filc of St. Elmo ; in- 
felligtJhce of which was the fignr*! 
to C hampjonet t(» commence ^i\ -it- 
taCk, on which he had already ro- 
folved, and in which he was jui- 
tified by tlie rupture, on the part 
o<* the lazzaroni, of the arm i ft ice. 
The divifion under general Dn- 
frefne, lately the r"'ght commaocU»d 
by Macdonald, encamped on two 
lines bcfoi'e Aver la. The van- 
guard was pol'ted nt Melito, and 
within gnn-n-.ot cif Naples. 

The cUvilinn ot' Dnhefine march- 
ed from y\cefru, and, after difperfinj; 
an cnorraous mais of armed' peft- 



i&riu, eKumped on two lines to pies had now novnagiftrates. , Such 

the left of Naples. of the inhabitants as l\ad not taken 

TLeic lines were Hrengtliencd up arms, had ihut themfclves up in 

hv a brigade from Benevento. their houfes, or concealed them- 

Titis brigade was attacked by a felves from the fury of the Lazza- 

bnd of iive or 6x thoufand pea- roni, who, to the number of fixty 

Ln/s; wlio, unacquainted with the thoufand, had ivvorn to def<;nd 

Kratugeros of war, fell into an am- them felves to the laiL The mcf- 

bultade, near the Caudme Forks, fenger of Clnimpionet was received 

(i-;e fpot where the Romans were by a volley of mufketry. A bail 

made to paf<( under the yoke of the broke tiic pommel of his faddlc; 

Saranites.) and the greater part of and, ou his attempting to make. 

tiitaidcfcroyed. Such detachments them underdand the general's pro- 

ivere made from the different po/ls ppfition, another volley forced him 

in the country around Naples, as to retreat. 

couid be fpared, for a time, from^ . Championet, imagining that (!ie 

the important fcrvice of quelling exhibition of his forces would have 

infurredions, and crufbing bands of induced the I,azzaroni lo come to 

initirgents. fbme vompromiie, had determined 

On the day following, the to defer the attack to next day. 

t'wnty . third of January, 1799, But the Lazzaroni, during tiie nig/iU 

thefr two divifions, whrdi^ were made feveral faliies, and ki'pt up fo 

charged with the attack of Naples, terrible a fire, that the ^r^.ncral h\ii 

drew nearer to the town and gained all hopes of gaining theai by any 

the heights. T%vo battalions, in other means than thole of forca. 

order to eftablifli a correfpondence Orders were given for die two b<ii- 

of lignals with Fort St. Elmo, took talions on Capo-di-Monle, to m;ir<h 

pofleilion of Capo-di-monte. The in the (ilence of the night, to j')in 

firtl grand diviflon placed their the patriots in St. Elmo, li'oip wiiom 

centre between Capo-di-Chino, and information had jufi been received 

Pciggio-Reale. The ground to the that they waited the fignal of the 

left of tt)e city wa^ occupied by French to open their fiTu on tlie 

th** left divifion, and joined to the city ; to announce their arrival by 

right by a brigade under general the junction of their columns with 

K ifca. The artillery, under general thofe of the patriot.'*: when tlie 

hiAi\ was to diijpoied ay lo give it citadrl was U> ope'.i a general dd- 

v\*- command of the city. Lver); clisirge of all its artillery; and on 

tinner was ready for the aflault. wliich, g«!]eral Ebic, alio, was to 

X'i)fe« was on the point of being open all lij> bilterics. The whole 

iTt^cn up to all the horrors of a army, inyoftin;; tljc cll^, wcr<5 

J!«;rm, arxt the impatient foldier to ruOi forward, and h:: ir dinvn 

«'Vaiiing for t\v^ fignal of attack. every thing that oppofttti ih^ni. Co- 

Championet fliil hofitaled. He lumns, armed with tofclu,'>, werti to 

wi^ anxious to prevent lb great and carry (ire and d?foJ:ition where^'er 

I'uncccflary a wafte of life, and ad- thev ibould be able to penetrate, 

drefllrd a proclamation to that effeft, The Lazzaroni, drawn up in co- 

by the chief of a fquadron, to the Iumn«, fullained, or ratluT anticipa- 

tuigiftntes of the city. But Na- ted the attack with altonifliing ad- 



drefs and conrage. When repalfed, the Lazzaront. The cry af'Fimnt 
they returned again to the charge, les Franftds, vive la refitsbiique, began 
ana feveral thnes repnlfed the to be heard. ^A guard of honour 
French in fheir turn. At length was flationed at the church of the 
they were forced to vield fome tutelary apoille. The confign was, 
ground, of which they difputed eve- Refpe&for Jamtarius. The general 
ry foot, with part of their artillery, paid his homage at the fbrine of the 
The French became the mniien faint twice. His converfion flew 
of fereral ftreets. The Lazzaroni thronghout the city like lightning. 
were harralfed and prefled, but not Numbers of the Lazzaroni crowded 
vanquiflied. Night a\'ertook the round him as he rode on horfeback 
comDatants, but the fire' was flill through the Greets or fquares, and 
continued. The French troops, kifled his boots. The avenues, to 
over6ome with faXigue, divided the church of St. Janusrius, were 
themfelves into two equal portions, filled with Lazzaroni and other in- 
The one kept up the fight, whilll the habitants of Naples. One of the 
other lay down to red amidft corp^ chiefs of the Lazzaroni, placinj; 
fes and ruins. At the dawn of the himfelf at the head of the Frenchi 
day the fury of the combatants re- harrangued his terrible foldien, or* 
doubled, and final vidtory was yet dering them to ceafe their fire and 
uncertain. Championet> in order ground their arms. He was heard 
to bring the flruggle to an iflue, refped! fully and obeyed. A flinat of 
gave orders'to force the .palfages to general joy fucceeaed to, the voice 
Caftel-Nuovo, and the forts Del . of mourning and the ibrieks of de- 
Capnina, with the bayonet, . and to fpair. The war was ended, and 
penetrate into, and turn the quarter peace reftored. Thus it was the 
of the Lazznroni. A divifion was fortune of ihe French, in this cam- 
ordered to march into the heart of pajgn, to make allies of their ene- 
the city, and take poirdfion of the mies on the field of battle. . A part 
palace : and another to form a junc- of the regular troops had gone over 
tion with the garrifon of St. Elmo, to them with general Mack, before 
who had already gained certain their entrance into Naples, 
quarters of Naples. The Lazzaroni, who had hitherto 
From the exhauded Sate of both been the roofl firenuous defenders 
parties, a momentary cefTation took of the royal caufe, were now as lood 
place from mutual fiaughter. In in their vociferations for the neiv 
this interval, Championet fpoke to fvRem, and began to evinos the 
fome of the inhabitants who had crept fincerity of their converfion, by the 
forth from their houfes, and gave ardour of their zeal, by proceeding 
them aflurances of protedlion. He to pillage the royal palace, and 
profefTed profound refped for St.* the houfes of thole who had been 
Januarius, to whom he put up fer- attached to the conrL This da- 
vent ejaculatory prayers for the monftration o^true profelytifni was 
prelervation of human lives, and immediately repreffed by Cham- 
reftoration of tranquillity to the un- pionct ; who, having taken poflef- 
happy city of Naples. The report fion4>f all the forts, and encamped 
of the general's refpedt for St. Janu- his army on the heights around 

arittfl was carried into the ranks of Naples, appointed Dufiefne com- 


Blander of the place, and ordered 
all the inhabitants to be dilarmed; 
le/i, amonjr fo capricious and in- 
fiammable a people, fome accidental 
ipark [bojild fet them again in 

The array of Rome, on the day 
after the ceflation of ho(iilitic<t, was 
proclaimed the army of Naples. 
The general announced his order 
to the aOembled troops, amidH the 
/hoots of the populace and tfie 
thander of all the artillery. , On 
the fame day there was an erup- 
tion of Mount Vefavius, which had 
heen tranquil for five years pail. 
This phenomenon, which had hither- 
to heen regarded as an indication of 
the anger of their favourite faint, 
in the prefent temper of the Nea- 
politans, was conftniQed into a 
f^vonrable omen. The blood of 
the (aint flowing at the fame time, 
at the earned interceflion of the 
cardinal, archbiftiop, and the other 
clergy, confirmed by another mi- 
racle this fudden ^evolution in 

In confeqaence of thefe two co- 
incident prodigiej;, Te Deum* was 
lung in tJie cathedral; at which 
folcmnity the French generpil 
and his "principal officers aflifted. 
** The French," faid the Neapoli- 
tans, *' have come to regenerate, 
and to efiablifh tlie profpcrity and 
happinefs of this city, under the 

particular guidance and prote6^ioa 
of divine providence. St, JanUa* 
rius, our protector, has given his 
(andlion to their proceedingg. Hit 
blood began to liquify on the even» 
ing of the day on which the repub* 
Jican troops entered the city." On 
the fame day, January twenty- 
fourth, 1799, C^ampionet held 
out to the Neapolitans the obje^» 
whicj) he chofe ^o avow for his inva- 
fion, and the reafon of the new de- 
nomination, which had been given 
to the French army in the follow- 
ing proclamation. *' Neapolitans^ 
you are at length he^ : yonr li- 
berty is the only reward which 
France claims from its conqueS^ 
and the only claufe of the treaty of 
peac^ whi^h the army of the re- 
public has jufl folemnly fworn« 
together with yourfelves, within th» 
walls of your capital, and on the 
ruins of the throne of ypur laft king. 

" Woe be to him who (liall re- 
fufe to fign with us this honourable 
compa61, in which the whole of 
the advantage is on the fide of the 
conquered, and which leave no«, 
thing to the conqueror but the 
glory of having confolidated your 
happinefs: fuch an one Hiall be treat* 
c(I as a public enemy, againii whom 
we remain in arms. 

'Mf there be any among you 
who have hearts ungrateful enough 
to reje^ that liberty which we 

* The foUowin^ is the advertifcment publithcd, on tt)is occaOon, by the arcliblthop t 
" AUchrtaithful citaetis of Naples are invited to Ix prefect this day, Friday, twcQty* 
ftfth of January, at two In the afternoon, at the celebrarion of I'e, which the 
^rchbiihop, accompanied by the chapter, the clergy, the general -in-chi*f, and flatf ot 
the army of Naples, will fing in the cathedral church, to thank the moft high for the 
glorious entry of the French troops into this city ; and who, proicdleJ in a pecnliar 
manner ky Providence, have regenerated this people, andare'conie to eftabllfli and con- 
f^'date our happinefs. St. Janoarius, our pr©i?<5lor, rojoices in their arrival. His 
Wood miracuk>u(ly liquified on the very evening oi" the ei^ry of the republican troops " 
The cardinal, and the other clergy gave out to the ptople,^ that great faith and extraordj. 
oary prayer^ had bpen ncctlTiry ;o induce their f4ir.t tp ^ivc a ftgn of his will and ple». 



I'ave purcliafed for you at (he price dungeons in which he had io louj 

of our blood— or any, whom in(a- buried them. 

nity would lead to regret a king, '' Keapolitans ! if the French 

who has forfeited whatever right army afliune at prefent the title of 

he had to coninrand them, by the Army of Naples, it is only Vrom 

'Violation of the oalh whicli he had the folemn engagement which k 

made to defend them ; let them fly has taken to die for your caufc, niui 

tothediflionoured ftai dard oi pcrjtt- to raalte no ufe of its arms but for 

ry : eternal war a^ui. ii tl'.cm : lot your independence, and the prefor- 

then» be cut off! vation of the rights which it has 

" Republicans, the caufe under obtained for you. 

which you haye fo gcncrouily fuf- " Let the people feel no ap])rp- 

ferod is at Icjngth decided. What henfions for the liberty of their 

Ike brilliant vidorics of the army worfliip; let the citizen be no Ion - 

of Italy were not able to effedl — ger anxious for the fiecurity of his 

■w hat had for fo long a time retard- property. The tyrants have been 

,ed the political interefts of all Itrongly intcrefted in the exertions 

, Eorop^^what had fufpended the which they have made to calnmni- 

hopcs of a general peace— what ate the loyalty of the Fr^^nch na- 

had hitherto prevented the fulfil- tion; but a very (liort time wilHul- 

ment of the faith of treaties, and /ice to undeceive fiich as have har- 

rni fed apprehenfions of anotI>er bo u red unjufl fufpirions, and whiclx 

general war — the blindn^fs of have been weapons put into (heir 

your laft king has happily accom- hands by defpoti'm, in order to ex- 

pliflied. cite them to the moft deplorable 

" Let him accufe, therefore, cxceflcs. 
only his own inordinate ambition," " The orgauizatron of plunder 
und the folly of his aggreflion, Ihr .v.idafTaQination, formed by your la (t 
the happinefs of your lot, and the king, and executed by hiacorrup ted 
difgracc of his: but let him remain agents, as a means of defence, h«s 
a juli objocl of punifliment for ha- b^icn attended with the moftjhock- 
vwc:; attacked, contrarily to the faith ing effedls* and the moft fatal con- 
f)f treaties, an allied nation ; ar.d fecjuences ; but, as we have remo- 
for having purpofed to deprive a ved thecaules of theevil, it will be 
nci^hbonrirtr people of their liber- eaiy to flop the career, and even 
iy, by the lol's of a tlirone which repair the calamities. May the re- 
he dllbonoured, and by the refiec- publican authorities, which art* 
(ion of having contributed to the about to be created, re-eflablifn 
regaining } oar liberty. Let no fear order and tranquillity on the baHs of 
poilon the fc'ntiment of a hippinefs a paternal aduiiniflration ! may they 
fo unrxpcfiod : the army which I diflipate the terrors of i^r^orance, 
command remains amongfl you for a.. d calm the fury of fanalicilin wiih 
your defence ; it will lofe its Jrifi a ;^eal equal to that which has been 
Joldi<r, and Aied the lad drop of its emHoyed by perfidy to alarm aovl 
blood, btlbre il fuffers your lofl ty- irrii.iio them! and foon will (hat 
rants to entertain even the hope of fcveftty of difciple, which re-ella- 
lencwing th.e prcfcriptions of your bliflies order wiih io much facility 
liunilics, and of opening again the ^imong the troojjs of a free people, 

y put 


p'.l ar. end (o inch diforders as anp whom lie had chofen for lliat end, 

o.cile.d by !:a1rcd, and which the and whofe names werq mentioned. 

ri|{ht of rcprlfa! has not been too This aflemblyoFreprefentativcs was 

fWvsrd to reprcfs/* mvefted whh authority, tei^inahve 

TbiS proclamation was immedi- and executive, until a now confti- 

aSjy ff)! lowed by an edi61, entitled tiitional governmcnl Ihould bccom- 

" A h\v for the provifionary go- pletely organized. But the decrcts 

vcrninent of the Neapolitan repub- of this aflembly were rot to he 

^' " The preamble (o this law valid as laws, without the fan^lion 

fi'dU^fi, that the re^^eneration of a of the general-in-chief of tlie Army 

pct)p!e cani.ot be cfledted under the of Naples, The aflembly was not i 

inflaence of dt^fpollc power:' that to enter on any bufinels witlu)ut a 

the formation of a free conftitution quorum of two thirds of their num- 

f'»r a people, whofc habits a»d man- ber ; when decrees wore (o be 

n«'r-; Imd received a tinflure from pa (fed by a majority of fiiffrage^. — 

ihc prevaleiKc of fuch a power, Was The allembTy was lo be divined into 

a taJk tint required the utmoft afli- (ix committees, to be thofen by the 

'^niiy, and the mofl profound re- aflembly itfelf: the functions an<l- 

fictiion: that the general courfe of limitations of each to be de'ermined 

pvcrr.mcnt could not be fufpended and fixed by a particular law. ft h 

ullliout the grcateft danger to the evident that by fixing a quorum at 

public welfare, as well as to the two-thirds of the affembly, the ge- 

privale fortunes of individuals : that neral of the army, even without the 

the reign of tyranny/- in a country exercife of his vole, could manap^a 

"n which it had fo deeply imprcflcd, and dired the proceedings of thj » 

t' rough the length of time, habits reprefentatives' as he fliould think 

•>t corruption, could not be counter- proper. Thus, under a fliew of frec- 

i'ctcd, and finariy fubvertcd, with- dom, the Neapolitans were bound 

"tit oppofition to very great intereils hand and foot and delivered, like 

ri»il imtaling the lowefl paffions ; all the other friends and allies of the 

-rd that, of confequence, it is in- French, into the hands of a military 

<^'iipenfably ncceflary to check the government. Contributions were 

l^rojecls of malevolence, and the at- levied for the fupport of the admi- 

<^rripis of difcontent, by a vigorous nillration, and the maintenance of 

i»-d active adnjiJiiftration, which the army. Trophies of victories 

li< for itsobjc6t, lo provide for the were foon followed by ambanadora 

- ippinefs of the people by the from Naples to Pari*?, (o prcfcjjt the 

•^.a'ilon of wife laws, and lo de- vows of the new republic, and to 

^>at the defigns of its enemies by fraternise with the French govern- 

'^f>nftant vigilance. The general, ment. They were receivtrd vc;y 

Hiter this brief le6lure on th« difficul- coolly, and even with marks of 

ty of political regeneration, which, contempt; vvhicli Iia< been nr counL- 

'-> well as religious regeneration, ed for, as it is tiio i.ature of every 

n ufl indeed be allowed to be nq tlieory, true or falfe, lo draw every 

<'-'i^' or pleafaiit matter, proceeded thing into its own vortex, by the* 

lo ordam that the Neapolitan re- fuj»pofed eompa61 above-mentioned, 

;..i»lic fhoulcl be proviftonally re- between tlr* directory and lheki4i<:» 

J^refented by tw'cfi(y-one citiisens, of the Sicilies; but which ma\, 


158] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

perhtps be explained, withoot fuch 
u ruppofition, hy what follows:— 
In tne plunder of Italy, Ihe mili- 
tary commanders it was fufpeclcd^ 
had taken more than their juil (hare. 
Civil commiflaries were appointed 
hy the directory to attend tne army, 
and to control, or rather monopo- 
lize its robberies. Tliofe civil com- 
snifTaries were armed with a de- 
cree of the executive dire6lory, 

' claiming for the French, nation al- 
inoft all tlie public, «nd a great por- 
tion of private property, throughout 
the kingdom ot Naples i the royal 
domains, and the feudal rights of 
the crown ; the ecclefiaftical pof- 
feffions offered for fifile by the ex- 
king j the eftates belonging to or* 
ders of chivalry ; public banks, 
JnounU of piety, * apd lotteries ; 
eflates of emigrants ; ihe fortunes 
of ftrangers, iubjccls ot ftates at war 
with France ; repertories of works 
of art ', and whatever could be con-- 
fidered as prizes of war. 

The whole power of fuch e^teti- 
fjvc profcription and confifcation, 
tvith the colie^ion of the fums 
nrifing from tlience, Was veiled by 
the dircflory in their civil commii- 
faries, of whom Fagtoult was at the 
bead. The very dilcipline of the 
army fubjecled to the interference 
of the commlflTaries, and even to 
that oi the Nafcent Neapolitan re- 
public. In a word, the directory was 

' jealoos of the power of their gene- 
rals, and envious of their tbrtnnes. 

Championet -did not hcfitate, by 
R counter-decree, to let afide and 
annul a placand, as he called it, fo 
nn worthy of the French nation, fo 
contrary to the engagements he 
had come under, to dangerous to 
the authority of the republic in an 

Unfettled Aatei and fo fubverfive 
of the difcipline of the army. The 
difpofal of all national, and regu- 
lations concerning the tenure of 
private property, he affirmed were 
the exclufLvc province of the Nea- 
politan kgiflature. Among other 
flnclures, on the (hameful condo6l 
of the diredlory, he remarked, that 
it would not fail of exciting a ge- 
neral apprehenfion of the cruel di- 
lapidations in the /late of Venice, 
and other parts of Italy. In fa6l, 
fuch an apprehenfion, in confe- 
qucuce of the directorial placand^ 
had been alr<^dy excited, as was 
fully evinced by the teftimony of 
the French generals, and comman- 
dants of fortrelles, as well as by 
members of the civil adminiflration. 
A general fermentation was ex- 
cited. Confidence in the tblemn 
promifes of the French was fhakei^, 
and the raifing of a contribution 
for the army, that had been without 
any pay for five months, was re- 
tarded. In con fi deration of all 
thcfe circumflances, which proved 
how abfurd the diredlory's decree 
was in principle, indecent in form, 
injurious and inCalent in expreflion, 
and dangerous in its tendency. The 
general gave orders, that the indi- 
viduals compofing the civil cona* 
miflion, namely, the coram it?ary, 
the comptroller, and the cafliier, 
fliould quit Naples within twenty- 
four hours, and the territories of 
the Roman and Neapolitari repub- 
lics in ten days. All agents, charged 
by the comraitnoners with tHe exe- 
cution of any orders, were inftantly , 
to (lop their proceedings. They 
were allowed five days for remo- 
ving the feals they had affixed to any 
property committed to their charge. 

^ Depofitories on a grcat^ liheral^ and mcrcifvtl plan, of the natore of pawn -broking* 



for tavnag op inventories oTfuch foon aAer took place at Paru^ and 

property, and coniigning it into the which terminated in the overthrow 

bands of comroiflarieK of war, or of thedire^ory ; with whofe totter* 

fachotiiercomayiflaries as the com- ing ftate, Championet had probably 

mander- in -chief might appoint, been well enough acquainted. Tiui 

The five days being expired, they diredlory» indignant at rapine com« 

vrere to quit the Neapolitan and roitted without their authority, di* 

Koman territories within the time redlion, or participation, at the 

aljwed for their departure and jour* fame time that they ilTued a decree 

rev, to their pnncipal>. All the for the arreftalions of the generals, 

fijidions v<;Ctea in the civil commif- iffued another for bringing to trial, 

£^0 were proviiionally confided to by a council of war, all thofe perlbns 

the commiflaty-genera], the comp- whatever their rank now, or who 

tiuller oi expenfes, and the pay- had been in the armies of Italy and 

maiier of the army, until farther or- Naples, whom public fame had 

dcrs (h«ul^ be received from the accufed of any fpecies of robbery 

executive direflory. Confifcations or dilapidation. It was neceOiiry, 

0^ the property of Grangers were they Aated, by a Hriking example, 

not to be valid without the confirm- to prevent trie return of exceffcs 

ation oi th^«-<:ommander-in-chief. To reprchenfible and difgraceful. 

All Sicilian property.-rThis coun- and injurious to the French repub- 

ter-decree of Championet's was lie. One Baflral,*who, it feem% 

f«:nt by a courier extraordinary to was« a noted offender, was parti- 

the executive direflory, to the cularly pointed out as a flagrant 

French mint(lersj>f war and finance, objecl of inquiry. This decree 

ai]d to the governments of the Ro- was ordered to be printed in French 

nun and Neapolitan republics, and Italian, and to be put up in 

Trie directory having received the all proper places throughout i\\c 

decree of their general, on the Roman and Neapolitan territories, 
tvventy.fifih of February, found that While Championet was employ* 

lie had been guilty of difobedience ed in the conquefl of Naples, ge- 

to certain laws, which they 'quoted, neral • Serrurier invaded the little 

i^d that be was in a (iate of open republic of Lucca, and immediately 

revolt againil the government. impofed oi^ it a contribution of two 

Championet was employed in millions of livres. The principles 

quelling infurre^ions in the provin- of republicanifm having made their 

c^i in making new perforations in- way into Lucca, as well as other 

toiheruin^ofPompeia and Hercu- Italian flates, it was divided into 

'Ji>eum, when he received a man- two fa6lions ; denominated the pa- 

<iate from the dire6lory, ordering triotic and the oligarchical. The 

l:m, together with generals Roy, patriots embraced the prefent op- 

Dahefme, Dufrefne, Bonami, and portunity to demand a new confti- 
Brouffier, to furrender themfelvestution of government. But the go- 

prifoners of ftate, and undergo a vernment wifely determined to mor 

trial for difobedience. Thefe gene- derate, at leafi, the evils of innovo- 

r^s, in obedience to the mandate, ticvn, by taking the lead in the re- 

murnexl to France. But their trial volution. In compliance with the 

wasprevented, by the firuggle which requifitions of thp people, they de- 
1 1 cree(| 

160] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

creed {he aboltiton of all privileges 
and titles, the (bvereignty of the 
people, the integrity and indepen- 
dence of the ^ep^blic, the return 
as much as poiHble to the conflitu- 
tion a« it (lood before the or fur pa- 
lion of 1556, and tlie beftowtng 
places of power and truft on thole 
who could and would adminifter 
them cheaped. But while they 
readily, and with a good grace, 
made thcfe important c^dions to the 
popular party, they thought it pru- 
dent to retain the provifionary au- 
thority. The patriots, through the 
organ of their deputies, repreiented 
to the fenate and the legi dative com- 
midion, that t-he wtdi of (he people 
was, to have a conditution founded 
on a more pcrfe6l equality of right 
and dividon of power. The fenate 
redded tbofe reclamations, and were 
fupported by Ihe French agents, who 
treated the patriots as anarchids, 
and didurbcps of the public peace, 
^ix other members were added to 
the leg! dative com midion : but thii9 
meafure did not octafion any altera- 
tion. Agreeably to a notification 
from the French general, a hundred 
deputies, Chofen by the city and 
territory of Lucca, were about to 
open their fittmgs, when a condi- 
tution readj' made, and formed as 
nearly as circnm dances would admit, 
on the plan of tlve Ligurian republic. 
The general, having difiblved the 

fenate, appointed the members of a 
dirt^^ory, and of two conncils, and 
remitted to them the form of go- 
vernment, which they were to put 
in execution. 

The dTrcdlory was to confid of 
five perfans ; and \t* nominate five 
miniders : one for foreign affairs ; 
one for domcdic ; one for judicc; 
and one for war and the maTine. 
The (Jire^ory was alfo to choofe a 
national treafurer. Fourteen com- 
miflaries were alfo to be appoinleil 
by the directory for the admmidra- 
* turn of the departments, and to rc- 
fide m the country. All the atls of 
the former government were 1o re- 
main in force. And thofe who were 
to have eiliier civil or military- em- 
ployments were, as far as poilible, 
to DC continued in (heir places, or 
to receive indemnities. The con- 
tribution of two millions of livrcs 
was raifed, only, on the ex-nobfcs. 
This was a kind of counterbalance 
to the complailnnce that had been 
Ihcwn in continuing the provifion- 
ary authority in the hands of the fe- 
nate. The falarics of the public 
fun^Ionaries were judicioufly pro- 
portioned to the fmallnefs of I lie 
date. The dire6!ors were to re- 
ceive fi f^y crowns a month, the 
miniders twenty- five, the members 
of the legidature twelve, and the 
other agents of government in pro- 





Meeting of the Rritijh Parliament, — Speech from the Throne, ^^Debafes^ 
thtreon in bofh lloufcs^^-^Amiy^ ^avy, and other Efiimates, "^Supplies, -^ 
Ways and Means, '^^Taxes.^^New Mcafnre of Finance. — Ruffian Subfidy, 
"-Debates, — Etiiogy on the Ruffian Em peror,^^ India Budget. — Amended 
Bills for the Redemption of the Land-Tax, — Motion by Mr, Tiemey, for 
ikaPretetition of any Negociation that might prevent a Peace, ^^ujpenjion 
vf the Habeas'CorpnS'Ad.-^Converfation relating to the Treatment of 
Ferforu confined in the New State Prifon, 

WE come now to give fome 
account of the effedls pro- 
f^Hccd by the great events, above 
reiatdj on I he councils and condu^ 
of Great Britain : the great antago- 
ntir, around whom all the powers 
were naturally arranged, that were 
>ct unwilling to bend the knee, 
iind able, with her aid, to make 
a ftand againfl the fpreading tyranny 
of France. 

On Tuefday, the twentieth of 
November, 1798, the king, in a 
ipcecb, from the throne, fo both 
loufes of parliament. Hated " the 
li^al fuccefs, which, by the blefling 
oi Providence, had attended his 
wins, been productive of the hap* 
pieil confequences, and cflentially 
promoted the glory and happjnefs 
ot the country. The unedcarapled 
ferles of our naval triumphs had 
feceivcd frefti fplefidour from the 
fT'Cmorable and decifive a^ion, in 
^^bich a detachment of his fleet, 
binder tlie command of rear-admiral 
Ntlfon, had attacked and almofl 
totally dtrftroycd a fuperior force 
of the enemy, (Irenglhened by every 
advantage of fituation. By this 

Vol. XLL ^ 

great and brilKant vi6tory, an en* 
terprize of which the injuflice, per* 
fidy, and extravagance, had fixed 
the attention of the world, and 
which was peculiarly direCled 
againft fome of the moft vulnerable 
interefts of the Britilh empire, had, 
in the firil inflance, been tamed 
to the confufion of its authors; and 
the blows, thus given to the power 
and influence of France, had af^ 
forded an opening, which, if im- 
proved by fuitable exertions on the 
part of other powers, might lead 
to the general deliverance of Eu- 

'' The wifdom and magnanimity 
fo eminently difplayed, at the pre* 
fent junflure, oy th^ emperor of 
Ruflia, and the decifion and vigour 
of the Ottoman Porte, had fhewn 
that thofe powers were imprefl^d 
with a jufl fenfe of the prefent 
crifis : and their example, joined to ^ 
the difpofition manifefied almoil 
unirerfaily in the different countries 
flruggling under the yoke of France, 
mufl be a powerful encouragement 
to other flates to adopt that vigor* 
ous line pf conduct, which ex- 
[ M ] pcrience 



jMTirj^.re lind proved to he alone 
toiTi'unt with icnirilv nr.d honour. 
" The cxli'Til of our preparations 
at h(Mne, an.l the dcmonliration of 
zen! aiid Ipiiit among all ranks o{ 
I'.is (iibiiCts liad deterred the enemy 
I'roni aiteni))ring to execute their 
vain threat of invading the coafls of 
lhi<; kini'doni. 

. '* Iii Ireland, the rebellion, which 
thev had inliisated, had been 
curbed and reprclTcd ; the troops 
"vviii'jj they had landed for its (up- 

' port had been compelled to fur- 
render : and the armaments, fince 
defiincd for the fame purpofe, had, 
by the vigilance and activity of his 

' iquadrons, been captured or dif- 
perled. The views and principles 
<>f thofe who, in concert with our 
inveterate enemy, had long plan- 
ned the fubverfion of ourconftitu- 
tion, had been fully detefted and 
expofed, and their treafons made 
mauifeft to the world. Thofe 
whom they had mifled or fcduced 
muft now be awakened to their 
duty ; and a jufl lenfe of the mife- 
rics and horrors which thofe trai- 
teroiis defigns had produced, muft 
inipreCs on the minds of all his faiih- 
iul • fiibjecls, the ncccffity of con- 
tinuing to repel, with firranefs, every 
attack on the laws' and eftabliftied 
government of their country." His 
niajefly proceeded, as ufual in times 
of war, to ex pre fs his confidence, that 
tfle pi\blic rcfources and fpirit 
would enable the houfe of commons 
to provide the neceiTarv fupplies 
without etrential inconvenien'.e to 
his people, and with as little addi- 
tion as pofiible to the permanent 
burthens of his people. 

His majclly and the houfe of 
c('inmons having retired, the earl 
of Darnly went over all the topics 
touched on in his majefty's fpeech. 

He celebrated wi(h equal warmth, 
elofj.'.encc, and jufnce, the pre- 
c-miricntlv ^!i>rious vic"iory of tlie 
Nile; th.e f|^':;it and ui.ion of the 
•Rulllars and Ol tomans, roiized and 
animLilrd bv that vi(ftorv ; tjie cou- 
rage of the Kir.g of Naples iiillr-med • 
by the fiur-c canfe, and the iifing 
Jujpc?, (Mil fpirils of the interior 
r.alicin flales. Ilis lordfliip con- 
cluded by moving an addrefs, 
echoing, as ufnal, the -fpeech from 
the throiie, aiul afTuring his majcfiy 
of (he loyalty and zeal of his par- 
liament, and the chearfulnefs with 
which that houfe would fupport 
the crown and con dilution. 'J/hir mo- 
tion for theaddrefs \v:is feconded by 
Lord Craven, w ho faid that, by 
our finglc exertions, the navy of 
the French republic was annihilated. 
Her boafted army of England had 
loft even its title, and every cnter- 
prife (lie had undertaken againft us 
was wholly defeated. Not only 
our coafts at home, but our moft 
valuable polTedions abroad, were 
fecurcd. There was but one branch 
of commerce which this country 
did not almoll txclufivcly poflefs; 
namely, that of the Levant. Of 
that trade France would now be 
totally deprived : and this country 
would reap all the advantages 
which had before belonged to our 
enemy, in that quarter. Which a- 
lone contributed to the fupport 
of her navv. ^uona]>arte was cut 
off from all means of retreat, and 
on every tide belet with obftacles. 
Thefe i'ucci lies had already given 
fpirit and alacrity to feveraf of the 
foreign powers, who had^ uneqtii- 
vocallv declared their dcterminai ion 
to join again ft the common enemy. 
Ruflia and the Ottoman Porte had 
already declared themfelves, ami 
he had no doubt but Auflria, though 



v^wiiiJnir, woiilfl find it Iter interefl danger iliould bring the powers of 
<'>jrn in th<i great united exertion, Europe to a league, upon lionefl 
H'inch tlie example of our govern- principles, they muft prevail ov(*r 
T:»rnt had recommended to all Eu- the revolutionary fyllcm; and it was \ 
rope, and without which it would his hope, that hi-^ majollVs miniili*r«i 
^e^ain to look for either (ecu- had improver! the bfe victory of 
nlv or peace. the Nile to that great pnrpi^lc ; that 

Tiic marquts of Lanfdown joined they Ii^d difplayed to the pov/trs 
ir.ollheartily in the pra f ((.'?: jut] Iv be- tlie advantng<s of mairnaniniitv, 
!:o'.vpd on our navy. It became all and bclbrc they canje t) j^arlianieat 
tint houfe to join in merited thanks, to announce tlio continuance of 
hci after tliat duty was performed, war, had incorporated thofe powers 
tlnre would remain another duty to in a great and dilinterelied league, 
!>" perfocmed by the king's mini fiers in wlilch, infl^jad of difi^raein/* 
3?d by their lordfliips : the duty of themfelves, by li)oking to this coun- 
fltawing from our naval vi^lories try fnr fubfidie'?, they hnd relurnod 
tf.c advantages they were calculated the dignity which became them, 
t»> f'ecure. He was fatisfied that it and at length refolved on proceedi-.H'- 
\Nas ofconfequence, not only to the diredly to llieobjoctof reli^ringfecu- 
n^pote and feciirity of Great Bri- rity to E'jroj>o, without feeking, in 
tain, but of flie world in general, its diforders, their own tcmpnrarv 
t'» check the progrefs of ih(: French profit. JVIy lords, (aid the marquis, I 
r« volution, li vras neither necef- am disappointed to find none of 
f^ry nor cronfiHent with (bund po- this in the fpecch from the throne; 
li?v fo load with approbrium even I fee nothing held out to me on 
t'* enemy: bixt it was impoflible, which I can rcpofe ; 1 hear no 
1:'^ (aid, to fpcak of the condncl of account of roturn'ng magnaniinitv, 
tie French without isfing (he ?an« and wifdom. ilis lordihip pro- 
^'^^Q of the iitmod reprobation, ceeded to defrribo the mutual 
Tfi»jir courfe of havoc and devafla- jc:ilr)u(ies that fabli(K\i among the 
< 'M, their unprincipled and detel?a- great powers t)f J'nrop'\ aiul con- 
^''^ tyrannv, corruption, and bale- (eqncntly thnf, while tl.ole la/l.^d, 
''(>. muft 'excite in every bofom no i'yilcm of co-opcrafi^n Jigilnll 
t '.t cheriHios the principles of France can be fucccisrnl. As to 
ii "LTly as the fopi^me good, and the boatk^d vigoiir, mnnifcff-rd by 
t. ? happinefs of human kind, as Ruflla and tlie Portu, it \-. .is im- 
»i.>? end of every rational govern- poflible to fpCw^k of fo nv.;iiit:r)iis 
^''*nt, a rteady refolution to check an idea as a coniunclion b'.-(\vecn 
t''\r raroer, and to lave the world the Rullians and thu TurLs w.t'ic.ui: 
'nw tiie horrible calamity to which ridicule. Their mutual di!:rw/l and 
t' 'V dot*m it. But how Was- the iealoufv exceeded that of- other 
} '»/refs of their atrocity to be nations. And what, ho afked, was 
^ »-rked ? Had we not the experi- the Ottoman Ported Did we not 
♦Id! of five Y^^'^rs to prove to us know that the moll helplefs of all the 
fit we had undertaken the tafk countries on enrlh was Turkey? 
'•■ a way not calculated to obtain It was not only merety incapable of 
' i' end ? It was never denied that, external operations, but even of 
J' at ki>gfh, a (enfc of general domeflic defence. The grand (Mj^ 

[Me] .' Jh;V 

164] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

nior had been defeated . in more from onr marine, from our infuW 
than thirty attacks on one reoelli- fituatioo, and from pablic opinion, 
ous badiaw. Experience ought to makes us certainly more fecure 
imprefs on our minds a convidlon than any kingdom on the conti- 
of the hollow principles on which nent : and when we fee that tlie 
political combinations are formed, powers on the continant make afe 
We had ailifled the great powers of us only for their own ends, can 
of the continent : one of thefe had we again entangle onrfelves with 
contradted large engagements with 'fuch confederates ? I anticipate the 
US, and been enabled, through our reply to all this." ** How can we 
means, to make valuable acquifi- make peace? By repeated trials 
tions. *' I do not, from his ma- it has been (hewn, tnat it is im- 
jcHy's fpaech, under (land that that poflfible to negociate to any pur* 
power nas come forward to tlif- pofc with the French diredlory,** 
charge its obligations; or to give Minifiers know bed whether they 
any aflurance that he wiJl repay ought to have failed. I do not 
the loan, which he raifed under the wi(h to exafpcrate. If they were 
guarrantee of the Britith govern- (incere, I only bment that they 
ment, and therefore, I fay again, did not take the mod dignified 
my lords, that even if a new com- courfc, nor tlie mod likely to obtain 
bination (liould be made, of thofe the end. I would hav^ your lord- 
powers that have hitherto only looked (hips to (liew, by your condafi, 
to their own diAin6l and individual that you feek for no other objed 
objects, and who have deferted the than (ecurity and peace ; that you 
'commpn caufe, the inflant that they will fupport the government who 
had obtained fqme miferable acqui(i- (hall ad upon this iingle principle, 
tton to themfclvcs, we can have no And let it be made >manifed to all 
profpecl of advantage from fuch a the world, that England looks to 
league. Nay, mv lords, if the nothing elfe. It is particularly 
jealoufies of thele great powers digni(ied to make this declaration 
(hould again be (lifled for the mo- in the moment of conqued. Poli* 
ment, I fliould not think this all tical dtuations are always, and at 
that was necefTary to the combined the prefent period, rapidly chang- 
inovementofEuropeagaind France, ing. The French of this day, are 
I (hould demand the concurrence not the French of lad year. And 
and exertion of the northern pow- therefore, however indifpofed they 
^Ts alfo. It is material that the were on the lad experiment, it 
powers of the Baltic (hould join is now worth the trial. I do not 
in the confederacy ; but I fee no- mean that you (hould (end to ofler 
thin^ of all this, and yet we are to it, but choofe the moment of vij^ory 
contmue the war upon the ground to make it manifed, tliat this is 
of hollow and disjointed combina^ the only end you have in view ; and 
tion, and that combination neither that you arc conftantly ready and 
general nor difintereftcd. Arc other prepared to make it. After fuch 
powers lefs fen(ible of their danger declaration, our courfe is clear and 
than we 'qre? Are they lefs liable (afe. Let us lav afi^e all idle plant 
to feel the atrocity of the French of conqued and acquidtion, which 
fyfiem ? The fecurity we derive we caimot maintain^ witnelis 



Corilca and St. Domingo, and let would have long ago been fuccefs- 
us only think of cheap and econo- ftil, and the great nation mufl have 
mica] defence. Let us refufe our given way to them. With regard 
affent to all continental intrigueSy in to conque(ls» St. Domingo and 
w/iicii it is likely that the French Corfica were not only acquifitions 
willottt-manoeuvreus: ibrit isclear, we had made: wilnefs Si. Liicia» 
Ibai in all the progreTs of their Martinico, and the Cape of Good 
iy&em^ they have gained full as Hope. 

niuch by intrigue as they have by Lord Holland confefled, thai, with 
arms. all the advantages we had gained, 

Lofd Romney perfectly coincid- it appeared to him, that tiie noble 
eci in opinion with the noble lords lords, who had moved and feconded 
who moved o^d feconded the ad- the addrcfs, failed to prove that 
drefs. The negociation, lie thought which it was their great objefl to 
had been weU conduded, and pro- eftabliAi, namely, that the next 
dnced the happy effeft of convin- combination of the power* of Eii- 
cinjr ihe people of England that his rope, would prqcure tor this coim- 
majefty's miniflers were .fi nccre. — try an advantageous peace. We 
There were ibme who conflantly had heard indeed of the powerful . 
called the prefent " an unfortunate efifecls of a new confederacy. It 
war." It was unfortunate indeed, was held out in the fpecch 
hefaid, on account of the expenfe Irom the throne. But this was not 
with which it was attended ; but, in the firft time they had heard from 
all other refpedls, this country had the throne of the probable effect of 
never carried on any war that had a powerful confederacy an^aintl 
been more fucccfsfuf than the pre- France. And he wi(hed to know 
fent. He augured better than the what there was new in their fitua- 
noble marquis from our alliance tion, that ihould induce them lo 
^ith the Turks, on whom he be- think that the confederacy, now 
iiowed not a little praife, for open- about to be formed, would be of a 
ing their eyes to the errors of their firmer texture, and more durable 
condud towards France, and dc- and efficacious than thofe that had 
termining t6 oppofe the French been tried already. Compare, faid 
with the utmod vigour. As to the his lordfljip, the fituation of this 
emperor Paul, taken notice of in the country, at this moment, with its 
fpeech from the throne, his charac- . condition at the commencement of 
ter, be believed, deferved praife. hofiilities, and then afk yourfclv^es. 
The fyfiem of his internal policy roy lords, what is likely to be the 
was moderation. He had no doubt rcfult of your procecdfingr If fo 
but a prince, fo remarkable for vir* many viaories cannot gain you 
tue, would be faithful to his engage- peace, what is a new confederacy 
nientJ. He had heard a rumour to produce ? His lordftiip proceod- 
that Denmark and Sweden were ed to fliew, that to manifcfc a difpo-, 
arming, and that the other powers fitiop to peace was not a hum ilia- 
were making great preparations, tion, but equal magnanimity and 
^Hc hoped the rumour was true, wifdom. 

If Europe - had made a common Lord Mulgrave, having warmly 
t^ufe agaipd the French, they joined in the general expreflions of 

166] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

joy and congratulation on the pylori- to the uncxpccled co-operaifon bc- 
oiis atcliievemcnlN of Lord Nelfon, tween Riillia and the Ottoman 
afked whether the prclent moment Porte, what could have induced tho 
\iras a time for a dilplay of unmerit- grand feignior, with all tlje prejii- 
ed and injudicious moderation ? dices with which he was fuppofcd 
VVas it a time to crouch to the in- to be tainted njjainfi his new ally, 
temperate views of inordinate am- to futTcr the Ruliian ileet to pais the 
I>iti()n, and to feck for precarious Dardanelles, but the dreadful ex- 
lecurity ? No 1 It was on tlie con- ample of Uie defolations and horrors 
trary, a timefor inlpiring unani- held out to himby theambih'on and 
mily and vigour, for infuling con- rapacity of the French in Europe ? 
llancy and courjige into the powers The verv idea of entering into anv 
which were threatened with dilli)- Jiegociation at prefect with fuch 
IiHion, and for reftiiing from op- a government as that of France, 
prcfliion and evcry'fpecies of niifery, and confcquently of checking the 
thecountrieswhich had unfortunate- reviving fpirit. of Europe, would, 
ly fallen viclinis to the arbitrary mra- in his mind, not only militate 
lures, and boundlels tyranny of the again ft the true and fubftnntial iiv 
French republic. However he terells of this country, but afford 
might lament the private diftreHes an unque ft ionable proof of pufilla-* 
of many, and that the tears of in- nimity and meannefs. 
dividuals were fhed on various occa- Lord Grcnville put the qneftion ; 
fjons, the general exultation was what had threatened the fubvcr- 
complcte and falislactorv; lor it was fion of civilized fociety, and the 
founded on the general good, the overthrow of the tyiteni of Europe, 
prefervation, the happinefs, and the but paltry and (hameful dif-union ? 
glory of the country. The noble but thofe fhifiing, felfidi politic*;, 
marquis had affertcd that no con- which had to night been applaudetl, 
cert, no (yftematic plan of co-oper- and through which Franco had for 
alion could exift between nations years been ftrcngthencd, by tlie re- 
jealous of one another. That Au- fources of plunder, till at lall the 
/Iria and Pruflia were jealous of one mifery of republican dominion had 
another when they entered into the driven thofe countries to that rc- 
war, and became parties in the fi fence which they were afraid te 
coalition, ho was ready to admit. — exert, wlien their llrength and their 
But was not the fituation of l^iefe means were entire. *' It is with 
powers moit materially altered iince pride and iati^fadion I ackiiow- 
tliat period ? Had they feen no. ledge," faid his lordftiip, ** that I 
example of ri^in, produced by im- have never fubroitted to you the ne- 
providently and raflily indulging in cefijty of diflR^rent policy. I have 
fentimcr.ts of jcalouf) ? He would valued too much the teftimony of 
undertake to (i;y, that, under the my own confciencc, the feelings of 
talufary imprcllion of their pafl; ex- national honour, the didlates of 
pcnft', he fliould have more juft public doty, apd, perhaps, thofe 
( on.'id' i^e in any alliance that frail memofials which may remain 
iI:oii!(l he formed between them of me, (bou Id men take the trouble 
;h)\v, fiian in that of the moft ami- to inquire how William lord Gren- 
cabie nations in any former war. As villc thought an^ a^cd in this' great 




crlfi^, e^'eKfo ad VI fe any other than ment of dlf?iciilty and (hntxcr, to 

a vigorous maul V line of conduct, or ronin*ain t!ic honour and in<k*pe:'- 

to recommend an V refourco but our dence of our countrv, and lo i\]v\' 

own conllancy and perfiverance. — port tho liberties of lvirop;», and 

Ithnsc^'cr been the o])!nIon, which 4he proud luperiority whicli we 

I ha\-c entertaincvi pnH avowed, now enj-^y, thro;udi the national 

tnat if Prance rcnrjined miiiref!? of conflnncv, energv, and viitue." 

the continent, ^\'e could have no The niircj lis of!.Io\vn ob- 

fafety. Diriuiion, mejjn.and (In'f- ferved, that in ulial he had liiid to 

ting poHcy, Juive occafioned all (he night, he had abftaincd from ii^]- 

rabmities under which :i contidera- tating any tojiic*^ tliat cJid not ircm 

bfe part of Kurope i ow groans, to be iinjncilintelv connected uith 

Now, however, there is lomethinir the dilruli'ion heiore tlie hoid'e. — 

n:ore then iTJeri' rvmj)inms of the re- Since, however, the noble lord 

turn of other 1entiment«, and the who had iutHat down, l'>:id brou^hf 

f«v\-alencc of other views. This forward old queftions, he would 

t'.en is not the moment for F2ncTland franklvown that, in his opinion, op- 

t(» (hew that ftic is guided onlv by portnnities for concludint^ a fife and 

little fclfifii politics. Indead of re- honoarable peare had been loll, and 

f'^ing" Europe to H^ fate, and that, for the omifJi(,'n, nnniliers were 

abandoning the vidlims of French feverely refpontibk*. WIkmi the 

ciomination to their mifcry, if ought noble lord talLed fo cvM!tii.u;lv of 

to be the bufinofs of England to tl)e fcliemes enlertained for new 

animate their efforts, and contribute coalitions, and told us that we were 

to (heir deliverance. It is rather to take ilvj lead in Kurope, he 
i^ie duty of the minifters of this- thought it a foolifl) idle plan, whi(di 

conntry, fupported by king and could terminate in nothing but con- 

parliamer.t, to (ay that we are fusion and diliificr. He begged 

ready la take them imder our fliield, theiclordflilps to read thecolle^lionSj^ 

\\hich is raifcd for their d( H'nee which had recently been publiflied, 

nndfecarity; that we are willing of the correfpondence of our Itatei- 

lo aid them by our counfels, to men fmce the revolution, and they 

fupport them with our retburce?, to would find how much our wifeft 

conciliate differences, to allay jea- politicians difapprovevl of coiUinen- 

I'M!fic5, and unite tiieir ^flbrts. — tal connections, the f\ litMn of lub- 

What is the fituatlon of thofe fidies. In his own tni^e he roeoj- 

powers which yet fland in a trem- lecled lo have heard lord Gren- 

Ming, degraded, precarious, exift- ville's father fearch the Engli^Hi lan- 

ence, purchafed by difhonour.^ — Ri^^P^e for epithets, by whidi to 

L''>ok at thofe who have Tollovved evprefs his (ii,'.ip;)rob2tion of fuch 

i- a courfc in which it has been views and po'itics. — Tiie dulic of 

rtcummended lo us to teek our Marlboroihdi, who pofilfied con- 

.'r/ety. What impartial man will ciliatory t dents in as eminent a 

'leny that the- comparifon jufiifies degree as any man ever did, fa id, 

an honeft pride, that the turvev ap- with that grace which was fo peeu- 

proves the fyftem on which his liar to him, that it was' fome merit 

Jv^jcfty's minifters have aded ? — to have made eight nations act as 

Wc have endeavoured, in a mo- one man. But, great as the duke 

[ M 4 ] oi 


of Marlborough's talents were* be Gr^t difiicalti&i vre had certain v 

would venture to iay» that were he experienced : but we had happily 

alive now, it would be above his furmoonted them. The national 

talents to form fuch a confederacy, credit, which at one time was 

or to make four nations a6t as one greatly di(lre(Ied> and on the fall 

man : as little would the noble lord of which the enemy had placed 

find it ea(y to make even four nations their expedations, was confirmed. 

a6l with concert and eife61. Now The fpirit of the country was rou- 

that ei.periments were to be made, zed, and jts ardour feemed to have 

at ihe expenfe of (o many millions, increafed in proportion to the diffi- 

andof fo many thoufand lives, he culties it had to combat. The 

would fay to the noble lord, you Britiih people proceeded in willing 

tried one experiment and failed, concert with the government In ad- 

and we do not choofe tJiat you dition to the burthens upon theoB, 

ihould trv it over again. The they had come forward witli vohin*- 

noble lord has been deceived once, tary aids to an amount which ex« 

and lam afraid he will be deceived ceeded the mod fanguine. ^pe^la* 

a fecond time. " If, fa id the tions ; and, from a people unaccuf* 

marquis, I have any credit with tlie tomed to arms,* they had fuddenly 

country, I fbke it upon this fcnt!- become a nation ot foldiers. The 

ment. For feveral years I oppofed French government were intimi* 

the former attempt. to take the lead dated; and all their mighty pre* 

in continental coalitions, and I parations, for the invafion of this 

now oppofe the attempt to renew country, terminated in mere gafeon- 

them.'' nade. The few troops, whom the 

Thetjueilion being put, the adt- French government had, by a 

drefs was carried nemine coniro' favourable chance, fucceeded in 

dicenie, — On the fame day, his throwing on the Irifh (hore, were 

majefly's fpeech having been read foon compelled to furrender to his 

in the houfe of commons, maje/ly's forces. This fortunate 

Lord Grenville Levifon Cower, event was fucceeded by the defeat 
rofe to move an addrefs in reply, of the Brefl fleet, The Dutch 
The houfe, he faid, would recol- fhips, which had the fame deflina- 
ledl, that his majeily had been in- tiou, were alfo intercepted; and, in 
duced to make two attempts to fhort, .every armament they had 
negociate with France. It was ventured td.fea was either captu* 
conceived that a dawn of xeafon red or difperfed. From thefe in- 
had at lail broke forth in France, fiances of BritiQi valour and difci- 
and it was hoped that the directory pline, his lordthip turned to the 
would fee that it was their intereft gloriousfirft of Auguft; that fplen«« 
to make fuch a peace as this coun- did atchievement, which, in its bril- 
fry could with honour agree to.-r- liancy and utility, was unequalled 
The event, however, . had (hewn in the annals of*^ this or any otlier 
how vain, were all thefe expe^a- nation. That expedition, which 
"Tttms. It was poilible, indeed, for h^d been planned againll our £atl 
a country to be fo much erabarraf- India pofleflions, had been render- 
fed, as to render it prudent in them ed incapable of hurting them. It was 
to make pc<ice ahnoA on any terms, cut off from all communication with 



France, and nufl be lefl to its own who feconded (he motion for tb* 
neauuy as tbey 'were at prefent, for addrefs, went over the £im# 
no reinforcement could be fent ground, with equal eloquence*-* 
from Egypt. Not only had the Offers of pacification rcjefted by 
deilradion of the French fleet in the enemy ; the neceffity we wer# 
tiie bay of Aboukir given fpirit and under of perfiiing to a conclufion 
energy to the Turkifli government, the advantage;; we had gained, noC 
but it had infpired all Europe with only for the fake of our own countrr 
hope and joy. When the news of alone, but that of all civilizei 
that great event' reached Ralladt, fociety ; a progreffive and uninter* 
the deputies of the empire for tha rupted chain of fplendid fuccefs^ 
£rft time ventured to refiRtheam- Ireland faved ; public credit not 
bitious proje^s of the French pleni- fubverled, but propped and Arengtb^ 
potentiaries. It had alfo encoara- en^d. From the mutilated and 
ged ihe king of Naples to oppofe the almofl annihilated ihte of tlia 
commcn enemy, and it was to be French marine, many years muft 
hoped that the time was not far dif^ elope before the enemy could again 
iAiit when he would be capable of become formidable to this country t 
cnifhiiig the infant republics, which by vigour, and perfeverance, therjj* 
bad been ereded in his neighbour* fore, at the prefent moment, we 
hcx>d. It was from the conduct of were not only preparing a. perman*' 
the French to other powers that we ent and fubflantial treaty for our* 
ought to efifmate the pradieability felves, but laying the loundationi 
of negociating in fafety with France, of peacp, proCperity, .and happi» 
Witncfs Switzerlancf, Spain, A u- nefs, to a generation yet to come. 
flria, and Italy. When Rufha and Sir John Sinclair, who had mi' 
the Ottoman Porte had lo magnani- nutely eicamined the particulars of 
moofly flepped forward in th^caufe the various brilliant anions whicli 
uf virtue and focial order, when decorated "the maritime hiflory of 
thofe powers that had, by force or this country, declared, that, amongfi; 
fraod, been fubiedled to French them all, he did not find one that 
domination, manifefled a returning could Aand a comparifon with lord 
fenfe of indignant pride, and a Nelfon's vi6tory : which placed tb9 
determination to throw off the gall- h^ro, under whofe banners it wa« 
ing yoke of republican tyranny, ought atchieved, and the fleet that had tli^ 
that houfe, by talking of an unattain- honour of ferving under him, at the 
able peace, to chill the ardour and fumnnt of naval glory. But, by the 
paralyze the efforts of the people of mifcondudl of miniflers their laureU 
Kngland in the common caufe, and had been well nigh blaflcd. The 
at the fame time to blafl the hopes orders for the failing of the fleet had 
of every civilized flate of Europe, been fliamefully delayed, in confe- 
^^hofelble profpeft of relief center- quence of which lord Ncllbn had 
^ on this country ? Lord Levifon not been able to attack the French 
did not forget in this animating armament at Malta: in which cafe, 
retrofped to advert to the increale both theflectandarmyof Buonaparie 
cfoor commerce and the flourifli- ,njull have furrendcrcd. The Britifh 
i^ilateof our finances. fleet was unaccompanied with frj* 

§ir H- ¥' S^- Jol»i Mjidmay, gates whjchbjid rejidcrtO it pc^eflary 


170] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

fof lord Nelfbfl to fend home a fifty 
|»un fliip with an arcount of (he en- 
pngemcnt, by which we lofl fhe 
liCander. A«d, no homb-veflels 
liaving accompaMed the fleet, the 
franfports in the harbour of Alexan- 
dria had hitherto eicaped deftruc- 
ffon. The next inftance noticed 
by fir John, on the mifcondoft of 
fiiinifters, with regard to lord Ne!- 
Ibn's fleet, is very important indeed, 
and fliews to how many accidenta! 
circnmftances a liero may owe hi^ 
fame ; and a hero too his dlfgrace. 
Had it not been for the accidental 
circnmftance, flr John obferved, that 
the FOrient drew too much water to 
'enter that harbour, the whole French 
fleet might have been moored there 
in fafcty, and might have defied all 
ourefl>:)rts. It u'as not Intncientthat 
we had gained a fplcndid victory, by 
the (kill and,gallantry of our feamcn, 
in fpite of »«niniflcria] mifcondu6l. 
We ought to know why the expe- 
dition of Buonaparte was not totally 
deliroyet:! ? Sir John proceeded to 
make various remarks on all the 
other points tX)uchcd on in the 
fpeech from tlie throne, and alfo on 
fcveral other points of which he had 
cxpe6led or wiflied tliat fome notice 
had been taken. To detail thofe 
remarks, or even all the topics to 
which, they refer, wonld exceed tlie 
plan of this concife abridgement of 
proceedings in parliament. But there 
is ope of thefe that may be men- 
tioned, both en account of its own 
importance, and the fingnlarity of 
the oblervation with which iir Jolm 
introduced it. ' The fubjc^ was the 
evacuation of St Dominc^o. it 
was well known that fir John S. 
obferved, tliat, if, at the beginning 
of the war, we hnd bent all our 
exertions againft the French Weft 
India illands, inflead of Flanders, 

where we had w a fled our fTrengt^i 
fb fruitlcflly, we might have fecured 
the poflbflion of thofe iflands, and 
prevented all thofe (c^enes of dc-fola- 
tion, malfacre, and plunder, vvhic h 
had taken place in that unfortunate 
quarter of the globe'. At lafl, we 
did fend fonie troops there, and 
fiirroeded in capturing foriie of the 
French pofieflions but were not 
fufficientlv flrong either to take the 
whole ot St. Domingo, to retain 
pofl'efllon of Guadaloupe, or to pre- 
vent fome of our own iflands from 
being defolated. Amidft all thefe 
unfortunate circumftauces it was 
fome confolation to us (hat we 
could retain pofleflion of a part of 
St. Domingo, by which, we were 
told, J.imait^ was protected from 
invafion. Tffat fource of confola- 
tion however was' now over, as St. 
Domingo was completely evacua- 
ted. This was a fubjc6l which 
would demand a very ferions inqui- 
ry. That houfe,- and the nation p 
ought to know the number of Bri- 
tifli fubje6^s that had periflied in 
that ill-judged, or ill-condu6tcd en- 
tcrprife ; the amount of the fums of 
money laid out in attempting to 
make the acqui(ition ; whether they 
had been properl}^ expended aiid 
regularly accounted for ; with other 
particulars. This fubjc6t, of fo 
much public importance, faid fir 
John, " to his utter aflonifhmcnt, had 
been totally overlooked in (he 
fpeech fro'm the 'throne." We fup- 
pofe that it would have been mat- 
ter of great aftonifliment to mofl 
of our readers if the miniftcr, on 
fuch an occafion, had poured forth 
confeflionS and lamentations on fb 
melancholy and mortifying a fub- 
jecl — on all the points in the fpeech 
from the throne ; obfervations were 
aJfo made by (ir Francis Burdctt. 



Vie CTAn^try he arfraJKed ftood on on the part cf the people of F.n;:;- 
ii^'h^-r ^rotind than it did a ftiort land: innovations' in the jiirilpru- 
liiiuibacit; and if advniUat^e %\ere deuce of the country; the intcr- 
t.\k(M» of fJiis favniirable {itu.ilion, ivrcnce of the cxecative power 
ij f-nnjunclioo with (he n-Tr of Eu- with the . management ajul ti>at- 
r',>e, to pracure a (afe and honMir.i- nient oK priloniirrs ; baliilies, callccfc 
I.'.** pcace^ Llif?n :r.dee<l' he (liould houCes of corrcclion, where feveri- 
! our recent ruccetl'-a as ftje ties were exerciled np()n n:cn, not 
"m(n> of future happinefs. But if^ even charged with a:^v crime, fucli- 
ti the w]K)Ie tenor of the Ipecch as the humane old law of the lani 
irom the ihrone tiii^ day gave too does not allow to be infli^rled, even 
i.jj«.h reason to fear, our recent fuc- upon the greateft criminals; men 
f'uei were to be made ufe of, only thrown into prilbn oiy" more fufpi- 
.^■i an inltrun^.ent to infiigate the cion of crimes, and, afler months 
cvCTilry to a proitoutton of the war, of (blitary confinemout, turned nav 
^wt.'.uul a dt^claration 'of any dif- ked into the world, their fortunosi 
I'a and definite c-!>jec>, hecould ruined, their hcallli deli roycd, th(^ir 
I', n fogard our naval victories only wives and families flarvinjr, or de- 
.^ liie probable ibrcnmners of fu- pending for a precarious fublifter.ce 
I'ire n^.isforfcunes. The hiftory of on charily: and this was I lie con- 
-I c^'ilitions, formed of great and duel of a governmeiA which wo 
■Jcordant interefts, wis the fame, were called on, not barelv to fub-. 
ii ihf'v were not facef<;fal in their mit to, but zealouliy and alJeclion- 
I'- n't effort;, they rarely, if ever, fuc- atcly to fiit)port. If iiii niaji-fiv, 
c'cdidat al/. Did any man think faid lir Francis, was fhicere in vvl<h- 
'' -i fjccefjtftil war would be carried ing to promot'* that unanimity 

• ■' a^^inft France, by a coalition pniongft all ranks of his people, 

• 'Ik: preferjt mutilated powers of fo delirable at all tiirc?, fo peru- 
-rofje, when Ihe had already baf* liarly nccellary al the ])u:ient, 

•''d tne rooit pov/erful lear^ue that li^t the peo|>le be reiiorcd to their 

'TjN ever formed nj^aiidt any coiin- rights anti liberties; let ihn old 

■'^' And though internal difien- law of the land be again made 

' .i< flionld ariic in France, we the rule (A' aclinn ; let ih.ofe ^^r*w 

'. v\\\ by experience, how little in- prifons, thcfe reccptiKJes of nrilL-ry^ 

• ''nc-e internal difliirbances had and inllrumcnts of t\rrGnv, be dc- 
' '11 her armies and her external flroyed ; let a wife fXilcm nfecono- 

' I'i'ics. Sir Francis, having conie n^y fuccccd to tiie prcfipl profligate 

'• ' e concluding part of his ma- wafrc^of corrupt expen iituro ; and 

1 ; '< fpcech, (aid, that in the lali Jet tliefe blefliiigs <,f lilx'rty be fe- 

i^wCe, and in that alone, he did cured by a full, free, and fjir repie- 

' M completely agree, that we fcntation of the people in pnrli i- 

' iid all be firmly d^•lcrmined to ment. The queTiion i"or the rd- • 

• ' •! any attack on our laws and drefs being put, was carried with 

' citation. Had we firndy re- only one diflentient voice. 

'/ i^'l the many attacks madi* on Next day, Novcrnl>',>r fwenly- 

' ' v by our prefect minifters, he firft, J79S, the thai.Ls of . both 

.'d not now have to comj^hnn lioufes of parliament .v\ ere voted, 

- many and weighty grievance^ uiuinimoufly, to lord Neiibn and ' 


172] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

liis fleet/ and alfo to (ir J. B. War- 1 10,000 was the istmoft extent 

fen and his fleet. On lord Nelfon, to which we could pofliblj go with 

and his two next fucceflbrsi being any attention to propriety. The 

heirs male, a net annuity was (et* principal grounds on. which he red* 

tied of 2000/. per annufji, for their ed his opinion^ were« the mined 

jpatural lives. To the memory of flate of tlie French navy } the fkill 

captain George Weftcott, who fell and fpirit uniformly difplayed by 

in the naval engagement on tl)e our own ; the afliltance we were 

firft of Augufl, as noticed in our Jikely to receive from Ruflianj Tur- 

laA volume, a monument was or- ki(h> Portuguefe, and Neapolitan 

dered to be erected, at the public auxiliaries, not forgetting the new 

expenfe, in the cathedral church of maritime power that was rifinj^ in 

St. Paul, London. America, and the aid which, ac- 

On the fame day, the minifler cording to report, we were to re- 
entered on the great and urgent ceive &om Swedeit and Denmark ; 
buflnefs of finance, the grand fpring the inoccupation of a vafl nomher 
of all other buflnefs, external and of our (hips, undergoing repairs 
internal. The houfe of commons or rotting in harbours; the neceP- 
liaving reiblved itfelf into a com- fity of public economy; and the pru* 
mittecy a relolution, moved by the dence of a gradual ailbandment of 
chancellor of the exchequer, for our foldiers and failors, and leaving 
granting a fupply to his majefl^y hands fuflicient for the purpofes of 
was agreed to. agriculture and commerce. 

On the twenty-fixth of Novem* General Tarleton wiflied" the 

ber, lord Arden moved that it was houfe not to mifhike What were the 

the opinion of the committee, that fentimentsof gentlemen on his> fide 

one hundred and twenty thoufand of the houfe, refpeding the impor- 

feamen fliould be employed for the tance of the navy to the cotntry. 

fea-fervice of 1799, including twen- He could aflTure them that not one 

ty thoufand marines : which after of his honourable friends, entertain- 

fome oppofition from fir John Sin* ed the fame fentiments on that 

clair were voted. The following fuhje6t, as the honourable baronet, 

fums were alfo voted, for their The refolution was tllen put; and, 

maintenance: with the exception of fir John 

For the payment of the feamen, Sihclair's Angle vote» unanimoufiy 

fit the vote 'of 1/. 17j. per man,, agreed to. 

per month, for tliirteen months. On the twenty-eighth of Novem*. 

2,886,000/. ber the following refolutions were 

For vidualling the fame for thir- moved and agreed to : 

teen months, 2,964,G00/. That it is the opinion of this 

For the wear and tear of (hips, committee, of the noufe of com- 

4^659,000/. mons, that, towards raifing the fup- 

For naval ordnance, 390,000/. ply- granted to his majeAy, tlie 

On the report of the refolution feveral duties impofed upon fii- 

for 120,000 feamen, the twenty- gar, by the 27th, S^th, and 37 th, 

feventh of November, of his prefent majefty, and alfo the 

Sir John Sinclair, heiitated not duties kS( excife on tohacco and 

to declare his full convi6lion, that fmiff, dircfted in the laft fcfRon of 

parliament 4 


parliament, to be continued until The great head of excefs in this 
the fifth of March^ 1799, (liould year's account arofe from the em- 
be farther continued until the fifth bodying of the fupplementary mill- 
of March, 1800. tla. It came in but partially lafl 

"That four (hillings in tlie pound year, (1798) but now it was to be 
and no more, be ixnpofed on all provided for the whole of the year. 
penfions, oi&ces, &c. and continu- The Scotch militia was another 
vd: head quite new. Another head 

** That the duty on malt &c. of charge was, an increafe of fen- 
be continued from tlie twenty-third cible cavalry : to which muft be 
of June, 1799. to the fourth of added, an increafe of the Itaff at 
June, 1^00. On the twenty-ninth, home. A fmall additional arofe 
the lioufo being in a committee of from the increafed allowances to 
fiipplv, the fecretary-at-war, Mr. inn-keepers> The charge of volun- 
Windham, proceeded to lay before teer corps, although not entirely 
the commons, the army-edi mates, a new head, was yet, in the 
The difference between the cHimate elli mates before the houfe, confider* 
of this, and that of 1797, he fafd, ably extended. The next addi* 
would be iome thing more than one tional charge, which occurred, was 
million. The objeds, which bad that of barracks, on account of tha 
created this difference, were the increafe of troops, during the bft 
lupplementary militia, the provi- year, for the purpofe of repelling 
fional cavalry, the volunteer corps, any attack which might be made 
aiid barracks. The charges atten- againfl us. Another article, which 
<iant on thofe new arrangements, it would b^ neceflary for him to 
added to thofe abeady eftimated notice, was one, which would meet 
tar 1798, amounted in the whole, with the approbation of every gen-* 
to the fum of 3,303,925/. Be- tieman : a fmall increafe of the pen- 
(jdes thefe increafed eftabliiliments, iion to officers widows. His pri* 
which were to be kept up for the vate opinion was, that it was now 
cnfutog year, there were fome vo- much too fmall, and when it was 
liinlcer corps that had not been confidered to what a deplorable re* 
called out till the prefent time, ^erfc; of fortune thofe peribns rouft 
and otherft that had cenHderably be reduced, before tliey received 
increafed fince the Ia(l eflimate : that reward, he was convinced that 
on which account, the edimate for the fmall additional fum could not 
the enfuing year woul^ amount be con (idcred as improperly bellow* 
tn {bmewhat more than the fum of ed. The whole account under this 
nine millions. The heads of the head did not exceed 12,00<)/. 
caufe of increafe, in the prefent But thefe articles of excefs were 
}ear, were, an augmentation of dra- reduced h^ other articles of faving. 
goons, which amounted to 65,000/.; We had formerly to provide ibr lo- 
an increase of the companies of reign corps; an ex pen fe which had 
fuot-guards from one hundred to now ceafed. Theredu^ion of pro- 
one bundled and twenty men, which vidonal cavalry was another head 
canfed an increafed expenfe of of faving. To this was to be added 
120,0O0A ; for the edablilbment of an additional fum from the iiland of 
regimental pay-mafiers, 27,000/. J^m^ipa, and a farther allowance 
7 from 

i7*] ANNUAL REG 1st fe ft. i79«J. 

fK)m JrehnA, In <*on(equeriCC of the loan, wns upwards of twcnfv-tlifcr 
tror)[>s fcnl from ifiis to tlw^affiftaTK* millions. Laft foffion, the plan nf 
of t!;nt country. Scotch roads and troLIinj^ tiio-ntfefied-tnxes, not cy^W 
hrklrai were an artkle m'fornTer was taken to fnrnifh a certain p'^r- 
e'finiates, hut now they were to- tion oftne fupphcs of (he v^ar, h:!t 
^ully omitt^l, beinp: pro\ ickM for in pnrt of its piodiice wns afliit^mnl for 
onolher manivT. Tliere tiow oc- Ihe cxtipvhon of fnch pari of (he 
**iirre(l anoti^er iirlicle to whic h he loan ot ci^'ht millions as was n^^ 
tvlflied to fay a few t^'ords. In <he covorcTii b\ the finkinp^-fund. Vo- 
•prefent cftimate, the expenfe of hmtary contributions hrid made up 
the war eftabhihment is included, the deficit on the alielled faxes ; 
Ho miH'h niieftioned whether the and the fuperior produce of the ex- 
new re emulation of paying fixed fa- ports and imports be}ond the efti- 
laries from fees would in the event mate of ways and .means, had 
prox-e any favinsj to the country. — brousrht the amount of the fums to 
lie very much doubted whether tire be raifcci ^o that of feven million«? 
regular ami dfual (i-es would pay and a Iialf, at which they had been 
the [)ermanent eiiablifliment of the calculated. The produce of the 
office. Me'had now ftated all that afiefTed-laxes, yi'hich he had efti- 
fx-currefl to him to be ncceflary. — mated at 4,500,000/. under all 
i^fter foqie oblcrvations by Mr. the modifications they had under- 
Ticrney on the neccdity of econo- gone, and all the evafion^ and tricks 
Tnv, and on cxpenfcs rifing rnfiead with which fo many pcrfbns had 
of'beins; diminidied, in the midfl of fhifted the public burthen from 
vidlories and triumphs, the feveral their own fhoulders, was jet four 
refblution^ on the army-eflimatcs, milliotis. Inflead of 1,500,000/. 
as kid down by the fecretary-at- the voluntary contributions ateady 
war, were moved ami agreed to.'' exceeded two millions j ami thefum 
On the third of December, the of fcven millions and a half, for 
rlinncellor of the exchequer made a %vhich credit had been taken, bad 
flatement of the whole of the fup- been elTcclive to the public fervicc. 
plies necelTary for the fervice of Thefe particulars, refpe6ling (he 
1799, and of the ways and means efiimate of 1798, being premifed, 
liy wlildi he propofed io raife Mr. Pitt proceeded to (fate a new 
them. 'J'hc limi total of the fup- ])lan for raifin^r a very confiderabic 
plicij required, • was 2^?,?7i?,00O/. part of the fupphes within they err, 
Tiie ways and means for which there and of courie proportion ably di- 
were the ufual refource^, in the minifliing that of the fum to bebor- 
tliilles fnbrtituted in lieu oFthe land- rnwed. This tax was not like the 
lax now made perpetual, tlie hit- affcflld tax; a tax on cxpenditutp, 
torv, the confolidated fund, and but one on incomeJ The commif- 
imports ami exportSi exlemlcd to fiont-rs who fhould be inveflcd with 
ill- amount of 6,150,000/. The re*- a power of fixing the vote of every 
luainder of the fum total of the one's income, fhould be perfons of 
lupplies for the year remaining to a refpe6lablc fituation in life, and 
be railed, either by a tax within men of integrity and independence. 
they/iar, in the fame manner as the Amongf^ the commiflioners of Cup' 
cir<ied-tJix -bill of la ii year, or by a ply, fromwhofe voluntary fcrvire^ 
12 ' 'in 


rii tl:c dii7vTciif roiiiUie^ the cciiiJrv hut tint it ftiould be matle the dutv 

Md ffcrirpd (lich Lcjh-IU, ii)«.;j ml"')! of ionx' oftitxTs, in tuu-h ditlricJ, to 

M? ('.'.p-i-ai-ii to Ikj i()u;.^l, v. ],o lav before the o>mmi([ioiier< any 

v.i.;i'i bf'It ru.rwcr (lie cl«'!ri j;):jon {^rounds of doubt whrd. tluy n^.i^ht 

Ij't.l ju.l :<i\fK. He \\«/ J i p.o- ciueilain. Thult^ llalcnienls (rom 

r. c (hit r.'> n-.-n fijouki l;o :id;.]it- ir.dividiiak, he pr(>j>,')!cd, fhoiJd l^e' 

:.! to act ii»r ll*e piiipoics to he fcnt to the ri:rvc\<"irs of taxes, or 

li.'j.iLT Jpecitu'd, \\ho did i>!>t innie ether oth ers appointed (or 

{^j.^tlk 300/. per annum: to thcfe t.'iat purpofe; thai ihele flionlv}onU' 

J certain number of perfons fljould i-xpreU their doubts, and the toiin- 

f.>e added, reti dent in the difilTent dations o^ them ; and, that then 

rii\iliims or diltrlcls, and who (he commiflioners fnould call lor 

.'I;^ lid poflefs the lame quaiihcation farther explanation. When thefe 

«•» :i O/. a year — that fuch htl of grounds of doubt flioiild be tranf- 

to.:uniilloners fliould be rderred to initted to the conTmifhotiers, thev 

il.» two lait grand juries for each fliould have the power of rcqnirint^ 

I i^uty, who Qiould feled a proper a fpecificatioo of income ar'iCin^ 

":. ;rr.ber of each divifion, and a from the diilerent branches, and ac- 

'iT uiier nuinher for appeals. In conhng to the forvn^ prefcrihed by 

^vi-il cities and commercial places a fchedule annexed to the aci. Jf 

ine rpecial provifions migiit be the commiflioners Ibould not be fa- 

it-ctiSiry. The commifiioners l>eing tisfied, they might require another 

<*'njointed, lhc» next ftage of tiie f|>eciiication. Individuals alio mi»:^hr 

1 ..iinefs was, ihc manner of bring- ihie in what tliey had been over- 

. •: before the commiflioners the charged. If the commiHioners 

-'It view of the charge which each fhould not be iatisfied with the* 

i'JividnaJ was to contribute; ado p- fcheduies given in, they fhouLt 

i :: it as a principle, in the l.iine have, in that rafe, the j»ower to . 

r j; ner as wa& done in tiie adetied- proceed to examinations hy oath ; 

t-\ bill, that no pcrfons wliolc in- but they fhould have no conipulforv 

<'.ri;cs were under 00/. a year power to make a man aniWei;.— 

: nld pay any thing. Every per- I'hey (hould neitlier have autlfOjjfv 

•* ". ihould ftate what that funi was, to call for books, nor to examinij 

\'..vh he was willing to contribute, any manV cleiks or agenis. if, 

•i-.r a declaration that what Ii..* fo however, the parly examined flicuhl 

' . tributed was not leis tiien one- withlwld any in formation on thefe 

* . :h of hi> income. Thedii/erencc points, it Ihould refr with the coin- 

' ^ween this plan and that of the raillioncrsto form their own op;nI(^n, 

:' /.ed-tax-biU was, tliat inllcad of and tlicir judgejnei.t Ihould be ijna], 

 ■.-• S!c and quadruple afleirment, unlefs the part\ chufe to appeal t«o 

• ..rft charge would be from tho the higher order of the comniit- 

utration of the parties them- fioner*. But even in ffjal cafe, no 

V *. But the next point to be books or papers fljould he examined. 

• iidcred, was in what manner If tlK* party lluuld be un\viIiin^ to 

•.'(laration of the parties Ihould produce thofe paper*?, he mult ac- 

' ci.eckcd and aicertained. The quiefce in the decilion which the, 

^. !,• Mr. Pitt would propo(e, was, commillioners fliould come io upon 

' ::ny public ftateroent of hiconie, fuch other informaliun as it might 


176] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179&. 

he in thetr power to obtain. Such 
information the commiflioners (hovld 
be firidly fworn not to difcioiey.nor 
1o avail theroJelves of it for any 
frarpofe feparate from tfie execu- 
tion of the a€t» If, however^ any 
information (bouici be made, upon 
oath, which the commiffioners fbould 
think to be falfe, they might carry 
on a profecution for perjury. Mr. 
Pitt proceeded to propofb cerlain 
exemptions from difclofure of in- 
come : abatements, and allowances 
In favour of certain defcriptions of 
perfons ; and next to coniider tiie 
probable amount of the tax. Hav- 
ing reviewed (he general fources of 
the wealth of this country, heilated 
the national income tobe 1 02,000,00/. 
flnnually, clear of all deductions ; * 
on this fum, a lax of ten per cent, 
was likely to produce 10,000,000/* 
a year. Now^ it would be recol- 
leded, that in the {aft feffion of par- 
liament, the ailefled-taxes were the 
only part of the public refources 
which were mortgaged for the. fum 
of 8,000,000/. borrowed for the 
public fervice, in 1797. He there- 
lore propofed tha^ the fum now to 
be raifed in lieu of the aflefled 
taxes, aAer its appropriation to,ihe 
iiipplies of the prcfent year, ihould 

remain as a pledge for the difchargf 
ot that fum, for which the taxes 
were a fecurity, and alfo for the 
di (charge of the loan for the prefent 
year, beyond what would be paid 
out of the finking fund ; that it 
fliould be applied to the fupplies of 
tile year in the (irfl inflance; but, at 
the fame time, that the tax fhould 
be continued till it had difchar^ed 
the deb^ for which the alTened 
taxes were mortgaged, and then to 
ipake a farther charge for what 
might be borrowed oeyond what 
the (inking fund would difcharge. 

Mr. Pitt having thus explained 
the nature and object of his prefent 
plan of 6nance, obferved, that it was 
founded un an extenfion of (he ge- 
neral principle of that financial 
meafure which had been adopted 
laft feffion of parliament. If the 
committee had feen the advantages 
of that principle, imperfedl as it^ 
executibility was, in comparifon ot 
that of the prefent meafure, tiiev 
would find fome tiling better than 
reafpn to induce them to adhere to 
it : they would^nd that their own 
experience decided in its favour. — 
He exulted in the difappointment 
of our enemies, wha had founded 
their hopes on the immoderate ac- 

* The amount of rent on land poflefled by landlords in England . . jf 2o,ooo«ooo. 

The amount of lands in the hands of tenants 5,000,000. 

Amount of tythes • 4,000,000- 

Amount of mines, (hares in canals, timber. Sec. . 2,ooO|Ooo. 

Amount of the rent of houfes 6»coo,ooo. 

Amount of the income anting from pofledions' • 1^000,000. 

Amountof the produce of aU the above articles in Scotland .... 5,000,00a. 

Amount of income of abfentees (rom Ireland 1,000,000. 

Amount of income from the Weft Indies 4,0^,000. 

Amount of intcreft of funds • « ia,ooo;Oca 

Amount of pro(^c on foreign trade 11,000,090. 

Ptofit on home trade • ^8,000,000. 




mmnlation of our funded debt, and feiTment made in purfuance of aiiy 
th^ rain of onr public credit. The aft of parliament in force, at the 
prefent furpafled the proudeft pe- time of paifing the faid aft of the 
riod of Britifl) hi/lory. He beftowed laft fefSon, be repealed, 
the highefl praifes on our armies *' Refolved, that it is the opi- 
and navies, and particularly the nion of this committee, that to- 
fccrecy and vigilance difplayed in wards railing the fupply granted to 
oar naval department, and a flcilful his majefly, there be charged annu- 
drfpofition of our maritime force, ally, during a term to be limitted. 
But the great and permanent fource, the feveral rates and duties foilow« 
h€ Ciid, of our glory,, was thofe ing, upon all income arifing from 
pecuniary resources, and the pro- property in Great -Britain, belong- 
per means of calling them forth, mg to any of his majefty's fubjefts, 
yvhich had enabled us to perlevere although not reiident in Great Bri- 
in the contefl, to weary out adverfe tain, and of every body politic or 
accidents, lo flrike at length a moft corporate, or company, fociety, or 
terrible blow^ and to bring about fraternity of perfons, whether cor- 
the greatefi events. When the in- porate or not corporate, in Great 
terefti of ihexnfelves and their polle- Britain, whether fuch income fhall 
Titjt of Engiand, and alfo of all arife from lands, tenements, or he- 
other nations, were at (lake, he was reditaments, wherefoever the fame 
con^dent, that after the difBcultics ftiall be dtuated, in Great Britain 
they had already encountered, they or elfewhere, or from any profef- 
would not Ihrink from the prefent iion, office, employment, trade, or 
arduoQs crifis^ or refign thole titles vocation. It has already been 
to pre-eminence, for which they noticed that no income was to be 
bad already been fo celebrated, and burlhenedivith any tax, if it did not 
which were the pride and glory of exceed (ixty pounds. If it amoun- 
aii thofe who had the honour of ted to 100/. but did not exceed 
calling themfelves fubjefts of Great 105/. it was charged with a duty of 
Britain. On.thefe grounds, there- oae-fortieth part. Intermediate in^ 
fore, he proposed a feries of refb- comfs were charged in fimilar ratios. 
Intions, on tlie plan fubmitted to Mr. Tiemey declared himfelf an 
i^'C T confideralion, which were opponent to the financial meafure 
agreed to.— The refoUitions were, propofedi chiefly on the ground off 

" That it is the opinion of this its being unequal. The tax was laid^ 

committee* that (b much of an aft by its mover^ to fall nearly equally 

made in the laft feffion of parlia- on ail forts ol' property. That wai 

otcnt, intituled*' An aft for granting not true. It did not fall on the 

to his msjedy an aid and contribu- property of a certain defcription df 

tion, for the continuation of the jlockholders, pr what might be 

War," as charges any perfon with called the* leading London gentle'* 

an additional duty in proportion to men : not the mats of flockholders> 

tf^e amount of the rates of duties to but thofe whom the chancellor of 

which, prior to the date of the the exchequer always cbofe to fa* 

fiithdsLj of April, ]7£)a, fuchp^rfon vour ; the monied men of the city, 

wa.^ aireOefl* according to any af- Thefe gentlemen could pay off any 

V,i.XLI. [NJ bj 

178] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179^. 

tax withont burthening themfelves. 
Indeed, the greater the taxes were, 
the richer they became, and they 
never fucceeded better than when 
the minider fucceeded in taxes. 
There was, among other conlidera- 
tions urged by Mr. Ticmey, on 
which merits particular ana pro* 
found attention. Under the pre* 
fent plan, the whole property of 
England would f^n ftiift hands t 
which would make a great difiep» 
ence in the (late of the country. 
For, laid Mr. Tierney^ if the rich 
man in the city buys the fmall 
eilates of a number of gentlemen, * 
which will be onie of the operations 
of this plan, although the eftate will 
be- the fame,, and the revenue the. 
fame, yet t^e conditiot\ of whole 
diftridls of inhabStanlK, will be ma* 
terially dtered. When a gentle 
man of finall fortune fells his eftate, 
let him get ever (b much for it, 
there are evils arifing to his. family 
from that fiile, which can never be 
avoided, nor adequately defcribed. 
But not only the condition of the 
farmer, Mr, Tierney might have 
added, by fuch transferences,, would 
be altered,, but that alfo of the fkr^ 
mers and others. Between old kr 
milies and their tenants, there arifes 
a mutual (ympathy: nor ddes the 
offer of a higher rent Vways induce 
the former to banifh the latter from 
the foil cultivated by his forefathers. 
The mere monied man, for the oioft 
part, mrafuring all things by money^ 
fcruples not to (end them packings 
whenever another monied man of- 
fers a higher rent, with as much 
/ang/roidzs a London houfe-builder 
lets a row of-houfes. IF one rich 
farmer offer to rent the whole 
efiate^.the abfentecj utireflrained 

by^ any fympathy,'or recoWe^ion, 
(as was commonly the cafe with 
great landed abfentees, from Ire- 
land,) accepts tht offer. Thus 
farm b adoed to farm. The raid* 
dling ciafs of farm^s, the adlual 
cttltivaitors of the foil, is gradually 
extinffuiflied, and the nation di- 
videcf into mailers and fervants, 
much in the fame manner as Jamaica 
planters. Such, indeed, is the ope- 
ration of all great capitals of credit: 
which enable the capita)ifl,.by means 
of banks, to multiply the natural 
power of his flock even three or 
four fold; to grafp, monopoltzc,. 
andcontroul every thing; moderate 
farms and farmers, as well as other 
articles, and other induflrious iixli* 
viduals, and, in a word, to turn 
the world upfide down. Large ca- 
pitals and credits cannot certainly 
oe confidered as evils in themfelves, 
but as national adi^tages { though 
it mufl be allowed, that tbey arile, 
in many inflances, from the difirefs 
as well as the profperity of the coun- 
try. That they have a tendency in 
monopolization, and to form a kind 
fif bourgeois and upflart ariflocracy, 
with all the faults of the former, 
without any of its virtues, is alio 
undeniable. But, another truths 
equally certain, and eqaallir to be 
deplored, is, that it woaki be diffi- 
cult for the legiflature to check the 
evils arifing out of immenfe capitals 
aqd credits, withoUt alfo. checking 
a fpirit of induilry and enterprize. 
' Yet the evils arifing from an immo* 
derate extenfion of farms lire (o ob* 
vioufr and rapidly increafing^ that 
fome meafures may be expeded for 
refiraining it, and opening, by the 
improvement of natural opportuni- 
ties, the earth to the cultivation of 



0160, not as hirelings to others, but 
Dh their own accoant.* Before the 
report of the committee- tax was 
taken into confideration, the chan* 
tellorof the exchequer, on the tenth 
of December, informed tlie houfe, 
refolved into a commit lee of ways 
and means, that he had barflrained 
for die limited f um of three millions, 
as a bnn> and refervisd the re- 
mainder till aner Chriamas. the 
3 per cent, con/ols were at 5Q{ :. the 
reduced at 51 J. For every 100/. 
In money, there Was to be. given 
52^ confoUt i^nd a proportion of 
|even«igh(bs of a hundred pounds 
in the r^uced, amountmg to 
87/. dx. drf. the value of which, in 
mgoeyt wsU 46/. 12j. S\d. Th^ 
payments were to be made before 
(he month of Febrtiary, in four in« 
Halments. And, as tne public (er* 
vice did not reauire prompt pay* 
^ent» tbbre would be no dllcountv 
In lieu of the difcount^ an allow*" 
ance was to be made, as a b<mus to 
the contraaor, of \Ss, U. Th6 
tvhole fum then given for every 
100/. lent togovernment99/. 1 5s,5\d. 
Since that period /locks had rifen, 
and the premium on the loan was 
2t per cent. Thus it would appear^ 
that the reafons for poAponing 
the whole of the loan, at the 
prefent period. Were foundbd in 
prudence. H^ then rooved> Ihat 
the lum of three millions be raifed, 
by way of annuities, which was 
agreed to. On tlie fourteenth of 
December, the report of the in- 


come-iax was taken into confidera* 

Sir J. Sinclair thought that, if 
fuch extraordinary contributions 
were to he levied^ there ought to be 
half per ctfit, on capital, and only 
five per cetti, on income, above 200/* 
He urged, Mgainll the income-tax 
propof^, three radical objedlions ; 
nainely, that it would promote emi- 
gration, diminifl) the produce of the 
old taxes, and raife the price of all 
the necedkries of life^ Among a 
Variety of flridures on the bill l>e» 
fore the houfe^ made by this fpeaker^ 
the following arreiled, in A particu- 
lar mannerj oUr attentibn \ " For- 
merly our principal taSces, arifing 
from confumption, tod not exleQ<f 
ing to tniny of the vssA comforts 
and neceflanes of life, were, in a 
manner, voluntary. The exchequer 
was enriched; the people were 
happy; and the profufion of go- 
vernment was happily checked> oy 
the convid^ion that, if the taxes 
Wjere carried beyond a certain 
length, the produce^ inftead of in- 
Creafing, would be dtminiflied. But 
if this bill pafs, the whole property 
of the country will, in future, lie 
at the mercy of the mini tier. For 
though he noiV, very moderately, 
requires only a tenth part of our 
income, he eftabliihes a principle, 
that the government of this coun- 
try is entitled to demand a certain 
part of the income of each indi- 
vidual, and is alfo entitled to en- 
ibrce that compulfive requifitioa. 

* Were it certain (which ii contrtvcrted) that large capitals and large tarms are the 
M means of raiflng the greareft quantity of cattle, grain, or other phyAcal produce* at 
thclaaft ftpenfe ; there is in nolkical economy a previous qacAion. Is the advancemcnc 
of agriculture itfelf, fo defined, tOjbe preferrari to population, health, virtue, content- 
ment, general independence, and 'an immeofe re«iu6tion of the poors rates? See Mr* 
Nrwte.ofTiirefton's, Tour in EnglaiWand Scotland, and «* An Effay on the Right of Pro - 
pmy tx^ Land.** Wallers. Both chefe publications ha^e been tranflated into the French 
tangwigt, and baea received with the highc A approbation by the French cconomifts. 

I N 2JJ by 


by the ftridleft and barfiied regula- 

Mr. Simeon faid, as the honour- 
abWbaronet had not fhewn, that the 
price of labour would be affedied, 
be might allay his fears refpefling 
^the emigration of the laborious clafs. 
And, for his own part, he had no 
apprehenfion that perfons of,200/. 
would emigrate. The country, he 
faid, was now better able to pay 
the tax than it had been. So rapid 
^ had been the increafe of our com- 
xnerce, that \Ve had not fliipping 
enough to do the bunnefs. 

Mr. .M. A. Taylor objedled to, 
the bill, that it difclofed property, 
and, what was worfe, invaded it, 
(tliough, by the genius of the confli- 
tution, it was held lacred) to its 
inequality, and to its operation, as 
a check on the vigour and energy of 
the manufa^urcr and merchant. It 
hurt not the rich man ; but hundreds 
of induftrious people, employed by 
that fplentiour from which he would 
now be obliged to retire. He would 
prefer a^ tax that fliould be borne, 
generally by all claffes of people in 
the community. Mr. Taylor, though 
widely differing from Mr. Paine, in 
both religion and politics, quoted 
what follows, from his publication, of 
tvhich he was reminded by the bill 
before them, " Government always 
take to themfelves, all the produce 
of the induflry-of the people, under 
the head of government.*' 

The (blicitor-general faid, that 
when It wjts propofcd to repeal the 
aifefled tax bill, and to fubflituie this 
iDOdeofcolle£tion, the principle was 
preferved, though the means were 
altered 5 that principle, approved bv 
the houfe, and fandipned by expe- 
.' rience, he was of opinion, thehoufe 
• would not now controvert. He 
was furprifed to find that fir J. $. 

was an advocate for taxing capital* 
becaufe it leemed to be an opinion 
almod univerially agreed to, that 
income, and not capital, was the 
proper objedl of taxation. -It was 
on this principle that mod of our 
taxes were founded. What were 
the land-tax, the country rates, the 
rates for building bridges, and fo 
on, but taxes on income. That 
principle was eutirely aflented to by 

Sir W. Young, who obfervcd, 
that the natural confequence of paf- 
ling the funding fyftem to an ex- 
treme would be, to raife the in- 
terefl of money to a degree that 
would be extremely dangerous; be- 
caufe, if men could get an extrava- 
gant interefl for money, without ex* 
podng it to the rifks of commerce, 
they would be much inclined to lay 
out their money at interejl, and thus 
all commercial enterprize would be 
checked. As to difclofure of pro* 
perty, he did not confider it as any 
mighty hardfhip. In the Wefl 
Indies, and in many parts of Ame- 
rica, a man could not have a bond 
or note, without its being regiflered, 
and confequently, to a certain de- 
gree, difclofing his property : yet he 
did not know that it ever wa& con- 
(idered as an inconvenience, or had 
ever produced any prejudicial tC- 

Sir Francis Baring thought the 
prefent meafure as liable to eva- 
iion, and even more fo than that of 
lafl year. In commerce, the bill 
would be liable to eva^ons and 
frauds without end. On the whole, 
he difliked the meafure, and augured 
ill of its fuccefs. 

Mr. William Smith admitted, Ihat 
the principle of the bill was the 
fame as that of the adefled taxes lafl 
year, as far as it went to raife a ccr« 
tain pprtion of the fupplie^ within 



the year. As it related, however, ble, they might be altered in the 

to the cn'terioD, b/ which the means committee. On the whole, th» 

of contributing were to be aCcer- meafure propofed, affedted in a 

rafncd, it differed widely. A man • juft and equal manner, the com- 

might think himfelf able to fpend a merce of the country, all proprie- 

certain ium of money, bat his ex- tors of land, all on whom Ihexomr 

pcnditure was at his option. His merce and economy of the country 

inojinc, howerer, coald not be - depended, all tho(e througii whom 

laid to be a voluntary criterion: the adminiflration of juRice took 

over this he had no contrpl. It place, all on whom the protection 

■■id been faid by an honourable of the poor was incumbent, all who 

gfjQtIcman, (Mr. EUifon) that they formedT the great and important 

ihoald all pal a hand to tiie plough links in the chain of focicty. Tho 

and free the bill from all its incon- houfe then divided on the reconfi- 

^enienccs. But he would alk that deration of the bill. For it, 13.3; 

I'MOurable gentleman whether, if againft it, 25. On this reconfider- 

i.c thought the bill unconHitutionalj^ at ion, which took place, in a com- 

^injuft, oppreflive, and ccuel ; he mittee of the houfe, on the fcven- 

uiighl a!(b add, fraudulent — would teenth of December, a motion was 

he thea infid on forcing it on tho made for poflponiug the preamble 

ijojfeand the nation? Sach was his of the bill. This preamble ftated, 

^•pinion of the bill ; he would not, that under the aiTcired taxes bill, 

f.ereiare, put his hand to the people were not taxed in propor- 

p.'ough, Oo the prefent fubjcdl, tion to their income, and that frauds 

Mr. Smith quoted Dr. Adam and evafions had been^ pradlifed 

Smith, whole autliority would have with fttccefs. 

::.ore weight than his fpeeches — Mr. Tierney de/ired to know 

'* Capitation taxes, ifit is attempt- what reafbn there was to (uppofc, 

cd to proportion them to the for- that under the afleffed taxes, people 

tine or revenue of each cpntribu- were not aifefled in proportion to 

U)r. become altogether arbitrary', their iturome^ and that frauds and 

Tne (^ate of a man*s fortmie varies evafions had been prafliced with 

!':om day to day, and without an fuccefs. He thought the preamble 

inqui£tion more intolerable than a libel on the people 6f England. 

any tax, aud renewed at leaft once A debate of confiderable length cn^- 

in every year, can only be gueded fued : but the quefiion, tor the 

U; hU aflelTments mufi, therefore, reading of the preamble was car- 

ifl mod cafes, depend upon the riad in the aHirmative. After feve* 

^ood or bad humour of his aflefibrs, r^l amendments, in feveral commit* 

^nd therefore be altogether arbitrary tees, the chancellor of the exche- 

a:.d uncertain. quer moved> December 31, that was the income-bill (liould be read a 

'u(ne fatisfadion to him. that he had third time. Mr, Nicholls obferved, 

I. ' rcafon to think that any gentle^ thajt if it was fair t(iat the tcaJc 

.".an ohje6ied to the principle of the fhoukl rife from 100/. a year, to 

1 11, but the hononrable baronet who 600/. it was equally fair that it 

wpeneB the debate : if there were Ihould rife from 200/. upwards. — ■. 

*n) points }n it feally objeftiorMi- Mr. Abbot faid, that it fccmod, 

[N3J now 

182] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

iiow to be the decided opinion of 
the people of this country, that a 
grea( part of the fupplies (hould be 

\ raifed within the year. Lafl year 
confiderablc progrpfs had been 
made in the apph'cation of it by the 

' a(TefIed-taY-biIl : andj \vith regard 
to difclofure of income, in Scotland, 
ail tranfadions rerpe6ling real, and 
many refpecling perfonal property, 
were puoHcly* regiftercd. In Ire* 
land, the fame pradlice prevailed in 
cafe of real property. In the coun- 
ties of York ap a MMdIcfex, it ex- 
ited to a covfiderable extent. The 
attorney, and the folici tor-general, 
both defended the bill. Mr. Elliot 
and Mf. Tyrwhitt, alfo fupported 
itr as highly creditable to the fpirit 
of the country, and as the mod ef- 
fectual that could be adopted for 
confounding the hopes of the ene- 
my. The quedion for the third 
reading of the bill was carried by 
9% againft> 2. Afler undergoing 
ifarther ^mendinents, .the bilH ha- 
ving be^n read a third time, on the 
eighteenth pf March, was pafled on 
the fifth' of April, and ordered to 
be carried to the lords ; to whofe 
confideration *f on the motion for 
the third reading, in the houfe of 
commons," on December 31, being 
agreed to, it had akeady beeh'fi^i^ 
mitted, on. the-fecond of January; 
"whep it was read the firft time, and 
ordered to be printed. On the eighth 
of January, theprder(xftheday,inthe 
upper houfe, for the third reading 
of the income-duty-bill being read, 
anci the queftion put, lord Suffolk 
approved its principle, in one 
point of view, namely, that it would 
t«nd to prevent the nation from 
rafhiy embarking in expenfive wars, 

by (liewing them the confequei^ces: 
and| on tpis ground, it would hare 
been ' well for the country if a 
fair and equitable tax of this 
kii>d had been propoied at the 
comipenceraent of the war. It wa$ 
fkid that this tax was only ten .per 
ceut. upon income. But when he 
rcfledled o\\ the taxes and ex pen fcs 
peculiar Xo landed prop^ty, a^nd 
added the fum of thefe to the prcr 
fent tax, tli^ whole amounted to not 
|efs then 20 f«r c^nt. Laft felTion, 
a tax qpon fait took piaoe, which, 
in Glottcefterlhire, Wiltfhire, Che- 
fliire, and other places, upon what 
were called the dairy farms, in par^ 
ticular, would in its operation be 
found equal to 4 fcr cent. There 
was alfo a very heavy article, ^hicb 
in many places, and particularly op 
eflates adjoining to his, the poor- 
rates fell uncommonly liedvy.— 
Where there were extenfive com- 
mons, the poor naturally* flofrked i<\ 
them. And in the parim of Brinckf- 
worth particularly, he was within 
bound.s, when he flated tlie poor- 
rates at 3 per cenf. This, added to 
ihe other, made, with the lax im- 
pofed by the prefent bill, 17 per 
cent. The neceflai^ expenfes of 
bailiffs, Rewards, and other nume- 
rous incidentals to landed property 
could not be lefs than 3 per cent, 
more ; making the wMe nearly 2Q 
per cent. His tordfhip f!ated, that 
he had, in the courfe of tli^ lafl few 
years expended in improv^ements 
more than 15,000/. uot for hi^ 
pwn perfonal gratification ; for, m 
(loing tliis, he had fubmitted to 
many privations, but in order 
th^t he might tranfmit to his fon, 
an ^fhite as mdependent as the prin- 

t To feek &>r fome fpot Ofi the earth where to reft the fole of tire ibotj tanitear uA 
ficred furnie, this worthy nobleman admits, it tbeouunldifpofition of men: Imtcliti dif- 
portion, by a proper diflribution of tlie land', might be iiinproTed to tbeadT«nuse<of ib« 
[anded pcx>ptietort» and the comfort of the country people. 



clples which he had endeavoared to (ions of the bill taking effect. With 
iq/ril into bis mind, and whlc!i regard to the fah-duties, they cer- 
niight enable him to ad up to them, tainly here with additional weight 
Many other lords, he doubted not, on thofe parts of the country where 
had a;ded apon the fame (ydem with cheefe was manufactured ; but the 
himlelf. Such noble lords he can* maker repaid himfelf by the ad- 
(ioned to beware bow they gave vanced price of his cheele. 
their (andion to a meafnre which Lord Holland, among a variety 
fell (6 peculiarly heavy and oppref- of obfervatiOns, to the fame effedl 
five on the landed interell. Very with thofe that had been urj^ed 
diflerent was the fitnation of the againfi the bill, in both Ivoufe- ot 
noble lords on the crofs bench, and parliament, ilated that the argu* 
other parts of the houfe, whofe ments in favour of the meafare, he 
fitaations brought them in very believed, had L'j:en reduced to 
large emoluments unimpaired by three, which were, fird, that it 
the duties and expenfes peculiar to prevented all idea of deluHon, with 
landed e(bites, which theymo doubt regard to our (ituation, and made 
well deferved, for the high, im- the people underfiand at once the 
portant, and arduous ftations they nature and extent of the burthen 
^lled in the (late. they had to bear. Second, that the 

Lord Suffolk, after many expref^ country faved by railing the money 
fioqs of ref^rd to morality and re- at once, the intereft, whatever it 
ligion, and admitting the neceflitv wa^. Third, that this proceeding 
of a decent maintenance for thole was calcjilated to intimidate the 
wbofe lives were fpent in teaching enemy, who had placed the hope 
tod inculcating themi. both by pre- of oar deilru^ion on the inc: cafe of 
cept and example, obferved, that our debt. With regard to the firft 
there was nothing that had long of thefe arguments, the principle on 
bin more heavily on all agricultural which it was founded, met his fin- 
improvements than tythes. It was cerefl approbation. A^ to the fe- 
a very ifttftaken notion that they con<l, it made no effential difference 
tmoanted only to a tenth : taking with regard to the wealth of the na- 
in all improvements, they certainly tion whether intereft was paid or 
amounted to a fiflhof all the landed not, as the great lofs arofe fro 'he 
property of the kingdom. The capital being taken <.at of prodiic-' 
people of this country were every tive, atKl fquahdered on nnpro luc- 
day feeling their prerfore, and the tive labour. If borrowing was in- 
alleviation of that preflfure would expedient for government, it was 
be a contideration well ^vorth the equally fo for private perfons. No- 
attention of their lordthips. Hi$ thing could be faid to (hew rhe 
lordihip concluded by giving his difEcultie^ of government in railing 
decidcii dilfent lo the prcfent bill. money, that might not be urged 

The earl of Liverpool faid, that with regard to individuals. He 
had lord Suflblk attentively p'Tufed had heard an argument in favour 
the bill he would have feen that of the meafure of la(} year* from 
many of the peculiar expenfes at- lord Liverpool, who, he was forry 
tached to Und were allowed to be to'obferve, had left the hoafc. He 
deduced previoudy to the opera- had flateil that it was nothing more 

[ N 4] than 

184] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799; 

than taking the money out of one 
pocket and putting it in another. 
But if a great part of the favings, 
which might enable people to pay 
the prefent tax, (hould be taken from 
coniumption, there niufl be a re- 
du6lion of the revenue : if they 
ihould pay the tax out of their ca- 
pital, the evil would dill be greater. 
It certainly was the operation of 
many taxes to take money out of 
one pocket, and put it. in another : 
and it was not unworthy of their 
lorddiips attention, to confider, 
from whofe pockets it was tp be 
taken. Their property was eafily 
known, anc| they could not, if 
they were inclined, evade the tax. 
It was evident tha^ the obje6l of 
the bill, m taking money from one 
pocket, and putting it into another, 
was to take from thofe that had 
wealth, and give it to thofe who 
had none. As this meafure muft 
continue for many years, the whole 
weight of tlie tax mull fall on t,hofe 
tvho fliould not be able to efcape it; 
in fa£l, on land-owners ; or as a 
Koble lord had exprelled itjn a 
book " on thofe who had oHcniible 
poffefljons.'' The tendency, his 
lordftiip obferved, of this flii?ling of 
property, was to impoverifli the 
members of that houfe, and iq ren- 
der them ft ill more and more de- 
pendent on the crown. The gra- 
dation of the tax, commencinjg 
Irom upwards of 60/. and ftopping 
fliort at 200/. he was afraid would 
give too great an opportunity to 
the circulation of thole calumnies 
which often rcpreiented fome of 
their lordHiip^ as ailing from the 
worft of motives. It might, per- 
haps, be (aid, that the lower and 
higher claHc-s were fheltered fro* 
the tax, and that thus a compro- 
(nife was made with them to cruQi 

the tntddle. It was whifpered, whr 
do not perfons of the latter clafs 
petition againft the bill ? There 
were, comparatively, few, .he be- 
lieved, in that (ituation of life, bat 
had fome dependence, dire^Iy, or 
indirectly, on the minifter. As to 
the third argument, in favour of the 
tax, lord Holland was of opinion 
that a perfeverance in the funding 
fyftem was more likely, than the 
prefent meafure, to give the enemy 
a great idea of our refources, be- 
caufe that (yftem was not under- 
flood on the continent. Their ig- 
norance pf its nature made perfons 
abro4d magnify its efleds, and they 
were inclined to confider it as an 
inexhauflible refource to which the 
Britilh government could always 
with confidence refort. 

Thq book to which lord Holland 
in the above-m^ntipn^d (hort quo- 
tation, alluded, was Letters to the 
Earl of Carlijle from If^. Eden, Ej<j, 
pubh'flted in 1799. Lord Holland, 
by way of illuflrating bis fentiments 
on the prefent fubje61, in the courfe 
of his fpeech made fonie (arther 
quotations from it. " The author 
(he obferved) in putting the fuppo- 
(ition of one-thirteenth of the in- 
come of the country being to be 
railed, either voluntarily or by force, 
laid it down as a maxim, tli^t fuch 
a tax could not take place without 
diminifhing the capital of thecoun* 
try, which would ^roye very inju- 
rious to trade and agriculture. The 
A) perior ranks would retrench their 
expenfes, which would caufe a de- 
falcation in the revenue, which 
muft be made up, either by faking 
from the finking fund, or by frelh 
(axes, &c. &c." The boo|(, from 
which he had read fo much, alfo 
reprefented, in a very ft r iking point 
of^ view, the " evils arifing frcm a 



iklofure of propertv." Thefe qao- 
tations oaturallv called up 

Lord Aackland, (formerly Mr. 
Eden), who thought it incumbent 
<:n him to repel' the Infinuation, 
thai he could give bis concurrence 
(D the income-bill, as a peep of par« 
ijmenf, without an inconpflency 
ri renfoniDg, or a change of fyilem. 
Ke might admit, he iaid, the full 
conftraflion given by the noble 
lu:d to the paflages quoted, and 
rJ\wer that^ in the lapfe of time, 
rany Ipeculative opinions were 
lahle fairly and bonoufably to be 
varied by events, change of circurn- 
ihnccs, better inforn^ation, and 
more mature judgement. If, |iow« 
i^v^r, the noble lord had adverted, 
with his ufual accuracy, to tl]e 
urn text of the paflages which he 
hzd tliought proper to cite, b<? 
vvoald have found that they related 
to 3 voluntary contribution ; or if to 
a forced and general contribution} 
tiien to be dependent on a roejely 
'oiuntary difclofure of income. 
At that period, it never entered 
i'Ko the minds of the moft en- 
iiihtened ilatefman, that it could 
\^ pradlcal)le to eflablifh a forced 
?nd jreneral contribution, on the 
inly jad and efficient fydem of a 
forced difclofure. In 1799, he did 
r.ol forefee either tl)e 'Cnthuliafm, 
«>r the profperity and refources, 
'^'lich diilingui(h the SL6i\\a\ epoch 
^fourhiitory above all others, and 
^".hich have given to our country- 
men both the difpoiition and ability 
to adopt the prefent meafure, with- 
dit any probable inconyeniencies 
Ui counterbalance the advantages 
to be obtained. It now appeared, 
;nat the difficulties we feared were 
:ot infurmoantable. The fucccfs- 
i'it attempt to furmount tliem was 
^cll v|[^orthy of tUat great and 

energetic mind which dire^s our. 
councils — that mind which (eemed 
to have been created by a benefi 
eent Providence for the preferva- 
tion oi this, and an adjoinmg king- 
dom : perhaps for the reftoration of 
Europe. Till the period of tlie 
Lifle negociation, and even then, 
9 great part of the nation ^as dif* 
pofed tp abandoo the whole con* 
tinent of Eurppe to fubjugation 
and defifudtion, Eind tp make other 
ruinous facrlBces, in order to pur- 
chafe a nominal peace, fpore fatal 
than any war. When he looked 
back to that period, he had all the 
painful (enfations of a leverllh and 
frightful dream. Almighty Go4 
was pleafed, for pur prefervation, 
to deftroy pur fliort-fightcd hopes. 
The Liile conferrences were bro* 
ken qff in' a tnanner that re^ 
inoved the film, from the eyes of 
many. A patriotic enthufiafm 
warmed the heart of every EngliQi*. 
man in every part of the gobe/ 
The wifdom of parliament went 
hand in hand witl^ t|ie'rigl)t ^ifpo^ 
iltion of the people ; ana, towards 
the clofc of 1797, brought forward 
the meafur^ of the additional afTelFe^ 
taxes, and thefe again, the prefent 
bill, than which, bis lordfhip en- 
deavoured to flie\y tliere was no 
meafure better calculated, in an equ^l 
manner, to bring our great refourceii 
into activity and effedt. Lord 
Auckland, in the courfe of his 
fpeech, contrafted the prefent fixfety, 
profperity, and unparalleled glory 
of his country with the national 
bankruptcy, diflreiTes, difficulties, 
and crimes of France. Lord Hol- 
land, having rifen ibr (he purpofe 
of explanation, made the following 
remark of what had been faid by 
the noble lord, who fpoke la(l, in 
praife of the fpirit and enthufiafni 


of the country, manifefled 'in the iorwly piofefled refpeding it, from 
voluntary contributions, and the its commencement to the prefent 

pajment of the triple aiTc/lnoent moment. He had been afked whc- 

t)f laft year. " Unfortunately tliis ther, if \m majefty*s minifters had 

panegyric is broadly denied by the forefeen the prefent podure of af» 

tifl now before the houfe : the fairs, and had known that the courfe 

preamble to which tells the world, of events would have led to the 

(hat the reafon for introducing it e\tcn(ion of the dominion of France, 

was, the (hameful evafions pradtifed they would have advifed his ma- 

laft year/* The noble lord, be jefty to commence hoftilities againd 

.obferved, had brought forward ob- the government of that country? 

^nratlons not very clofely conned- He would, for himfelf, repeat it a 

cd with the fubje6t, but uich as the hundred times over, that, bad be 

ininifters and their adherents knew been pcrfedly atfured, beforehand, 

well how to introduce into every of all the events which had hap- 

debate. To prepare their lordfliips pened, the fubjugation and pillage 

minds for the adoption of their un- of Italy, (he conquefl of Holland, 

conflitutional meafures, fome rant the maflacres of Switzerland, or 

on French atrocities muf^ always be even the murder of the king of 

introduced. He would only fay, France: tbefe things, aye, and ten 

that if, from a meafure well intend- times more, he would have facri* 

ed, evil confequences might after* fieed, to flem the tide of thofe vici* 

wards arife, this (hould not be fairly ous and falfe principles, fentafiically 

imputed as a fault to the framers of called philofophy, out, in truth, iio 

the meafure. Where there was no other than the effufions of revel u« 

evil intended, there could be no tionary madnef<t. 
^ult. And here he would not he- The duke of Bedford obferved, 

iitate to fay, that had he been a that the profent bill embraced two 

Frenchman, he would have felt it important principles ; tlie one, the 

the pride of his life to have been principle of railing a confiderable 

concerned in th^t great event : but, part of the fupplies of the year 

though he felt that fuch would have within the year ; the other, tlie 

been his ambition, in fuch a (itua- principle of efiecling that meafure 
tion of his country as that of France • oy the means uf a tax on income, 

then was, he was far from thinking As to Jhe fird, it was a mere fpecu- 

that there could be any juftice in lative queflicm, and could not be 

making him anfwerable tor the con- treated in the fame manner as that 

Sequences that might cnfue. which had flood the tefi 6f trial, in 

Lord Grenville, with regard to repeated inflances, ever fince the 

the French revolution, faid, it was eilablithment of the funding fyflem. 

a fubjeft which he could not kna- There was, howevef^ the conilant 

gine to be introduced for any other and uniform pradice of our ancef- 

purpofe than that of calling away tors againfl it ; nay, and of the pre- 

the attention of the houfe from the fent Qiinifler himfelf, during five 

arguments of his noble friend, lord years of the prefent expenfive war. 

Auckland. As it had, however. In the outfet of a war, the duke 

been introduced, he would again admitted, that this method might 

(hite the opinion which he had uni* have one good effefl: it might 



Fake the people cautious how tliey 
pi ir^ themfelvefl into war with- 
<'.U doe confidcration. But whe- 
tf'cr, after beinjr Afloally engaged 
in war, and, in five yearx, created a 
(^'bt j^renier in its amount than the 
whole of what had been incurred 
<iunn{ the hundred years preceding, 
we Ibould adopt this mode now, 
was a quefiion of extreme doubt. 
If the ^neral principle of railing 
the fupplies witkki the year were 
rrcogniaod, it might be hereafler 
contended, that, by adopting the 
prefent bill, they recognized the 
principle of taxing income. It had 
wen the general pra6)ice of taxa- 
tion* to levy as great a portion as 
poffible of the fum wanted upon 
articles of luxury and confumption : 
^> ^ long as that pradice could 
be euntinued, it would never be 
contidered as materially unjuft in 
itsopention. Although the whole 
comoQ unity might not pay towards 
it in equal proportion, uill^ as it 
was optional, it could not be con- 
fidered as fundamentally wrong. 
If it was abandoned, it would be 
aconfeffioB, ih^t we could not go 
'^n in the mod eqqitable cqurfe of 
taxation. His pace entered into a 
minute detail of (he bill, and gave 
H(( reafims for thinking, it injurious, 
^I'juft, and impolitic. 

The lord chancellor pbferved, that 
the prefent chancellor of the ex* 
chequer, who had propofed the bill, 
^w« the very perfon who had ad- 
vifed and efieBuall^' fupported the 
pUn of annually fettnig a part of the 
fupplies of the year atide for the 
ureful pnrpofe of reducing the na- 
tional debt. From this plan the 
public had derived, and flill con* 
tinned to derive, the mod important 
advantages. It was reafonable, 
thcre(bre, to infer that the prefent 

meature of raiting a tax, amount-* 
ing to ten millions on income, would 
be found 'pradicable, and anfwec 
the end propOfed. As to a tax on 
capital, preferred by the noble duke, 
there was an abfolute impoflibility 
of afcertaining what the capital of 
individuals, rcfpe6lively, amounted^ 
to. A noble perfon, a friend ol the 
chanceilor'syhad a convcrfation with 
a tradefman. on the fubjvdl of the 
bill, who faid his income might a* 
mount to about three hundred 
pounds a year, and declared that;^he 
thought it hard to pay thirty pounds 
out of it for this tax. The tradef- 
man, however, who was a barber 
and hair-drefler, on a little reflec* 
tion, faid, " But, perhaps, if I did 
not pay the thirty pounds, fo many 
of my prefent cudomers would not 
have their heads on their (houlders 
to (have and drefs."— " This,** (did 
the chancellor, " was the true de- 
fence of the bill.^ With regard to 
tythes, the abolition of which had 
D€H?n recommended by the noble 
duke, and who had affirmed that all 
were agreed as to the expediency 
of this meafure, provided a proper 
fubflitute could be found, to be 
given to the clergy in lieu of tythes, 
ne beg|^ leave utterly to deny 
that aflerlion. Th^re was, perhaps, 
no one quefiion on which fucH a va- 
riety of opinions prevailed, nor was 
it tne clergy alone who held tythes ; 
many of the laity held' tythes ; and 
held them by as good a tenure, as 
the free-holder held his edate. The 
queftion bein^ put, was carried 
without a divifion. The bill was 
then read a third time. The bill, 
as above ftated, having undergone 
all its amendments, was brought up, 
on the fifth of April, from the houfe 
of commons, to that of the lords, 
where, after a (hort difcuflion, it was 


188] ANNUAL register; 1799. 

alfo pftfled, and aA^erwards received 
the royal aflent. * 

Mr» Pilt, who, as already ob- 
ferved, had deferred bargaining for 
the whole of the loan in the begin- 
in^ of tlie fedlon, on the twenty- 
' fecond of February, 1799, moved, fn 
the houfe of commons, that it is the 
opinion of this committee, that, to-< 
wards raifing the fupply granted to 
hi9 majeflv, the fum of three mil- 
lions be raifed, by way of loan, 
on excIieqiiier-bilU. This fum was 

On the fixtb of June, Mr. iecrc^ 
tary Dundas brought a meflage to 
ih^ hottfe o^ comm&ns, from his ma- 
jeiiy, acquainting them '! that he 
had, ibme time iince, concluded an 
eventual engagement with his good 
brother and ally, the emperor of 
Ruflla, for employing forty-fjve thou- 
fand men again 11 the common ene* 
my, hi (uch manner as the Hate of 
affairs in Europe, at that period, ap- 
peared to render mod' advanta- 
geous.'^ Tliough his majefly had 
not vet received any account, that 
the K>rmal engagements to that ef- 
feS had been regularly concluded, 
he had the fatisfaAion of knowing, 
that t)ie farne promptitude and zeal, 
in fupport of the common caule» 
which his ally had already mani- 
fedcd in a manner (o honourable to 
himlelf, and f<» lignnllv beneficial to 
Europe, had induced f)im already to 
'put hi^ army in motion to the place 
of its deft i nation, as now fettled by 
mutual confent. His majefty, there* 
/ore, thought it right to acquaint 
jLhe houtc of pon^mons, that the pe^ 

cuniary conditions ' of this treity 
would oblige his m^eily to pay the 
fum of two hundred and twcnty-fivo 
thoufand pounds in fpecified tn- 
/ialments, as preparation money ; and 
to pay a monthly fubfidy of fcventy- 
five thoufand pounds, as well as to 
engage for a farther payment at the 
rale of thirly-feven tlioufand five 
hundred pounds per month : which 
la/l payment was not to take place 
iUl after the conclufion of a peace, 
made by common cbnfent.f His 
majefiy relied on the zeal and pub- 
lie fpirit of his faillit'ul commons to 
make good thc(e engagements, as 
well as to continue to afford the ne- 
ceHkry fuccoiirs to his ally, the queen 
of Portugal ; and aI(o to give timely, 
and effedual aHifiunce, at this irn- 
portaiit conjundure, to the Swifs 
cantons, for tlie recovery of tiieir 
ancient liberty and independence." 
On June the fcvcnth, the houle. re- 
fblved itfelf into a committee of fup- 
ply. His majefty 's medage having 
oecn read. 

The chancellor of the exchequer 
Hated that the precife fum necef- 
hry for defraying the expenfe of 
tvyo hundred and twenty^five thou- 
fand pounds, to be advanced as pre- 
paration-money, and the monthly 
expenfe of feventy-five thoufand 
pound, for eight months, or to the 
end of the year, was eight hundred 
and twenty-live thoufand pounds. 
The committee were aware that 
tlicfc vvas an addition to this aRer 
the conclulion of a peadc, by mutual 
confent, of thirly-feven* thou lapd 
4ve hun4re4 pounds per mouthr: 

* Sec proyifiooal tiraty betnreen hii m:qe%, the kin^ of Great Britain, and his ma> 
jefty chc fcmperor of i^l the Kufliaf, under tKe liead of Siatc Papers, in vol. xl. (179S) 

^f this v^oiic, p. 2Z3* 

t This fubfldy is tiatcil in the treaty, at 44,00c/. Oerlingf and It was to be continue^ 
patil ;hc retuiti of the R^illMns into ^b^lr own ports, ^ee the treaty Iq this tolume. 


bnf #he fum of eight hundred and 
(wentj-Ziye Ihoufand pounds was 
the only specific vote that it was 
ni^ intention U> propofe; accord- 
ingly moved, " that it was the 
ftpinion of the committee, that the 
fum of eight hundred and twenty- 
five thoofand pounds be granted to 
hh majedy, io enable his majelly 
to make good hi« engagements with 
Rudia, in fuch a manner as might 
be beft adapted to the exigencies of 
the cafe. Mr. Tierney hoped that 
the hononrable gentleman, learning 
a leflbn of policy lA the f) fleni of 
lubfidies, and from his knowledge 
of emperors, had declined paying 
twfore-hand. But the di^rence 
vra$ not very material : nor was it 
^vorth while to trouble the houfe 
with particulars. The great fubje6l 
of dtbate was tlie fubridy : the 
time of payment, and other mattery 
fif detail oeing merely of a focon- 
<i2ry nature. He trufled, tliat, 
whatever differences might have 
formerly arilen,- mini flers now had 
bat one opinion, and thai they were 
fill arreea that the fafety of England 
niould be the main object. Deeply 
impreOed with this truth, he would 
not vote any fums for a purpofe he 
did not under^land, in aia of a 
power whofe objeft he did not 
li^ow, and which might b<i ap- 
propriated to his own views ex- 
("lulively, and to the injury, iuflead, 
o( the welfare of England. 

Mr. Pitt replied, that there was 
no ground to fear, led timt magna- 
riimous prince (hould z6t with mfl- 
delily in a caufe in which he was 
ioTmcerely engaged, and which lie 
knew to be the caufe of all good 
governqjent, religion, and huma 
nky, againil a monflrous medley of 
(}Tanny, injuflice, vanity, irreligion. 

ignorance, and folly. That magna- 
nimous and powerful prince had 
undertaken to fupply, at a very tri- 
fling cxpenfe, a moft elfential force, 
and that for the deliverance of Eu* 
rope. '* I mnft ftill ufe this phrafe, 
notwithflanding the fncers of tho 
hoiioiirable gentlemen ; does it not 
promife the deliverance of Europe^ 
when we find the armies of our 
allies rapidly advancing in a careef 
of vi6tory the moft brilliant and au» 
fpicious, perhaps, that ever fig- 
nalizod the exertions of any com* 
bination } Would it he regarded 
with apathy, that the wife, provi- 
dent, vigorous, exalted, and god* 
like prince, who now, fortunately 
for the world, fivayed the Ruflian 
fcoptre, had already, by his prompt*- 
nets and decifion, given a turn to the 
affairs of men? From the praifes of 
Paul, Mr. Pitt parted to thofe of 
the people of England, " There 
is," faid he, " a high-fpiriled pride, 
an elevated loyalty, a generous 
warmth of heart, a noblenefs of fpi- 
rit, a hearty hilarity and manly 
• gaiety that dif^inguifli our nation, 
in which we arc to look for the bcft 
pledges of general fafety, and uf 
that fecurity againf^ general iifurpa- 
tTon, which other nations, in their 
weaknefs or their folly, have no 
where found. With refpe6l to that 
which appeared fo much to embat^ 
rafs certain gentlemen, the deli* 
verance ot Europe, he would not 
fay particularly what it was : whe« ' 
ther from the infection of falfe prin* 
ciples, the corroding cares of a pe* 
riod of diilradtionand difroay, or tbo 
diflblution of all governments, and 
death of all focial order and religion. 
But while the fpirit ojf France re- 
mained what at prefent it was, it 
its powttr to do wrong at all re« 


Biained^ there did not exift any fe- 
curity for this or any country in £u« 
rope. He did not confine his views 
to the territorial limits of France. 
He faw in the principles, chara6)er, 
and conduct ot France, the'iHues of 
diiiradion, infamy, and ruin! 

Mr. Tierney laid, " I hare re- 
ceiHed an anfwer and it does carry 
the convi^ion that' we are now 
about to embark in a feventh year 
of the war, aiming at an indenniCe 
4>bj6d« warring againft (ydem, and 
fighting with Englifii blood, and 
EnglHh treafure, againft French ab- 
ibad principles, without the fmallefl 
regard to the burdened ftate of the 
country/' Many explanations, re- 
plies, and rejoinders now took phice 
on thofe trite fubjeds, the obje^ of 
the war, and the deliverance of 
Europe : in which >Mr. Windham 
took a part, and declared his well- 
known opinion, that nothing could 
be more defirable to this country 
than the reAoration of the monar- 
chy, which, notwithfianding all its 
defe£ls, could never do us any fe- 
tious injury, compared to the incal- 
culable mifcbiefs which the prefent 
Mttm was peculiarly filled to pro- 
d\ice. And tliis appeared to him 
SH)t only the mofi deiirable, but die 
moil probable change that could 
liappen, becaufe it wai that which 
the people of France preferred. 

Sir W. Pulteney begged to fay 
a few words in conlequence of what 
bad fallen from Mr. Pitt and Mr. 
Windham. The former had dated, 
that even if we were to drive the 
Prench within their own territories, 
ilill we fliould have a great deal 
more to^do. This declaration he 
thought, not only nnneceflary but 
high^ imprudent. It might induce 
the people of tliis country to relax 


in their efforts. It would furniih 
the directory with a new argument 
to perfuade the people of the ne- 
ceffity of continuing the war. The 
other right honourable gentleman 
had commented on tlie Mlvantages 
that would refult from a refioration 
of the French monarchy. He 
wiibed to know whether it was 
likely to produce a favourable ef« 
fed for US in France, to have it 
known, that we were^ifculfing, in 
our fenate, the form orgovcmment 
they ought to have ? Sir William 
made every allowance for ianguine 
temperament^ but it was very 
wrong, he Paid, to fuffer ourfelves 
to be elated with profperity. We 
ought to proceed firmly and man- 
fully in the conteft. But langnai^e^ 
which Teemed to breathe fomething 
more than exultation, and even de^ 
fiance, was to be avoided as inpo- 
Jitic, and, indeed, not very <y>n(iftent 
with firmnefs, and true dignity of 
chara6ler. The quefiion for the 
fapnly to Ruflia waa, aller fome 
farther dilcuflion by Mr. Pitt, Mr. 
Tierney, and Mr. Windham, car- 
ried in the affirmative. 

Mr. Pitt then moved that the 
fum of three millions be granted to 
his majefiy to enable him to make 
rood fuch farther engagements, at 
his pajefiy might deem it fxpe- 
dient ifo enter into : which vfu 
agreed to. 

The houfe having refblved itielf 
into a committee of ways and 
means, Mr. Pitt recapitulated th« 
fapplies, whidi he haa fiated to be 
nec»(lary for the fervice ^of the cur- 
rent year, on the third of December^ 
with the farther fupplies fince re*" 
quired. The amount of the whole> 
after certain alterations in the 
fums voted k December, was 



J0,9i7)S5l/,* beiides the vote of adding that fum of three millions to 
credit for 1799, which wa» an in- Mr. Pitt next iiated the 
creafe by more than 1 ,600*000, of tenas of the loan. Three pf the 
that broa^ forvvard at Chridmas Riofl refpe^able hbufes agreed te 
as the total of the fupplv was then pay for I2.j/. in the .three per cent, 
IfJted at 29,272,000/. way* and c&fijols, 69/. 4^. Ad. \. and for the 
me-inswere povided or devifed for reduced^ 28/. 2.r. 6d. makini^ 
milini^ the (applies to the amousit Wit. 6s. \0d\, which, with the be<- 
ot sr,000,0OO/.t There was no siefit of tiie difcoant at 2/. 6j. ed, 
provifion made for exchequer-bilfs gave 99/. 13^. 4^e/. inflead of io- 
ta Hie amount of 5,000^000/. Thei'e nufest the bargain had been con- 
he left aitiraately to be funded : ex* eluded at tl>e price of the day, when 
IH^io^ that tbey would be ib on it was coniiderably under the actual 
more advantageous terras^ than by value of lOO/v As lo the intereft 


^A«T - jCxt>653»ooo«. 

Dcdod^miaaiiaD oCnxvy debt and (aving • 1,403,000. 

ezirafted in 1799 ....• 150,000* 

A«"T 8,^40,000. 

V«e of credit, i79» 1,000,000. 

fxrnodiiitriesy 1799 1,500^00. 

OioNAKci, exdufiveof iea-fervice ^•.•. i, $70,000. 

^fifcdhoeous fcnrices 3i364.,35i. 

DHkicncyof had and malt tax • ; 498,000. 

Scb6<)]r to Raffia •.•.....•..•• 825,000. 

-Hitioaal debt aoo,ooo. 



St^jtobicco, and malt \v ....... . . >Ca>75o,cca 

J-ottery aoo,ooo. 

^^rplus of confoUdaCed fund in January and April, 1799 511,0001 

('^owins produce of ditto ' • • - -3,229,0001 

^xporti and imports 1^500,000. 

"^ra per cent. 00 income ....•••. 7,500,000. 

t^^Aalnients oo aid and contributions, 1708 . » 650,000.. 

Hni the ten pcf cent, on income, and thefe inflalir^ts, amounting to- 
Scthcr to 8,150,000/. dedu^ half a year*s interest on 

3,ooo,obo, 1798 240,000 
Ditto one year 5/. iii. per cent. 588,000 


Sit 8,000 there remains •7,300,0004 

^^fifft -3,CGo,ooo. 

U4n(kcood '.. 12,000,000. 




192] ANNUAL REGISTER, 110^. 

to be provided for by the new iaxes, 
it was no more Ahan 315,000/.* 
The foundation of the whole of the 

{>refent fyftem of finance, was the 
ame which he had offered to par- 
liament lafl year, nameljr that (here 
ihould be no loan contra^ed for, 
diiiring any year, greater than what 
the amount of the finking fund 
could pay oflT. The reiolutions 
moved by Mr. Pitt on the fupplies 
for the year, with ways and means, 
were agreed to, carried fhroUgh the 
vfiral forms of the houfe, ana after 
undergoing feveral amendraentx, 
fome of which were fuggefted by 
Mr. Tierney in a ftring of refolu- 
tions which he propofeo, were early 
in July pafted into a law. 

We now proceed to give Tome 
account of £aft India expenfes and 

On the 12th of March, Mr. Dun- 
dai flated fird, what might be pro* 
perly called India accounts, si^ pe- 
culiarly regarding the iiate of India 

itfelf: fecondly, tha home acconnti^ 
as refpe6ling, particularly, the com- 
pany's concerns here. Under the 
firfl of thefe heads were to be fonnd 
a financial* flatement of the condi- 
tion of the refpe6live places; ac- 
counts of' the expenfes incurred; 
the amount of the debts in Indb; 
a dedudlion of the general farplcs 
not applicable to the payment of 
thefe debts; the funis which re- 
mained to be expended; with many 
other items in the eflimate i»ot ne- 
ceflary for his prefent parpolc to 
be fpecified.t * On the whole, ta- 
king a general view of the com- 
pany's affairs at home ' and abroad 
conjointly, it would feem to be 
worfc 413,220^ than it was at the 
clofe of the laft fefSon of parlia- 
ment. He was obliged to contef^ 
that there was a farther fnm of 
200,000/. which did not appear 
on the face of thefe accounts, but 
the reaibn of'thatarofe from fomc 
circumAances attending the quick- 


In makny parts of the kingdom there vras art extcnfive circulation of fmall bank nofe^i 
Or notes under 401. amounttngy as was computed, to 1,500,000. A tax of a</. c^ 
etch, according to that numher, would produce 62,000/. But ih a matter of (0 
great uncertainty, he fuppofed the amount to be confifi^rably under that fum, acd 
therefore reckoncKl it atnong other articles of taxation as follows : 

2*5o,ocoannually, aC2^. each £^ZfCco 

British fugar, left fbr home confumption, 1,700,000 cwr. at Si. • . . . ^6,dcc. 
Clayed fu^ars from Britifii plantations, in addition X6 all other duties, 

aootooo twt. at 4^. per cw( 4x>,ccc. 

B^ifi) plantation fugar exported : withhold 21. 6d. per cwt. of the draw- 

back, in addition to 41. oow retained on 35S cwt. £aA India fuguf 

exported 76,000 cwr. at' 6^« ^ 6x..c*\ 

foreign plantation^fugar exported, %s. 6/ per cwt on 1 1 1,060 cwt. . . . I4>»'l>. 
ReAned fugar exported, 41. per cwt. of the bounty now payable to be withheld 

on 196,000 cwt i . . , . . < . * . 29,0c t^. 

Coffeeexportedin«798,exclufive of 317,000 cwt. at 41. ...... 65.0..% 

5i6,c: . 

+ See a general view of thefe accounts, copied from "An (Abftrad of ftatemcntj, 
tvlttite to tlie aflTairs Of the Ea(l>Ind^ company^ 279^1 proTcnted to parliament la 
S799.** Appendix to the ChronidCi page aOO*« 

$ fieff 


h *r« oT the paifage wHicb fome of fw'ell their eflimates and Tales at 
the (hips had homeward. This fiim home, by bringing home as large 
H'ould apfiarently fwell the balance cargoes as pofTible. 
iii^j'tni} the company, but when the Mr. Dundas now touched on a 
acx-ounts came luUy to be examined, fubjeft, alarming (though it would 
ft would be found covered by tlie feem unreafonably) to the Eaft-In- 
nrreafed amount of their alfetsr — dia company, but highly important 
With refped to the 413/220/. in to the Britifli nation, and which, in 
'.vhich the (late of the company's the natural progrefs of events and 
I'^iirs appeared wode now than ideas, muft one day force itfelf on 
1-: year, that was a matter which the ferious attention of the Britifli * 
he would better and more fully ex- legiflature. The company, Mr. 
yi'm at a future period* Mean- Dundas faid, (hould recolfe^l that 
xvinle he called the attention of the thev were not merely a commer- 
liiule to the difputed debt of one cial body, ' but that they were 
million between the Eaft- India alfo truftees lor tha imperial re-' 
company and the nabob of Arcott. venues of India. The wealth and 
B^jfore tlial claim was eftablilhed, commerce of the Eafl-India corn- 
it was impolBble that it could come pany was> no doubt greatly in- 
into the ftatement of the company's creafing, and there was no want of 
aiuin; and, though it appeared fufficient funds for extending it. — 
iifMDn the account now, it was no But great and opulent as they were, 
new debt, and in fact, could not there was no .man living who mull 
be included as a defalcation in the not be fenfible tliat all  the com- 
produce of the laft year. So far merce with India, and all the wealth 
( iherwife^ the company^s affairs that might be brought home from 
would be 600,000/. better than in our Eaft-India iiettlcments to this 
hfi year, were not that million in- country was far beyond the power 
eluded. All circumftances con- or the means of the Eaft-Indiaconj- 
fdered, he faw nothing in the pre- pany. The export of the wealth of 
itut ftatement by any means alarm- India to Europe, as ftated to him, 
ing. On the contrary, on a full amounted to no lefs a fum than five 
relfofpedt, there would be found millions ftcrling. If this was true, 
the ftrongeft grounds for confolation and that the capital of the com- 
«"«r.d fatisfaclion. And he was en- pany, whether con fi fling in exports, 
tilled, he faid, to make that con- or in tl:e furplus of the revenue of 
tiu&oD, from the immenle improve- India, could bring home only two 
tnent in the company's affairs, (ince. millions or under, the general- in- 
ihcy had been umfer his own ma- terefl would require, that in fome 
»-^gement. After all, the com- Ihapeor other, asmuch as noilibleof 
[an/s debt was certainly bej^ond the three millions Ihouid he brought 
what he could have wifhed it to to Britifh ports in Brililh veHels, and 
tuve been. But, as it had been not (uffered to go ftragglin^ in «jlher 
<ontiaded, for the purpofe of pur- vefTels to other ports of Europe.— 
chafing invedments, it was of Mr. Dundas, on this fubjcdl, made 
'^'irfc to be found in the increafe a very juft, as well as obvious, dif- 
'f the company's aflets at home, tindlion between what was (bmuch 
'f bev might naturally be induced to Calked of, the clandeftine trade, or 
VoL.XLl. [O] the 

194] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

the traffic carried on for the privite 
emoluinent of the coropan^rs own 
fervants, and 'the merchandize 
brought home by (hips of neutral 
nations : articles which the com- 
pany either was not able or willing 
to bring. The refolutions moved 
by Mr. Dundas were agreed to, 
and carried through all the ufual 

Various difficulties having occur- 
red in executing the aft ot Jaft fef- 
iion, for the fale and redemption of 
the Iand-tax« Mr. Pitt, on the fixth 
of December, moved for leave to 
bring in a bill, to enlarge the time 
limited for the redemption of the 
land-tax, and to explain and amend 
the provifions of the bill introduced 
i^fl (eflion for that purpofe. It waa 

the general ebjed of the prefent bill 
to facilitate the execution of the iSt 
of lafl (effion, and extend its bene- 
fits by a wider and more equal 
operation. Leave being granted 
to bring in the bill, it was read and 
agreed to, and, through the ufual 
forms, pafled into a law. 

A bill, brought in by Mr. W. 
Dundas, on the third of April, was 
pafled, for amending fo much of the 
afts for the redemption of the land- 
tax, as far as they related to Sc©t« 
land, likewifc for extending the 
time for redemption^ and for em- 
powering the proprietors of certain 
eflates to fella part of thofe eflatei 
for the purpofe of rcdeeiniog l])^ 


[ la's ] 


i\['\ifuresfor the external Defence and irtienial Tranquiliiti/ of the Britijh 
S/i/e. — Motion cgainji any liegociations that might prevent or impede a 
Negociation for Peace. — Negatived,--^ Bills for confinning the Sufperifion 
of the Habeas Corpus, — DigreJJion to the State Prifon in Cold-Bath^ Fields. 

FROM the bafinefs offinance, or 
the fuppiies, and ihe great 
object to which they were diredted, 
we proceed, agreeably to our plan, 
to the meafures adopted by the 
ie^iflature for the external defence 
and intemal tranquillity of the (late. 
Huf, it may not be foreign to the 
de/ign of an Annual Regifler to 
notice alfo fome of the meafures 
propofed for tho(e ends, and that 
were mder difcudion, though not 
adoptea by the Icgiflature. 

On the eleventh of December, 
Mr, Tiemey moved " that it was 
the duty of his majefty's mini/lers to 
aJvife nis maje(ly againfl entering 
into any negociations which might 
prevent or impede a negociation for 
peace, whenever a difpoiition (houid 
be fhewn, on the part of the French 
republic, to treat on terms confif- 
tent with the fecurity and interells 
of the Britifh empire." He was 
induced to think that the pacific 
difpofition, which, foon after the con- 
ference at Lifle, was manifefted by 
Hismajefty's declaration, had been 
abandoned^ and that a new fpirit 
had begun to rife up, lading to an 
extendve connexion. It might be 
'aid that this motion Was an en* 
croachment on the prerogative of 
tlie crown. Bttt> as a member of 

that houfe, he had as good a right 
to fay, that the fupplies (hould he 
granted exclufively for England, 
as to fay, that there fhould not ht 
any fupply. It might be faid that - 
this motioff had a tendency to dani{^ 
the fpirit which was noiv rifing ik" 
Europe. There was iio fymptom 
rifing in any quarter, from princi- 
ple : on which alone, the value of 
any fpirit and even the duration of 
it could be founded. After a re- 
view of'Ruffia, Pruflia, Au/lria, 
and the Ottoman PortCi he could 
fee nothing like a fyHematic courfe 
of oppofition to the ainbitioas pro^ 
je^s of the enemy in general. A 
great confederacy againfl France, 
and that at a time when fhe did not 
poilefs the advantages of a fettled 
government, had already been 
rormed and difcomfited. What pro- 
duced the diicomfiture of the con* 
federates ? The (kill of the French 
or the jealoufy and indecifion of the 
allies? On either fuppofition the 
conclufion; from experience, would 
be the lame. Could it really be 
believed that FrancCi after having 
got Mantua, Luxemburgh, and 
other places, was more call \y to be 
driven within her ancient limits, 
than (lie was before flic made theie 
acquifitions ? He fliould think it 
I O 12 ] aar 

196] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

an encroachment onthe prerogative flill to a>*operate as laft year, w!di 

^f the crown wc re he to lay v. Iiat ip, our allies, by our naval exertions, 
and wliat is not, for the fecurlty, Mr. Canning expefled from the 

the honour, or the inlereft of the honourable gentleman rather lonae 

Britilh empire. But minifters had folid reafon.sfor the meafurehe had 

put into his majetly's mouthy on propoied, than an anticipation of 

the rupture of the conferences at the obje^ions which he thought 

Lifle, words tantamount to the might be brought againft it. As to 

fpirit of his motion. He quoted his the point of conflitulional form, be 

inajefty's declaration to that effect, was not inclined to lay the greateft 

" His majcfty looks with anxious ilrefs on any objeflion on Uiat 

exped^alion to ihe moment when ground. The motion, ihoagli ex- 

the government of France may traordinary, was not wholly unpre- 

ihcw a difpofition and fpirit in any cedented. Examples were not 

irfegree correfponding to his own. wanting. But he prefume(f tliat it 

And he renews even now, and be- would be farther neceflary for Mr. 

ibre all Europe, the folemn declara- Tierney to (hew, as had been (hewn 

lion that he is yet ready (li the ca- or attempted to be (hewn in att for- 

lam i ties of war can now heclofed) merinfiances, thatibmeoeceffity ex« 

to conclude peace on the fame m&- ifled which called for the interfe- 

derate and equitable principles and rence of the houfe of commons. Mr. 

any thing that thould bind govern- dotted, after Ihc manner of young 
ment as to terms. He was anxious men, with quotations) by dating that 
only to renew the fpirit of a decla- the motion appeared to hira to be 
ration, which did honour to his roa- founded on no principle of nccef- 
jefty's councils at the time it ifllied. f^ty : fmce, if it was intended for a 
If minifters departed from the fpirit cenfure on minifters,, it was unju/t ; 
of that declaration, and adopted <f ^r a controul, nugatory : as \u 
any other, they fliould aflign a rea- tendency was to impair the power 
fon for fb doing. There could be of profeeuting war with ▼igour, 
but two:-— the aggrefiion of the and to di mini lb the chance of nego- 
French in Switzerland,, which xvus ciating peace with dignity* orfcon- 
cot a novelty, as Venice witneffed, eluding it with, fafety. 
and the vi^ory of admiral Nel- Mr. Jekyll affced whetlicr^ in tlie 
ion. This was unqueflionably moment in wliich we fiood, on tlie 
great and glorious: but, it fhould proiid eminence of fuch a viftory 
be recollected that the declaration, as that at Aboukir, was not the mo- 
af]<:r the conference at Lifle, was ment to think of peace, in what 
made after the brilliant vi^ocy^ ftatc of our affeics could we turn 
lord Dtmcan. As to the objedlion, our attention to that great object 
that this motion might operate as with propriety > This country, 
a notice to France that we could however, was again to be embark- 
not any longer co-operate with our ed on the ocean of continenUil po- 
allies, he did not fay any thing of litics, without knowing the pur- 
the terms on which peace (hould be , pofes for which, we were engaged, 
made, and we might and oqght or the extent to which we might be 



Jnvolverf. On the authority of and convidled thofe perlbns, would 

Bolinbroke, fir Robert Wafpole, ha\'c been the beft realon that 

and Jord Townftend, he recom- could have been ur^^ed for con tin u- 

inended an adherence to our infular in^ the fufpenfion of the habeas-cor^ 

poiicv, and an avoidance of con- pwjad. Had there lately exifted 

tinenlal connedlions. any fyraptoms of rebellion, or h'ad 

Sir Jaroes Murray Pultney obfer- any informations taken place in any 

vcd, that the fituation oftheconti* quarter of the coimiry? On the 

nent was fuch as to oblige the contray, no period fincc the rcvolu- 

French to make great preparations, tion, Mr. Pitt would bear wiinefsj 

both on the Rhine, and in Italy: had difplaycd more loyalty and at* 

which might be confidered in fome tachment to government There 

meafure as equal to a campaign : was another reafon why Mr. Cour- 

a circumftancc which mull have tenay thought the fu(pi?n(ion of the 

operated greatly in favour of thiji liabeas-corpiis ou^ht toceafe. The 

country. He was not quite fure, perfons imprifonod under the a6i, 

if Europe bad been quite tranquil, nowpropofed to be continued, were 

and France had feen all the conti- moft cruelly treated. Having vifit- 

nentat her feet; if the enemy had cd the prifons, he found the prifo- 

Upt up a great force on their ners without fire, atid wilhoui can- 

colifls, and expended the fams they dies, denied every kind offociety, 

htd fpenl in military preparations expofed to the cold and tiie rain, 

by land, on their marnje ; but it allowed to breathe the air out of 

might have bcjcn more difficult and their cells only for an hour, denied 

dangerous to detach fo large a divi- every comfort, every innocent 

fion of oar navy to the Mediterra- amofement, excluded from all in- 

nean, by which the fplendid vi6lory tercourfe with each other, and 

oflordNelfon was atchieved. each night, locked up' from all the 

Mr.Tierney*s motion was nega* reft of the worlds He fuppofed it 

tived withoat a divifion. * • was (carcely necelTiry to inform the 

On the twentieth of December, houfe, that the prifoii, of which Ife 

Mr. Pitt having premised, that the had heen fpeaking, was that inCold* 

circamflances, which at firft render* bath-fields, known by the name of 

it neceflary to fufpend the habeas- the baftille. He ur^derllood that 

corpus ad, being ftill fo forcible, fome reverend gentlemen were 

a< to prevent the neceffi ty of his en- among the ma^iftiates, who man- 

iarging on the (ubje^>, moved for aged it: and who, no donbt, kiml- 

leive to bring in a bill for con tin u- ly fubje(5)ed their prifoncr^ lo To 

ing the fufpenfion of the habeas- much pain in this world, that the 

corpus act, for a lime to be limited, Jefs punidiment mi^ht be inflicled 

Lcsve being given, the bill was on them in the next. It was not 

read a firft time. On the fecond to perfons fnfpcded of (late crimes 

n*adtng,the following day, Mr. Cour- alone that the ufage ho 'ad de<- 

^cray took occafion to enumerate the cribed was extended. A diforder- 

bfm-fitsofthe habeas-corpusacl, A ly woman, as (he was called, that 

number of perfons were arrefted la ft is, one of thofe unfortunate crea- 

year, he believed, not lefs than fe- tures who w^lk the itreeiv, was 

venly or eighty. To have arraigned confined in a cold damp <«.!, 

[ O 3 J - thouj^h 

198] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

tliough not convided of any felony, a cafe was made out which war- 
and ipiarting under the virulence of ranted a temporary fufpenfion of 
a difeafe with which women of the the habeas^corpus aift. The fitua- 
fown are freq\iently afflided. In t ion of the country was now, how- 
another difmal cell he found a boy ever, completely altered. No one, 
confined there for difobcdience to who had read the king's fpeech, at 
his mafter. Mr. Courienay lament- the opening of the prefent feflion, 
ed that an honourable gentleman, could fuppofe that his majeAv's 
celebrated for his humanity, had minifters had now any apprehen- 
rot vifited that prifon. His prin- fjonofan invoiion. The number of 
ciples of vital Chriftianity (princi- perlbns arreflcd, in confcquence ol:' 
pies which he had indeed read in the--ftfpeniion of the habeas-cor- 
nis book) would have induced him pus a^, bad been fiated to be be- 
to exert all his eloquence for amelio- tween feventy and eighty, who 
rating the condition of tliofe un- were now all difcharged, except a 
kftppy people. few, and thefe were not brought to 

Mr. Dundas foid, tnat the points^ trial, though detained in confine- 
urged tonight, havihg no^^r//i/y ment (incelaft April. Thisfeerned 
'cofmeSliojt with the bill before the to indicate that there was not much 
houfe, might as well have been reafon for continuing the meafure: 
urged at any other time, or on any and it was certainly but fair that 
' cthe^r occafion, as the prefent. If fome new motive (Itould be ftiewn, 
there exifled ally abufe in the ma- before the houfe was required to 
jiagemcnt of goals, there was an agree to the bill. Had the gen- 
eaiy remedy; as they were all of tiemen, who vifited the Cold-bath- 
th^m under the management of prifon, procured their inquiries In a 
fome magiftrate or other. In order proper manner, the flicrifls mart 
tothewthat the fufpenfion of the ha- have been applied to, and other 
beas-corpus fhould not now be con- perfons examined, whpfe loical filu- 
tinued, Mr. Courtenay fliould flrew ation rendered their tpformatioa 
that there did not now exift any indifpenfable to a conclufire opi- 
treafonable feditious fpirit any nion. If the flier rifs had been found 
where in the country. Di<T he to blame, it would have been a 
mean to fay that there was nothing grave point to proceed upon, but 
of that kind difcovered at Maid- .nothing of this fort was alleged, 
/tone? He wifhed the hoofe to reflet on 

Mr. Tierney obferved, that a the clofe alliance in principle be- 

xneflTage was brought down from tween the United Irifti and the 

his majefty, laft felfion, ftating, French. The Irifli, like the 

that there was an imminent danger French, had their executive dircc- 

 of a;n invafion, aided by difaffedt-' tpry. In Ireland, as in France, 

cd and • treafbnable perfons in there was a government within a 

this country; and that a bill of government, feeking the ruin of 

indi6tment had been found by a their country, but audacious enough 

grand jury, at Maidflone, ,again/l to promifc the deluded people vf 

five perfons, for high treafon. — Ireland fuccour, from the JaJe of tlie 

Comoining thefe two circumflances eftates of the gentry of Ireland. 

togetlier, he cottid not deny that United Iriflimen could oiake United 



Bntens. If a« a fociety, they did country. Correfponding focieties 
not correfpond with focieties here, li^d been formed, with their execu- 
they propagated mifchief as indi* live committees : an imperium in 
viduais. imperio had been introduced, which 

Mr. Burdon iaid, that when he was nothing elfe than a germ 
went to viiit the prilbn, fo far from of treafon and rebellion. Now 
perceiving the parties fent there by fuch fort of treafon was not eafy to 
warrant by the fecretaryK>f>llftte> be brougiit home to the conviction 
to fafier by any rigorous confine- of a juryman, becaufe a6lual treafon 
cent, he iaw them walking about was concealed in the matter that 
with each other, and perfedlly un- was to bring it forth. And it 
difturbed. They had the means of was with great difficulty, that 
enjoying both air and ^cercife at minds not habituated to condder 
proper hours : nor had they any the fubje6l with the greatefl atten- 
reafbn to complain, as to the means tion, could be led to fee the danger 
of fuhflflence, having an allowance that furrounded them ! The execu* 
from government of 13j. ^. per tive government, afTuredly, would 
week. Sir Francis Burdett, while not have done its duty, had they 
he am afierted, that there wer6 not made ufe of all lawful means to 
many circamilancea in the (late- thwart the deiigns of perfons who ' 
prifon, in CoId«>bath-fieldB, tending had engaged in fuch combinations, 
to gvievoqs fuffering and difeafe, and to break the firength of fuch 
and thaty in many infhinces, the confederacies, 
prifoners bad been treated with Mr. Mainwaring faid, that the 
unjulUfiable feverity, admitted^ that reports of abufes in the management 
thoTe matters ^ere not flridlly in of the Cold -bath ^prifon, wer« 
poinf, on the coniideration of the wholly void of foundation. There 
fa^il before the houfe. But no was jiot a more comfortable plac^ 
^uand had, in his opinion^ been of the kind in the whole country, 
iiated, on which the houfe could or one in which, in proportion to 
furrender fo important a bulwark of the numbers confined, there Was 
t}ie liberties of the fubjedt. lefs iickncfs. P>ery thing was pro- 

Theiblicitor-generalgaveafketch vided for the ftate-prifoners in the 
of the origin and hiflory of the moH libera] manner. Mr. Wilber- 
fulpenfion of the habeas^corpus- force, too, vindicated the manage- 
act. It originated in the reign of ment of that prifon. He had vifit* 
king William, In the year 1715, ed it himfelf, and had very fatif^ 
TV hen this fiifpenfion was renewed, factory accounts from a corref^ 
the rooft £dutary confequences had pendent, of the (late of the prifon, 
UAiowed* This precaution having as to the health and treatment of 
been omitted in 1745, led the coun- the prifoners. Mr. Ellifon fpoke 
try in a much more dangerous fkte ardently in praife of miuiilers, who 
Oian tltat in which it was in 1713. had fo well exercifed the powers 
The fociety of United Irllhmen was with which ihey had bec-n invef)ed ; 
that which enabled the confpiracy and moA heartily gave his vote to th» 
lo diffufe itfelf, till at length it burft bill. The attorney-general, in re- 
forth in acts of open rebellion, ply to fomcthing that bad fallen 

strong attempts had been made to from fir F. Burdctf,, faid, (hat in 
l^ilaUiib Umilar focieties in this fupporting tlie mcafure, he was not 

[ O 4 ] a^uated 



a^lnated by any fuch unworthy mo- neoeflkry to op^fe it. This wai 
live, as a wifh to keep men in con- the anfwer he (hoold give to tboie 
finement: he contidereci the mea* genllcmen» who thought prefent 
fure nota9 an ad of feveriiy, but of iecarity a ground for future negli- 
mercy. The trials at Maidflone, gence. He tr&ded that the fuccefs, 
and the confinement of thofe now which had hitherto attended vigors 
in prifon, arofe from the fufpeniion pus nieafures, would be an argu* 
of the habeas-CQrpus-a^t having uient for their continuance, Mr. 
been fuffered to expire. Mr. Combe Tierney faid« '* the right honour- 
thought that twentv-five men, the able gentleman has now let the 
numfict* now in prifon, under the houfe into his intentions: it now 
B€t, could not, if let loofe on fo- appears, that this fufpeniion is lo 
ciety, do any harm, in the prefent be made into a fyftem/* The hoiilo 
flate of the public roind. Mr, then divided. For the bill 96, 
Weflern faid, as no grounds had againfl it 6, 
been fhited to the houfe to fliew the The fufpenfion of the habeas- 
neceifity of the roeafure, he could corpus-«6l was moved in the houle 
not fupport it. of lords, on the fourth of January, 
Mr. Pitt exprefled the warmeft by lord Grenville. It was op- 
iatisfadion at hearing it flated from pofed by lord Suffolk, who faid, it 
all quarters, that the fituation of was highlv neodHary that xninifter^ 
this country, both with refpedl to (hould afngn fome reafon for tlie 
its foreign and domed ic affairs, had renewal of this bill before it was 
been . fo greatly improved. ^ But propofed by the houfe. His lord- 
lie reminded the houfe, that thiS' fhip complained much of the cruel 
change, now fo univerfally acknow* treatment of colonel Defpard,. rigor- 
ledged, had been obtained by the oufly confined; under great feveri- 
adoptjon of thofe meafures, by a ties, in the Cold-bath-prifon, for 
perfeVerance on the part of govern^ fix months, without any fpecific 
znent in that fyflero, which fome of charge againd him. Lord Gresville 
thofe gentlemen, who now exulted thought the reafons formerly given 
in our fa/ety, had reprefented* as for pafling this bill, and which re* 
calculated to produce difader a^ mained in full force, fufficieitt to 
broad, and to deflroy the conilitu- induce their lordfliips to continue it. 
lion at home. Did the honour* AstothoharflmefswithwbichcoloDel 
able. gentlemen think that becaufe, Defpard had been faid to be treated, 
through the wife and vigorous mea* he did not know any thing of the 
fures adopted by his majefty's mini- matter. Something of the kind had 
Hen, tl>ey had fo fortunately efoaped been complained of, but it had beca 
the perils with which they were immediately difoountehanoed by go- 
menaced, they might now^ with vemment. Lord Holland, after a 
faftly, abandon their efforts and reprefentation of the important ten* 
relax their precaution ? The people dency and effedls of the habeas^ 
of England^ had learnt enough of corpus-adt, faid, that the moll 
the nature of jacobinifm, not to imperious neceffity, only, ought to 
know, that while the principles of induce the houfe to . abandon fo 
it exifled, the mod unremitting vigi- iirong a bulwark to the liberty ol 
Jance and the gre^teft firronefs were the fubjc€l. The habeas-corpus 



sci was fo excellent a law, that 
iMiih'iiig lets than the deledion of a 
('^nfpiracy to overturn the govern- 
ment could overturn this meafure, 
£elides« before fo much of the 
liberty of tiie fuhjed was (aken a- 
way, we fiiould be very careful to 
u horn it was intruded. But, it was 
ailerted, that there had exifted con- 
1 piracies of a deep and infidious 
kind. Several per (on s, his lordfliip 
obferved, had been brought to trial 
on charges of high-treafon ; and the 
crown had exerted all ils ftrength 
f^'r their conviction : but what was 
the refalt ? Wbv, that the acCufed 
were honourably acquitted, by a 
jar}' of their countrymen ; and tl)at 
the tnafons and feditions, of which 
mioifters had fpoken fo much, dif» 
appeared in a moment. Tliere was 
but one cafe, he faid^ in which the 
meafure propofed could be necef* 
fary: which was, if there adually 
exilied tbofe confpiracies, and fonie 
or the perfons concerned in them 
v^ere in cu(}ody» but could not be 
brought to trial without the rifle 
of giving the alarm to the reft. 
Lord H. after a furamarv review of 
the Ibte of Ireland, denied that the 
rebellion in that country juftified 
I'Cw rigours in this. Had the go* 
v'^miDent of Ireland ameliorated the 
condition of the people, by re- 
moving their grievances, rehiellion 
would never have broken out. The 
fvftem of minifters was to keep 
the attention of the public u|>on 
iti own danger, inftead of tho 
incapacity or corruption of mini/lers. 
When he confidercd the failure of 
the objects of minifters in public 
affairs, the zeal and loyally mani- 
fefted by the people, the treatment 
they bad experienced, and the con- 
did piey had obferved, )ie was 

aftoniHied that their rulers fiiould 
io calumniate them, as to affirm that 
tiie bill was necciliiry. 

Lord Grenville dcfpalred of con- 
vincing the noble lord of the proprie- 
ty of the meafares of any of the king's 
minifters. But, although they had 
not been favoured with his approba-f 
tion, thev had repeatedly received 
the approbation of the hoafe. As 
to the trials of perfons acquitted at 
the Old Bailey, were we now to 
learn, that the acquittal was not a 
proof of innocence ? So far from 
this, it tended to confirm the exift-* 
enco of the con fpi racy, by proving 
the exiftence of the correfponding 
fbciety ! Was the exiftence of a 
confpiracy, and the necefTity of tho 
meafure propofed, difproved by the 
perfon (o honourably acquitted at 
Maidftone? Had not t'liat traitor, 
O'Connor, fince his honourable 
acquittal, thrown himfelf on the 
mercy of that gracious fovereign, 
whom he had bafely attempted to 
dethrone ? O'Coigly, one of his con- 
federates, had alio been convi6ted 
of trcalbn ; and it appeared beyond 
a doubt, that a communication wa<^ 
to be made to the diredory," not 
from any fociety in Ireland, but ii| 
England. All thefe things proved 
the exifience of a confpiracy in both 
countries. A dcfjgn, alto, had been 
long conceived, for feparating the 
kingdoms from each other. On the 
. whole, Mr. Pitt was perl'uadcd, that 
the public would conlider the bill 
not as intended for the doftruclion 
of their liberties, but its protec- 

Lord Holland was of opinion, 
that the tranquillity and fafcty of 
the country would be beft confulted 
by the removal of grievances and 
colourable pretexts lor rebellion. 


[ ios 1 



l/'/iton icith trciinJ.'^MaJfage from his Majefit/, relative to that SubJeSi,''^ 
Rcfoiutio7LS prc'ijaratoiy to an Union. Debates i hereof i, in both Houfes of 
Parliavieni.''^ConJcrrences between the Lords and Commons » — -Joint Ad" 
drcfsy from both lumfis, to his Majejlv, — New Arrati^e7vents re/peding 
the Militia f^viun/ecr, and Provifional Cavalry, — Slavc^Trade, 

IX proportion as the etiemies of 
our country laboured to eflfe^ an 
entire feparalion between Great 
Britain nml Ireland, the Hritifli go- 
vernment became anxious to draw 
them clofer and clofer together, by 
uniting them not only under the 
fame crown, but the fame^ iegida* 

Ireland had,, for many centuries, 
formed one dominiop with tnglaud: 
HYidi allowing to tljis country a 
fupcriority in the nomination of her 
king, (lie claimed and enjoyed, in 
every utiier refpedt, an equality of 
riglit^ with Engliihmen. As the 
t\ghi^ of fubjeds in botR kingdoms 
ivere the fame, the king*s preroga-. 
tjves were alfo the fame. The king 
had liis courts of wards in Ireland 
as well as England : and, at his 
command, the pulTelTors of landed 
property, in both kingdoms, then 
military tenants of the crown, were 
bcund (o take arms in the national 
defence. This martial fyflem, cor- 
rupted in ail its branches, through 
the lapfe of time, and retaining 
fcarcely any thing but the name, 
was finally fwept away by the a6l, 
in the twelfth of Ciiarles IL fur 
the abolition of tenures. 

Amnn<i the king's ancient prero- 
g.' lives, tlie r:ght.of rcguUting com' 

merce appears to have been one, 
and of impofing duties on merdian- 
dize, excluGvely, jure Corona: but 
this, like the other feadal rights in* 
hercnt in the crown, gradually fuA 
fcred alteration. The parliament 
gradually interfered in that power : 
and, one precedent of their inter* 
ferencc j unifying another, they at 
length wrefted from Charles I. his 
content to an ad which placed that 
right in the fupreme legiQatsre. 

What the Englifli parliaments 
were doing in Englaind, the Irifli 
parliaments imitated in Ireland; 
and thus, unobfervedly, a wall of 
feparation was raifed between the 
two kingdoms, to the prejudi<:e of 
both* Commercial concerns, which, 
in the beginnings were directed by 
a law of uniformity, came thus to 
be direded by a law of diveriity. 
As different intereds, and diBlerent 
views, predominated in the parlia- 
ment of each kingdom, different 
commercial regulations followed of 
eourfe, and the oppoHte (liores of 
the Jrifli channel bec^mej by de- 
grees, mutually inimical. Thefe 
different int^re/ls, and different 
views, were fortified in each king- 
dom by the preclilrdion of draiyii^g 
a public revenue from port-duties: 
aud on tlus principle, together with 



tirat of the unity of dominion, the preflbd a wifti, almoft unanimous, 
Knglifli parliament thought itfelf en- that the two ifbnds might ft ill con/ 
l;t]ed to controui the commercial pro- tinue to be conncOed by (uch poli^ 
ceedings of the Irffli parliraent, as far tlcal principles as ftiould make their 
as, in their jndgeraent,-it prejudiced, interells, their conllitutional privj- 
or might prejudice, the revenue of leges, and their power one, in 4 
England, which was the chief fup- more complete manner than they 
port of government ! The Irifti, had ever been before. The motion, 
acqnieiciog in this legiflation, gave which pafied into a law, for the abo- 
themfelves a kind of indemnitica- Jition of the old con fit tut ion, was 
tion, by with-holding their proper followed by another motion, de- 
proportlon of the public fupplies. daring the .abfolute neceffity of 

Ufages, long acquiefced in, form forming a new conflitution. 
a coBltitution as well as written The formation of this new confti- 
fripulations; examples of which we tution, though acknowledged by 
have in the prerogatives claimed both houfes of parliament to be of 
by each houfe of parliament, which, indifpenfable neceflily, was never- 
though no where written, are thelcfs put off, by what has beei> 
generally ondeHlood and acknow- called the coalition miniftry, fijia 
iedged. Accordingly, for want of die. Yet, lord North, on the oc* 
a more regular and more defined caflon of propofing, in 1783, a 
Aftcm of conne6^ion between^ the new a6l relative to the pofiage of 
two lAands, (ince the aboUti<m of letters, ackno%vledged it to ** be 
teodal tenures, this undefined fu- vtTy certain that Great Britain and 
premacy of the Englifli parliament, Ireland had become to each oiher, 
over Ireland, was regarded as the in point of political power, as fo» 
fole remaining anchor that held reign nations." The relative fitua* 
Great Britaiii and Ireland together; tion of the two iflands was thut 
as the only principle-that made them both new and alarming. Tiie two 
one in political power and domi- countries were, liable to be fepara- 
nion. However imperfect, how- ted by a thouiand accidents, which 
tver impolitic, this fyfiem was, it no human forefight or wifdom could 
^vas neverthelefs confidered in both prevent. 

nations as a conftitution, by which. The three great objc6t$ to be 
in many inOances, for many years, accompli (lied, for the formation of a 
the parliaments and the tribunals of conflitutlonal connedlion between 
'Ireland were condu€led. From this two nations are an equality of inte- 
conftitution innamciBble evils cer- refl«, an equality of privileges, and 
lainly 6owed, both to Great Britain a unity of power. The two firft of 
and Ireland. But many more grie- (hefe objects were already in a 
vances having been attributed to it great meafure provided for, and 
than could a^ually be laid to its very little remained indeed that 
chaige, it became doubly odious, could be urged by any peaceable 
and at length, (baring the fate of the and well'diipoled Irilhmen, as a 
i«^o<lal tenures, was in May, 1782, fubjedl of complaint againft the 
aboUflied. When . the Iriih condi- BritM) goveriiment. But the unity 
tution was thus defolved, the people of power, or unity of detence be- 
yf Great Britain ^jk} Ireland ex* tvyecn Great Britain and Irelan-l, 

5 remaiuej 

. /. 


remained anfettied in 1799; when* of the two countries fought to 
on the twenty-feconrt of January, a cherifh. The parliament of Ireland 
meflkge on that fubjed was received was an independent parliament.— - 
from his majedy by both houfes of There was no power whatever 
pari iain en t. His majefty, after ad ver- competent to make laws for that 
ling to the unremittinprinduftry, with country. He was perfnaded that 
whichourenemiesperfevtred in their kch of his countrymen as really 
avowed defign of effecting' the fe- loved national liberty, and who re- 
paration of Ireland from this king- collo^^ed that aufj>i<;ions pericKl 
Kingdom, recommended it to the when independence came upon 
lords -and commons to oonfider of tliem, as it were by furprize, when 
the mod effedlual means of finally the genius of freedom reXked on 
defeating that defign, by difpofing tlieir ifland, the whole of the Irifli, 
the parliaments of both kingdoms in fliort, would come to (his fecond 
to provide, in the manner which adjuftment, with a temper that 
they (hould judge the moft expe- would not augur tranquillity, but 
dient, for fettling fuch a complete difquietude ; not the (uppreiTion of 
and final adjudment, as might beft tueafon, but the extenfion and in* 
tend to improve and perpetuate al creafe of plots, to multiply and en- 
eonne^ioo eflential for their com* fanguine its horrors ! He admitted 
mon fecurity, and confolidate the that there was fomething informal 
ihength, power, and refburces, of in this way of treating the oueflion 
the Britifh empire^— on the follow- immediately before the houfe. But 
ing day, when this meiTage was hisdearcountry, Ireland, had claims 
taken into confideration, Mr. fecre- upon him, which he was not more 
lary Dondas, having laid en the table proud to acknowledge than ready, 
feveral papers relative to the pro- to the full meafure of his ability, to 
ceedingsot certain focieties in Ire- liquidate. -He could fee thepoffi- 
land, and the rebellion in that ble danger of adding to the dif- 
codntry, moved an addrefs to his contend of the people of Ireland, 
najedy, the fubftance of which But thefe dangers were to be ap- 
was,. " That the houfe would pro- prehended only, as innovations and 
ceed with all due difpalch to the encroac4iments on the rights of the 
confideration of tl.e feveral interefls, Irifli people, as forming an inde- 
recommended in his majefty'sgracious pendent nation. He did not knovv 
laeflage, to their tcrious attention .^^ how to admit, that to rejeft the 
Mr, Sheridan faid, that before meafure of an union were to in- 
miniilers recommended to the houfe vite the feparation of the two coun- 
of' commons to take meafures that tries by a French , force. His op f- 
led inevitably to the difcuffion of nion wasdire^ly thereverfe of this. 
fome plan of union, it was incum- Situated a^ Ireland was, wHhout 
bent- on thenv to have ihewn, that having m one mftance manifefled a 
the laft pledge of the Englifh par- wifl> to unite, hut, on the contrary* 
liament,' to (be people or Ireland, having unequivocally declared her- 
by which their independence was felf hotlile to the propofition of an 
recognized^ and their rights ac- union: he thought that, if it (hould 
knowledged, had not prodnced thfirt be efle6ked, it would be an union 
unanimity, which the parliaments ftccompKlhcd by furpr^s^e, fraud, 

6 corruption. 


corruption, and iniimidation, and own, it muft be the effed of their 
which muft place the people of Ire- government. Firft remove the 
land in a worfe condition than they caufesof their mifery, and then in- 
were in before. Having eftabli (bed, vite them, if you will, to a clofer 
a? be trufied, two propofitions, union. Mr. Arthur Youn^ has at*- 
/irir, that the meafiire propofed was tribnted the evils that afflict the 
(iecidediy an iiifrafliwi and viola- poor of Ireland- to. the progrefs of 
tion of the acknowle3ged inde- Freiich principles. But I am quife 
pendeiice of Ixifti legiflalion ; and, convinced the mifery of that unfor- 
recondly, that union could not pre- tunate clafs has had its origin, and 
vent the (eparjition of this country continues to increafe with the ex- 
by France, Mr, Sheridan offere<l anions and impofts of their over- 
to the confi deration of the houfe a grown landlords. He concluded 
third proportion, namely, that it with moving the following amend- 
ivas not poflible, in the prefent ftate ment : "At the fame time to exprefs 
of Ireland, that people could de- the furprize, and deep regret, with 
dare and acl ujion tbeir genuine which this houfe now, for the firft 
ientiments. Was it poffible that tin»e, learns from his majefly, that 
the free, fair» and unbiaflTed fenie the final adjuflfnent, which, upon 
of the people of Ireland could be his majefty's gracious recommenda« 
coile^d, at the prefent time, on tion, took place between the two 
thatqueftion^ The Englifti force kingdoms in 1782, and which, by 
in Ireland was, at once, an anfwer the declaration of the parliaments 
to that queilioO' What would be of both countries, placed the con- 
iaid if France aSed in a fimilar ne^ion between them on a fol id and 
manner, not to a country neutral permanent bafis, lias not prcKluced 
or merely in alliance with her, but the effects expetled from that fo- 
to a country dear to her on every lemn fettlement ; and farther, hum^ 
account, and virhofe fons were fights bly to exprefs to his mnjefly, that 
ing her battles in every quarter of his majefty's faithful commons ba- 
the globe? would it not be faid, ving.ftrong reafon to believe that it 
ti»at it was the greateft perfidy ? is in the contemplation of his ma- 
The king oi Sardinia gave his con- jelly's rainifters to propofe an union 
fent that the Frencli fltould take of the legiflatures of the two king- 
pofieFion of Piedmont: but it was doms, runwithflanding the faid final 
the efiFecl of force.' He heard much and folcnwi adjuilment, feel it to be 
of French principles, but he wiflied their bounden duty, imprcfied as 
that gentlemen would not fo clofely they ore with the mofl ferious ap- 
follow French pra£iices. With re- prdjcniions of the confequences of 
fpe^t to the enemies of the Britifh >^ich a proceedin^r at this time, to 
government, it bad two enemies in take the eariiell opportunity humbly 
Ireland, " poverty and ignorance," to implore his majefly not to Irften 
and anieis it could be Aiewn, that to the counlul of thofe who (hnfl ad- 
t'le prefeot nieafufe could remove vifc or promote fuch a meafure at 
thefe, be could not agree to the the pr'vTent crifis, and under the pre- 
ireafore. If, (aid Mr. Sheridan, ient circuro fiances of tke empire.'' 
the people of Ir^laiid be active «nd Mr. Canning admitted, that in 
indafhiotma every country bttt their th^ refohuions, entered, upon the 


ft06j ANNUAL RfiGlSTfiR, ii99. 

journals of the houfe in 1782, the midatlon appear? both the libcrf^ 

words Jinai adjujitnent were made of fpeech, and the liberty of the 

ttfe of: but the rcfolutions, to which preft had been pretty freely indul- 

Mr. Sheridan referred, were imme- • ^ed on the prefent fubjeft. Wa^ 

dialely foHowed by another refolu- it the parliament of Ireland (list 

tion, evidently of a profpefiive na- Englitti foldicrs were to 'coerCe and 

turei which declared the neceffity reftrain ? a parliament fully armed 

of edablidiing feme more perma- with every conftitutional power lo 

nent fyftem, by which alone the control that or any other anrv? 

tranquillity and importance of* Ire- In recommendation of an union wilh 

land could remain uninterrupted, Ireland, Mr. Cannhig faid, lliat it 

and continue to be improved.— would latisfy the friends of the pro 

With regard to the pofture of affairs teftant afcendancy, without paiBn^ 

in Ireland, he faid, it was notorious laws againfl the catholics, and wlth- 

that a rebellion had exifted in that out maintaining thofe which wvr« 

country. This, though checked, yet in force. Mr. Canning, in the 
was not perhaps, efl*ectually quelled., courfe of his fpeech, fexpaliated on 

The object of the traitorous ma- the influence of the French revok- 

chinations, which gave rife to that tion. -As to what had fallen frort 

rebellion, was not any partial Mr. Sheridan refpe6ting the incor- 

change of men or meafures^^-but a porations made by France, for ti.<» 

total fubyerfion of the exiftin^ go- fartheraggradizementof heralrea*h 

vernment and conftitution ot the gigantic dominion?, in what poil- 

country, and the complete deftruc- blc point of view could fuch a ccm- 

tion of ail connection between the parifon be inflituted between (Ij? 

filter kingdom aijd Great Britain. — conduft of France and Britain ^ 

Mr. Canning wr^ed the expediency did France attempt to incorpora!" 
of ail union, from the authority of other countries foi* the purpofe c-' 

ado6lorDugc^lienon, whohadfhewn extending their common commeT' 

in a puhlicatron, intituled *' An An- cial interefts? Had the French been 

Aver to Mr. Grattan/' either that the authors, hot of contribution = 

the plan of union mud be adopted, < and confifcations, but of means of! 

' or that fome other muft be devifed wealth and prolpcrity to the cor- 

i'or the fortification of the proteftant quercd countries? and had they 

afcendency. As to the intrmida- required of t ho m to bear a common 

tion which, it had been alleged, fliare, on common terms, for titi 

Would be imprefTed on the public defence and advancement of a 

tnind in Ireland, and the reftraint common caufe > did the countric-, 

which it would impofc on the free- which they endeavoured toircor^- 

will and voice or the nation, on rate, refcmble France in cOnftiiu | 

the fubjedl of the union: when tion and'law ? and in other poirs.i 

once the union (honld be effeclcd, which he fpecified. 
the necedity of keeping up a large Mr. Jones \os rrf opinion, tJj^ 

army there would be removed ; the meartirE-tio>V fuggelled, inrtn { 

and thus the union would, in fa^l, of crufbing'tHe febcllion, vrou! I 

remove one of the objects of Mr. have the oppofite tendency. It a;-- 

Sheridan*s own cenfure and Com- peared io nini to have all the ch. ^ 

f llHnts. But where did thut inti* radlerWic tifarks of Frendi Iffter^ 




J Jly- He was far from fuppofing boured to eftablifti, namely, that 

thit troops were fent to Ireland for there was no power which could 

the purpofe of over-awing the, de- make the reliilt of thg delibefation, 

liber-dons of the parliament of the for adjulling the reciprocal interclh 

couijtrj; but, certainly, while they pf both kingdoms, efiecluaL Jftho 

were(here,they might be confidered parliament of Ireland had rio right 

ts Iwving the effedl of an intimida- to incorporate with tlie Icgitlature 

ton, with refpe^ to the people at of this country, without the ft-nfe 

large. of the people of Ireland, as littlo 

Mr. Sheridan fald, that he had had the parliament of Great Britain 

heard Mr. Canning's fpeecb with a right to follow the fame meafure 

n^uch iatisfa6^ion, becaufe it \kras willi that of Ireland ; as little liad 

/i' little applicable to the qiieftion. the parliament of Scotland a right to 

He had not flated that the Irifh par- agree to the terms of the union, 

liaraent deliberated under intimida- which had been effcded ; as littb 

tion; bat that there was a kind of liad the parliament of England 9, 

negative intimidation, while fo great right to ratify that uuion undejr 

a rrjjlitarj force remained in the which England had fo eminently 

country 5 and, that Ireland was flourilhcd. The honourable genr 

placed in a fituation in which (lie tieman had talked of a wirti to carry 

cr.uld not help herfelf. Offence the meafure propofed by furprize, 

iiadbcen taken at the term French ^r. Pitt hefUated not to fay, that, 

4' -corporation, ai)4 it was faid that if any blame was imputable to mi- 

t'-c countries, which the French nidry, it was that of having a€ied 

compelled to unite with them, were with too much caution. It had 

'ot admitted to the participation of been diftinCtly recommended, from 

< xh advantages as were held out the throne, to adopt (uch falulaty 

* ' Ireland by an union with Britain, means as might improve and pefpe- 

ii it the queftion was, not a com- tratie a. connexion elTential to the 

/arifon of bleflings, but the mode common fecurity and interells of 

1:* which the meafure was to be both countries. His majefty's mi- 

<~arricd into eflfefl. Would it be niftcrs, in confor^nity to that cum - 

Mid that this country was to corr^pel munication, had only Hated the 

Ireland to agree to an union, be- time of laying before the houfe the 

« aafc we were certain that it was materials necelTary for forming an 

>'or their advantage? opinion, and added, that ^ proper 

Mr. Pitt, though he did not think interval would take place before 
■I ncce(Eiry to pnter fully into the they took the fenfe of parliament, 

important details, which the fubjedl " In fliort,'' faid Mr, Pitt, 'f t}ie quef- 
More them naturally fuggefled, tion now is, fliall we, after ti)e exr 

could not pafs over with indifference piration of a proper intervalj difcufs 

foiDe topics which had been alluded and come to a determination on ihct 

to in tbs courfe of Mr. Sheridan\<i fubjecl ; or (hall we, in the firll ia- 
ipcech. The honourable gentler ilance, «nd on the mere outlet of 
man, in bringing forward his amend- the bufinefs, without taking a ju(t 
(ci*nt, appeared to Mr. Pftt to fur- review of the conli derations on both 
nidi but one argument in fupport of fides, pod ti vely declare that the 
(i;? 90Dcl)^fton wbivh he ji^(i {a- ineafure is either ufineceir^ry, Qt (q 


20«3 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

impracticable as to prevent any .With refpe6l to the confinement of 
hopes of realizing it ?" The evils property in & few hands, the ex* 
with which Ireland was afflifled, traordinary dirparity of rank, ar.d 
Mr. Pilt obferved, lay deep in the the (canty means of fociai improN-e- 
iituation of the country. They were ment, all producing in a pmpoi- 
to be attributed to the manners of tionate degree mifery in one ex- 
its inhabitants, to the /late of foci- treme, andoppreilion in the other, 
ety, to the habits of the people at how could thefe grievances be re- 
large; to the ineqiial diflribution of medied but by aVclofer connexion 
property, to the want of civilized with Great Britain ? The fituation 
intercourfe, to the jarring difcord of of Ireland muft alfo be remedied by 
party, atid above all, to the preju- an influx of capital, and thecircu- 
dices of religious feels. This depio- Jation of wealth : and whence were 
rablefituationofthecountrywasnot thefe neceilary ingredients to be 
to be remedied by any a 61 of the Irifh fupplied, but by aflimilating it with 
parliament, but by gradual, fober, and Great Britain ? He did not merely 
difpailionate improvement and civi- fay, let Ireland be united; let her 
lization; by the circulation ofcapital, be blended with us, let her partake 
by the fociai intercourfe naturally of every folid benefit, of everv 
flowing from trade and commerce, eminent advantage that could refuft 
by the diffufion of fociai habits, by the from fuch incorporation. In an- 
diflemination of liberal fcntiment, f wer to what had been faid by Mr. 
by removing party diflradtions, by Sheridan, aboat a final adjuHment. 
fupprefTing fadlious aflbciations, by Mr. Pitt undertook to date thai 
allaying hereditary feuds between this final adjuflment was madcun- 
two nations fubfifling ' in the fame der the pretence of redreffing gri^ 
ifland, and by the extindlion of re- vances, without looking to future 
ligious prejudices. For fuch reme- confequcnces, or taking a general 
dies we mufl look to the provifions view of circumflances : it was die- 
of an independent legifiature, re- fated by the fpirit of momentary 
moved from the immediate feat of popularity, and was not founded in 
the complicated difcafe, which the folid interefis of the country. 
(liould not be partial to either party. Having created two diflin6t parli- 
but the fair arbiter and kind parent aments, equally able and competent 
of both 5 which fliould not be liable to decide and dictate, on qaeftions 
to local influence, nor fobje^t to of peace and war, and all points of 
popular incitement, and which trade and commerce — it leil fhem 
ibould be fully competent to make as divided on all material point$, 
head 4gainfl the lawlefs inroads of about which nations might contefr, 
deflrufiive innovation and anarchy, as any two powers on the conlincr^t. 
Mr. Pitt did not deny that even the When the aft was paffed; Mr. 
deformed refemblancc of the Britifh Pitt oblerved, which gave inde- 
conflitution was fuperior to any pro- pendence to Ireland, it was accom- 
ceeding from the new (yftem ; but, panied by a rftfolution, flating that 
the imperfection of the Irifh confli- it was the opinion of (lie houfe, thr.t 
ttttfon was admitted, and to that the the connexion between both king- 
cmnplicated grievances and defedls doms (faoiUd be confblidaled by fu- 
ia tbo Aate of the country at large, tare meafures or regabtionfl^feunded 




fn the bafis of mntnal confent.— 
The exiftcnce of the refolution be- 
iiij^ pm^'cd, by extradts from the 
io«maJ« of the honfe, Mr. Pitt, on 
theanlhorhy of that rcfohition, af- 
fflmed ft as an eflsbliAted laft, thaji 
no final fcttletnent, in 1782, had, 
as was alleged, been made with 
Ireland. And nothing, he added, 
had been fince attempted to pro- 
vide for that defe^ive fettleraenfr, 
but the partial and inadequate 
meafore of the Irifti^ propoiittons, 
which were defeated by the perfons 
who framed the refolution, but who 
foand no (ubflrtute in their room. 
Was there no probable cafe in which 
tlw* le^iflatnres of both kingdoms 
mi^hl differ ? Had not one cafe ac- 
tually arifen, and that within the 
ftiori fpace of iixteen years? Ho 
meant that of the regency. Tho 
Hifeence of principle was evident, 
^>r the Irirti parliament decided 
upon one principle, and the Britrfh 
parliament npon another. They 
o<>th led to the appointment of the 
fame perfbn* but that was acciden- 
tal, for that perfon mufl have go- 
\fmed the two kingdoms upon 
•i'lT^rent principles. The office of 
''ijent, on 'grounds equally juflifia- 
fcN% might have been vefled in two 
^iittinci perfons;. Could any man, 
^'ith fo inftru^4ve an example be- 
lore his eyes, talk wilh fi ncerity of 

* iina! adjuftraent? Would Mr. 
.^^eridan pretend to maintain, that, 
when the habit of difcufling the fo- 
reign relations of tlie empire ihould 
take place, the parliament of Ire* 

• ^iid ml^ht not, as it might natu- 
^liy tiiink itfelf entitled to do, prol 
teed to inquire into treaties and 
alliances. And, on a fuppofed 
iJiffen'nce of local inl€reft, was it 
"upoffible that the parliament of 
Irt'hnd might take one ilep in gtr- 

Vox,. XLI. 

ihg advice to the fovereign, and the 
parliament of Great Britain ano- 
ther? If, in the prefent conjtefl, 
the oppofition were to have as much 
influence in Ireland as they for- 
merJy had, a vote for peace might 
be paffed, and the efforts of Great 
Britain paralyfed ? Ireland, in fuch 
a cafe, might neutralize its ports, 
, prevent the raifing of recruits for 
the drmy and navy, and endanger 
the very exigence of the empire.—. 
It was true that the influence of the 
oppofition party in Irelanc) had been 
lefs prevalent than ever. The in- 
fluence of the great patriot of Ire- 
land was extin6t, nearly in the fame 
way that the reputation of the other 
great patriots here in England had 
expired. But if the hoi^fe \vifhed\ 
to render tho connexion between \ 
Great Britain and Ireland perpe- 
tual, and to make the ties inaiflblu- 
ble, they would not do <iieir duty 
to either country if they negle^ed 
to bring forward fonrie propofition, 
that might provide for the (kfety 
and profperi ty of Ireland, and re- 
medy the mifetable imperfections of 
the arrangement mado in 1782. 

Mr. Martin thought, thai if, on - 
the future difcuflion of the fubje6t 
before the houfe, it fhould appear 
that an union with Ireland was a 
meafurc which would contribute to 
the advantage of both countf ies, it 
ought to be agreed to. As \ho 
houfe feemed to acdnicfce in the 
opinion, Mr. Sheridan withdrew 
liis amendment, and the origfnal 
inotion was put and carried.- Soon 
afler this, intelligence was received 
by the Britifh government, Hiat the 
propofal for ' an union, wlfiph had 
Deen laid before thfe Trifti! piirlia- 
inent, had been rcjefted. * • 

On ThurWay, Janiiai'y S 1 ; 179!1!» 
the order of the W^, for taking 

[PJ hi'. 


bn nsftjefiy^ mtSbse, rdative to an ms which that country wouU derive 

union witn Ireland, into confidera* from an qnion with Great Britain. 

tion« being read, Mr. Pitt tofe and He then remarked that the onion with 

(aid, that when he propofied to the Scotland had been as much oppofed, 

boufe that meafure the lad time, in and by much the* fame arguments, 

order to fix the pre(ent dav for its prejudices, and mticonceptions, ere* 

farther confideratioh, he mdul^ed ating the fame abrms, and nrovo* 

a hope that the refult of a (imihr king the lame outrages, as had lately 

communication* to the parliaoLent of taken place at Dublin : yet the aa- 

Ireland, would have opened a more vantages which that part of die 

favourable profped than at prefent united kingdom had derived from 

exifled, of its fpeedy accompiifli- the union, were abundantly appa- 

ment. But while he admitted and rent« from the general profperity of 

refpc^ted the rights of the parlia- the capital, manufadluring towns, 

xpent of Ireland, he felt, thaC, as a and the country in general. The 

member of the parliament of Great refolutions, the principles and ten* 

Britain, he alfo had a right to exer- dencv of which he had now in ge- 

cife, and a duty to perform. That nerai explained, but of which ne 

duty, was to exprefs. as di(lin€lly wiflied a more detailed difcuflion 

as he could, the general nature and to be referved to a future day, were, 

outline of the plan, which, in his *' Firft, That in order to promote 

oonfcience, he thought would tend, and fecure the eflential interefis of 

in the (Irongefi manner, to enfure Great Britain and Ireland, and to 

the faSeiy, and Iiappinels of both confoUdate the (Iren^tb, power, and 

kingdoms. If parliament, after full refources of the Bntifh empire, it 

explanation, and mature delibera* will be advifeable to concur in fuch 

tton, (houkl be of the fame opinion, meafures as nmy beft tend to unite 

he would propoie that its determi- the two kingdoms of Great Britain 

nation ihould remain recorded as and Ireland into one kingdom, in 

that bjT which the parliament of fuch manner, and on fuch terms and 

Great Britain were ready to abide, conditions, as may be eftabliihed by 

leaving to the legiflature of Ireland a€ts of tlie re(pe6livc parliaments of 

to rele6l or adopt it hereafter, upon his majcfly's faid kingdoms, 

a full confideration of the meahire. '' Second, That it app^rs to thift 

Air. Pitt proceeded to expaitate, committee that it would be ^t to 

at fposLt length, on the topics on propofe as the firil article, to fer\'e as 

which he had touched in his former a bads of the. faid union, tlrat the 

f^ech on this fubjefl : the compe- (aid kingdoms of Great Britain and 

tence of the Iriih parliament to ac* Ireland dial), upon a day to be a* 

cept or rjfsjedl a propodtion of this greed upon, be unitea into one 

nature, the neceffity of an intimate kingdom, by the name of the IfHited 

and perpetual connexion between Kingdom qf Great Britain ot4 Jre^ 

Gfisd Britain and Ireland, to the land, 

int«rcfi% of both countries ; the de* 'f Third, That for the lame pnr^ 

f9&s.of what had been called the pofe it appears alfo to this commit- 

final adjuflment of 1782; the im- tee, that it would be fit to propofe 

]^ extfiing to the prof- that the fuccedSoh to t^he monarchy 

pexfty of Ixeitoft, -and the adtunta*' ^nd the imperial crown of. the faid 

' • •* [ • . united 


UT<iied kiDje^domic (liall continue U- iee, that it would be fit to propofe 

nii(ed aiid fpltledi in the fame man- that hisjnajeHy's fubje^ls in Ireland 

ner as the imperial crown of the (ball at ail timie.^ hereafter be entitled 

i•r^d kingdomfi of Great Britain and to the (arae privileges, and be on 

Ireland now Itands limited and (ct* the fame footing, in refpe^ of trade 

tied, according to the exifling laws, and navigation, in all ports and 

and to the terms of the union be* places belonging to Great Britain, ' 

uveen £r gland and Scotland. and in all cafes with refpe6i toT 

'' Fourth, Tliat for the fame pur- which treaties (hall be made by his 

poie it appears alfo to this commit- raajeHy, his heirs or fucceflbrs, with 

fee, that it would be fit to propole any foreign power, as his majefly's 

li)it the faid united kingdom be fubje^s in Great Britain; that no 

prefcnted in one and the lame par- duty fliall be impofed on the import 

liiment, to be ftylcdihe parLament or export between Great. Britain 

of the united kingdom of Great Bri* and Ireland of any articles now duty 

tain and Ireland, and that fuch a free; and that on other articles 

r.Limber of lord< fpiritual and tem- there fl)ali be eflablifticd, for a time 

purai, and fuch a number of mem- to be limited, bich a moderate rate 

^*r< of the lioufe of commons as of equal duties as Ihall, previous to 

fnaJI be hereafter agreed upon, by the union, be agreed upon and ap<» 

acts of the refpeQive parliaments proved by the refpedlive parli- 

as aforefaid, Qiall (it and vote in the aments, fuojed, after the expiration 

^^'\d parliament on the part of Irer of fuch limited time, to b;; dimi- 

Lind, and (hall be fummoned,cho(en, niQied equally with rcfpc^l to both 

ami returned, in fuch manner as kingdoms, but in no cafe to be in- 

i'*:^!) be Hxed by an ad of the par- creafed ; that all articles, which may- 

iianaent of Ireland, previous to the at any time hereafter be imported 

'ikl union { and that ei'ery mem- into Great .Britain from ioreign 

btr hereafter to (it and vote in the parts, (lull be importable througb 

hid parliament of the united king- either kingdom into the jother, fol>« 

d'lRi fliall, until the (aid parliament jed to tiie like duties and regula*> 

Hall otherwtle provide, take, and tions as if the fame wens imported 

lubfcribe the fame oaths, and make dir^Qly from foreign parts; that 

I be fame declaration as are by law where any articles, the growth, 

r.qaired to be taken, fubfcribed, producei or manufadlure of esther 

v.d made, by the members of the kingdom, are fubje£l to any internal 

j^rliaments of Grett Britain and duty in one kingdom, fuch counter*- 

ircland. . vailing duties (over and above any 

" FifUi, That for the fame pur- duties on import to be fixed as afere- 

r'Se it appears alfo to this commit- faid) (hali be impoled as (hall be ne» 

^<^, that it would be fit to propole ceflary to prevent any inequality in 

' :^t the cburcbes of £ngland and that refpe^ : and that all other mat« 

^•;tand, and the do^rine, worO^ip, ters of trade and cominerce> other 

-•ciptine, and govemipent thereof, than the. foregoing, and than fuch 

'Hftli be preferred as now by law others as may before the onion be 

(tt«blilhed. ^^iaHy agreed upon, for the di|e 

" Sixth, That» (or the fame pur- enc^mrageipe/it ot the agrionltarei 
J^i^, it appears a&b to thi$ commit- and manufactures of the refpedire 

'if2l kingdoms, 

21^2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179*^ 

kingT?om>%. (liall remain to be regn- union between Great Britain and 

latcd from time to time by the Ireland, founded on equal and II- 

united parliament. beral principles, on the fimilarity of 

" Seventh, Tfiat, for the like pur- laws, conflitution, and government, 

pofc, it would be fit to propofe, that and on a fenfe of mutual intercfts 

the charge, arifing from the pa)- and a(fe61ions, by promoting the fe- 

mcnt of the inlereft or (inking fund, curity, >\eallh, ana commerce of the 

for, the reduction of the principal of refpe^tive kingdoms, and by allay- 

the debt incurred in either kingdom ing the diflraftions which have un- 

beforc the union, fliall continue to happily prevailed in Ireland, mull 

be fcparately defrayed by Great aff()rd frcih means of uppofing at 

Britain and Ireland refpedlively. all times an .ffcdlual refiftance to 

That, for a number of years to be li- the deftruclive proje€ls of our fo- 

miled, the future ordinary expcnfes reign and domcftic enemies, and 

of the united kingdom, in peace or muft tend to confirm and augment 

• war, (hall be defrayed by Great Bri- the ftability, power, and refources, 

• (ain and Ireland jointly, according of the e^npire. 

to fach proportions as (hall be eflab- " Impreded with thefe confidera- 

liflied by the refpe6live parliaments tions, we feel it our duty humbly to 

jjrevious to the union; 'and that. Fay before his majefry fuch propo- 

kf\er the expiration of the time to fi tions as appear to us befl calcu- 

be (b llmftca, the proportions fliall lated to form the ba(is of fuch a fct- 

itot be liable to be varied, ex- tiement, leaving it to his majefiy's 

cept according to fuch rates and wifdom, at fuch time and in (uch 

^ofe, it would be fit to propole, municate thefe propoHtions to his 

that all laws in force at the time ^>f parliament of Ireland, with whom 

the union, and that all the courts of we (liall be at all times ready to con- 

'civil or ccclcfiaftical jurildiclion, cur in all fuch meafures as may lx» 

within the re(pt6live kingdoms, found moft conducive to the ar- 

'^hall remain, a!» now by law e(lab- complifhment of this great and (ii- 

Jifhed, within the fame, fubjeft only lutary work. -And we trufl, that, 

to fiich ' alterations or regulations, after full and mature conCderatlon, 

from time to time, as circum (lances fuch a fettlemcnt may be framed and 

\XiA^ appear to tne parliament of eftabliflied,' by the deliberative con- 

the unned kingdom to reqiiirt. fent of the parliaments of both king- 

'* That the foregoing relblu tions doms, as may he conformable to the 

be laid before his majetly, with a fentiments wifhes, and real "mtcrefi^ 

'bumble addrefs, alTuTing his majefty oFfilsiwajttft^'s faithful fubje6ls of 

that we have' p^rocceded with the Greiil Britain and Ireland, and may 

titmoflattentibn^to the confederation 'unite them infeparably in the full 

''6F'the important objefijt recom- enjoyment of the bK-flings of our 

mended to ^x% in his majefl/s giti- free and invaluable conftiiutipn, in 

clous meflage : . the fupport of* (he honour and di^- 

** That we entertain a firm per- nity of his roajefty's crown, and m 

fuafion, that a complete and entire the prcfervation and advaf^ccirxnt 

• 01 


of the we Ware niwi pn^fperity of the 
whole Britifti empire." 

Mr. Sheridan, id a (peech of con- 
ll^erdble length, in reply to Mr. 
Pitt, wient over the fame ground on 
which he had expat iatca formerly 
on Ihe meafufe^ when it was firll 
announced to parliament. This 
fpeech he prefaced by many com- 
pJimepts lo Mr. Pitt, as an orator, 
and remarks on the power of elo* 
q leoce, at the prefent period. The 
whole worldp he faid, knew that 
there wa« never a time when fine 
if)e€ches more, powerfully affecled 
the public, or when from fancied 
recurity^ or habitual indifference, it 
appeared left eager profoundly to 
examine any queflion. Eafy tem- 
pers were eaOly influenced by bold 
and ingeniotts (bphiflry. It was 
iK)t every one who could diAini^uifh 
between the flowing and rapid elo- 
cttlion of an admired orator, 4 d 
the fleady and well-tempered voice 
of unaffected reafon.* Seeing the 
manner in which the prcfcnt fubje^l 
\v^^ brought forward, and its fate 
in the Irifli parliament, it might 
hai-e been doubled whether the 
right honourable gentleman would 
perfevere in the meafure: but he 
continued to iet all experience at 
delhmce, and, in the face of the Irifh 
nation, to fpurn tlie ailertion of bor 
ri^htt, to fawn and flatter her gtiilo- 
l*'ls and pure mind,' and, by (c^eming 
to relped her declared opinion, to 
lall her into inadivity, the more 
ruccefefully to enfla^e her for ever. 
Let his majcHy's minidcrs, he faid, 
grant to Ireiand thole advantages 
Of' which they boafled: tliey might 
be conceded to her without union : 

they might be improved by her. 
without abjeaiy furrendering her 
independence. 'Mr. Sheridan vin- 
dicated Mr. Fox from tlie accufa- 
tion of not having followed up the 
rcifolution of 17S2. He remained 
but two months after in ofhee. But 
did Mr. Pitt himfclf, when he fiic- 
ceeded him in power, attempt tor 
bring forward the objeaions which 
he this night fo triumphantly urged ? 
I-iad he not now been fifteen years 
a minifter without ever endea- 
vouring to do that, which from the 
firft he deemed to be indifpenfabljr 
neceflary? It was not Mr. Sheri- 
dan's intention to oppofe going into 
a committee, but he would lirft 
move two refolutions, which, in caie 
of Mr. Pitt's proportions being car- 
ried, he would wiih to liave placed 
before them, for the purpofe of ta- 
king off, in fome degree, that jcfa- 
loufy which the Irifli parliament 
would be apt to entertain of their 
pafling this honfe, after tlie meafure 
of an union having been fo dcci- 
. dedly rejeded in the houfe of com- 
mons of Ireland. Mr. Sheridan 
then read the following refolutions : 
" That no meafures can have a tei>* 
dency to improve and perjjetuate 
the ties of amity and connedliop. 
now exifling between Great Britain 
and Ireland, which have not for 
their bafis the manifefl. fair, and 
free confent and approbation of the 
parliaments of the two countries. 

" That whoever ftiall endeavour 
to obtain the appearance of fuch 
confent and approbation in cither 
country, by employing the influence 
of government, for tho purpoles of 
corruption or intimidation, is an 

• We hare, 00 a former octaAon, ventured to prcdiil, that the abufe of oratory, 
which hUf on fome oc€afi«ia, been carried the length of contlhuing a fpeecti for fevcral 
tacceOjTc days, weuldi by aad by, put toog and ftovvcry rpeechef out of C^ion. 

- f P 3 j enemy 

214] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

entmy to his nsajefty and the con- 

' Lord Hawkdbary remarked cer- 
tain incon(iftenci69 in the parlia- 
mentary tondudl of Mr. Sheridan ; 
but, as thefe, though fufiicientJy au- 
thehtica(ed» could not be urged with 
'j^ropriety againft his prefent propo- 
iitions, and as oor limits confine us 
very much to points of importince, 
i^e forbear to ent^ into any details 
on that fabjeifl. Mr. Sheridan, lord 
Hawkeibury obferved, had fbme- 
what more than infinuated, that the 
people of Ireland were againft an 
union. The people of Cork, and 
(he people of Liramerick, had ex- 
prcried themfelves in favour of it : 
and when it once came to be duly 
confidered, the whole people would 
view it in the fame light. His 
]ord(hip, by (he (anie arguments that 
bod been u(ed by Mr. Pitt, juflified 
the vote he fliould give for the pre- 
lent propofitions being fubmitted to 
H- committee of the whole hoafe, by 
way of recording what they were 
witling to do for prompting the in- 
.tereAsof Ireland.' 

Dr. Layvrenccconfidered the pror 
pofed union in the light of a man' 
fiage: which )vas a matter of that 
deUcate nature, that if the parties 
.contrading it were not agreeable to 
each other, the dofqr they were 
drawn together by the bond, the 
fiu*ther, in fa<ft, they were put afun- 
der as to every beneficial and hap|^ 
f^ffedt which might bo ejcpedled lo 
.refalt from fo t<ender and intimate a 
conne^li/m. A^ th^ number of 
membera propoTed to \ye introduced 
from Ireland Was lUaf ty very great, 
t^ pould nol help thinking that it 
might produce a veiry confiderable 
degree pf emb^rrafTment in the bo- 
ilncfs and debates of the houfe. 
How, iiideedi they wete to dtfpofe 

of them, he was at a lofs to guefs. 
The lad debate in Ireland, on the 
prefent qaeflion, bad lafted for 
Iwenty-two hours. If a majority 
of the Irilh members flioold bring 
ov«r their inclination for public 
fpeaking, and their fpeeches came 
to be added to thofe of their coun- 
trymen and others who were in the 
habits of making frequent and long 
fpeeches already, he could not avoid 
forefeeing many cmbarraflments 
which would necefliurily attend (b 
very confiderable an addition to 
the numbers already pofieflcd of 
feats in that houfe. He dreaded 
that, in the prefent feeming temper 
of Ireland, the propofitions would 
add inflammation to a di(})ofition al- 
ready teeming with far too much 
irritability. On a divifion of the 
houfe, there appeared for the 
fpeakers leaving the chair, ayes, 
IV; noes, 15. The refolntions 
having been read in the committee, 
the houfe was refumed, and the 
committee was appointsd to fit 
ligain on Thurfday next. 

On that day, the feventh of Feb- 
ruary, Mr. Sheridan, obierved, in 
(he committee, that, according to 
-the rules and ordinary proceeoings 
pf the houfe, Mr. Pitt could, un- 
doubtedly, claim the privilege of 
moving the order of the day telbre 
he (Mr. Sheridan) cetild attempt to 
-fnove the refolutions, of which be 
had thrown out an idea and an in- 
tention of moving theroj on a former 
.pccafion. If, therefore, that motion 
was infifled oi;, he mufi poflpone 
his motion for the prefent. • ' Mr. 
Pitt waved his privilege, and gave 
precedence to Mr. Bh^idan, wIki 

f>romifed to the houfe to take up as 
ittle time as poiBble now; and 
only to urge a few of the many rea- 
fons which might be advanced in 



fuf^port of the rcfolntiom he in* miniRers. ThUwasthecorruptioiv 
fended to move. The que/lion now this the will that had pervaded it 
before the boufe was« whether the^ (torn /irfi to lafi. Bat, before Ir«- 
vrere willing to fecond the pledge land fliould be required toforrender, 
of devoting hit life to this favourite her independence, it was fit that 
projed. That pledge would pro- a trial fliould be made of what coul4 
(luce much irritation, and inflame be tlone by an honed parliament ; 
all thofe difconlenlK, which had al- a parliament uninfluenced by a Bri- 
ready occalioncd (6 much mifery in tifh miniAer, having the intered an4 
Ireland. Ifthehoufe landionedthe happlnefs of Ireland for its obje^» 
prefcnt projedl, the two houfes of and looking to Irifli profperity an4 
commons of Great Britain and Ire- gratitude for its reward* Mr. Sh^ 
land would be placed in oppodtion ridan having moved the two re(bla«^ 
to each other, and the fituation of tions, already fpecified, 
thefe nations would be more alarm- Mr. Pitt obfcrvcd that his only 
ing and frightful than that in which dilcuilion luid been upon gener^ 
any two countries profcfling amity prinviplcs not now before the houiii, 
to each other. If Mr. Pitt did not and already amply debated and de- 
lacceed in his meafure> on the pre- cided upon. As to his particular 
fent occafix>n^ the people of Ireland motions, the firii, as Mr. Sheridan 
woald be convinced that he only himfelf had ftated, tvas a truifm. 
waited for a more favourable op- But that argument, which the ho- 
portunity, when Ireland Ibould be nonrable gentleman had adduced in 
more weak, to carry his favourite £ivour of his motion, was a decifive 
projed, and tliat the engines he in- argument again fl it. If a thing wajc 
tended to ufe were intimidation and true, there required no declaration 
corruption. There was much to to give it effect, and all .fuch at- 
be done in the way of reform and tempts were ufelcfs and nugatory, 
improvement in Ireland : but, in With regard to his fecond motion, 
order to do this, it was not necet " that whoever ihould, by corrup* 
fary to pull down the credit and au* tion or intimidation, attempt tp 
fbnrity of parliament. He denied carry the queftion, was an enemy 
what had been fo pofitively aflerted, to his country,'' it evidently infinc^ 
that we had no alternative but fe- ated that fuch a conduct had been 
paration or union. The real alter- purfued« It undoubtedly alladed 
native was, the Irifli government to the cafe of a high ofHcer in tbm 
Iboukl no longer continue to be a fiOer kingdom (fir John Parnel, late 
corrupt Englifl) job. Was it meant chancellor of the exchequer in 
fo be aflertcd that there is fome in- Ireland) wha had quitted his (itui^ 
n9te depravity in the character of iion on account of his difagreeroent 
Irifbrnen which rendered them unifit ' with' hifl colleagues in am important 
to have a parliament of their own? fundamental meafure of govern- 
No! the caufe of the cQrri^ption men^. If many gentlemen were con- 
tfaal had been complained of lay nyt ne6tc<l tct^ether with the honourabls 
in tl)c cfiara^er of the wort))y pep- intention (>( a^ing for the f^^rvtce of 
pie of Irelaod. But the gov^in- tlH:ircoMntry»itwa^neodIary,in order 
mciit of Ireland had been made a toprererve»ttnitvofaQi(m,thal they 
j'jb oG for the advantage of £nglifii jfbot^M stfre^ iH iMt (yO$fa; «od it 

fP4J was 

216] aNMU^L register, 179» 

was an error to hippofe that either (he 
refignment, or even the difmifTal of 
any one, wag a fy flora ot corruption, 
Mr. Grey admitfcd that a dif- 
ference of opinion, among per(ons 
ading together on fundamental 
points of policy, mufl arreft the pro- 
grefs of public bufinefs: yd thi* 
principle did not juftify the difmiflal 
of a member of parliament from an 
ofiice in the ftate, on account of his 
vote on a particular queftion, while 
Tie agrtjcd, perhaps, with his coU 
leagues in all other points. Was 
Mr. Pitt's do^rine, refpedling dif- 
jniHals from ofiice, now maintained, 
the uniform and unvaried opinion 
which ruled his public condufl? 
Was there not a time, when a ques- 
tion, as important as the union with 
Ireland, and as eflential in the opi- 
nion of the right honourable gen- 
tleman at that time, to the interefls 
and well-being of good government, 
he meant parliamentary reform, 
which he brought forward, and 
which, he folemniy pronxifed to exert 
all his influence, as a man and a 
minifter, ultimately to bring into 
effect ? ' Where, then, are his fair, 
pind honourable intentions ? Has 
i)^ manifefled them in th^ removal 
of thofe who oppofed that meafure ? 
or of thofe who oppofed another 
meafure, to which he had profeifed 
himfelf to be a warm friend, the abo- 
lition of the flavc-trade? Mr. She- 
ridan admitted thai his firft refblu- 
lion was a truifra. , But was it r.ot 
alio true that the parliament of Ire- 
land could not give a free and fa?r« 
confenl when he held out, that thofi^ 
w*ho voted againft the raenfure 
would be turned out of tht^ir places? 
There were, in the Iriln houfe of 
commons, one hundred and fixteen 
placemen. Two great examples be- 
ing made^ in t^e 4ifmi(ral of the 

chancellor of the exchequer, an4 
the prime ferjcant, the others would 
remain (launch' and true out of fear. 
Mr. Sheridan faid that he (bould 
certainly divide the houfe on the 
queflion before them. But the pre- 
vious queftion, mo^ed by Mr. Pitt, 
was carried by 14-1 againfl 25. A 
motion for the fpeaker's now leaviug 
the chair, and for the hpufe going 
immediately into a committee, for 
the farther confideration of iLe 
king's meflage, was oppofed by Mr. 
H. A. St. John. Many cumparifuns, 
he obferved had been mad^, be- 
tween the probable effe^ of this, 
and the certain efre6l of another 
union, he meant the union with 
Scotland. The union between Eng- 
land and Scotland, it was flated, 
had produced mutual (trength. But 
it did not appear, nor had any body 
attempted to (hew that Scotland 
might not have improved, if the 
union had not taken place. 

But this was a point he was not 
called on to difcufs. The queftion 
before the houfe was (imply this, 
tvhethgr, in the prcfent fituation oi' 
affairs, the houfe of commons, in 
Ireland, having deelar^ its fenle 
againii confideiing (be meafure at 
an, any good could refult froni the 
agitation of it at this moment* in 
this country. To do this, in. his 
opinion, might irritate the houfe of 
. commons of Ireland, and indues 
them to adopt fbme meafure for ma- 
nifefling their refentment at foch a 
meafure as this. It would be better 
to let the whole queflion fo rcfi for 
the prefent calmly, and, the parties 
being left to cool on tlie fabjed,and 
t^ bring it forward hereafter, if it 
fmiuld appear to be necefikry at a 
proper fcalbn. 

Mr. Grey, in the courfe of a 
fpecch on this fubjedl, in which he 




confidered H in the feme light, and cafe was otherwlfe in this country, 
oppofed the mcafure of an iifiion on and, thtircfore, the one having given 
the fame grounds Uiat had been the whole without reftraint, and the 
*al:en by the members on his fide 'of otlier reftraining, did not; in reality, 
^ne houfe, made a diftinclion that differ, as might have been thought, 
ti'uded more dire^lly to a refulation on the firft view of the matter. 
of one of the moft elTential pofitions Mr. fecrpitary Dundas obferved, 
of the rainifters than any that had tTiat the laft honourable fpeakcr had 
been made by any of the other dwelt with much minutenefs on the 
Tpcakers, who had preceded him in difcufllons of 17S2, and on the coin- 
tne debates on tl»e prcfent (nbje61. mc^r^ial and (political filiiation in 
Mr. Pitt had affirmed, that there which Ireland was then placed, and 
could not hare been a final fettle^ had fincc, in confcquence of thofe 
ment or adjoftment in 1782, be- difculTions, continued. But grants 
caufe it was even expreflcd, that mad" to Ireland at that period had 
ioroethjng was left to be done. B\ii, nolliing to do with the quefiion now 
fard Mr. Grey, '* be knows well before the houfe. The prefent 
cnongh, and he ought to have the propofition did not contain any fug- 
candour to acknowledge, that there geftion derogatory to the acknow- 
may be a final adjuftment of one Icdged independency of the parlfa- 
thing, and anotJiar left to be fet- ment of Ireland. It was a propo- 
tled,.and which indeed was the cafe, fition for the incorporation of tljc 
The final adjuftment, in J 7 82, re- two legiflatures into one, without 
ferred to ti)e political independence infringing tlie liberty or indcpen- 
of the Irith kgiflalare : but the dci'ice of either. To put an end to 
point to be fettled was one that all- ci*vil, he was ready to admit, 
related to trade." Mr. Pitt, in that, by thetranfadions of 1782, the 
order to fliew the inconveniency of Irifli parliament was placed on the • 
two independent parliaments, Iiad fame footing ol independence, in 
quoted the cafe of the regency, relation to Great Britain, as Scot- 
But what, Mr. Grey afked, was the land was, vvith regard to England, 
cafe of the regency ? The parlia- before the union of the two king* 
ment ol Ireland vcfted, in the heir doms. As to the propofition itfel^ 
apparcnl, the full power of a regent, he undertook to prove, by a refer- 
without any reilridlion. The par- rcnce to the affairs of Scotland, at 
Haraent of this country voted the and after the union, that a fimilar 
fame perfon, but with certain limita- meafurc would be attended with 
tion.s and rcfiriclions. But, were fimilar benefits to Ireland. He 
the fituations of the two countries alfumed it as a fa6l, that there 
alile? By no means. In this coun- exifled in Ireland, at this time, a 
tr^ there is a vaft deal of power fpirit of difiention and clamour, of 
arid influence accompanying fove- treachery and treafon, which mc- 
reignty, iiulependcnt of that which naced the overthrow of the .prefent 
is properly called governmenl : in government. Confpiracies were fo 
Ireland iJiere i* none. When, widely extended, their influence 
tlierefore, the frith parliament voted was fo deeply infufcd into the 
a regent, they had nothing but the minds of the people of Ireland, 
J>o we/ of government to give. The and the connedlioa between ih<* 


218] ANNUAL REGIStER, Ild9. 

two countries (hereby (6 miicli en- f ry^ who was alPo the foverei^n of 

dangered^ that without llie imtne- Scotland and Ireland ; therefore 
diate and adlive interference of the parh'ament of Ireland was not 

government, the refuk might have intirely independent In fopport 

been a tbtal reparation ot Ireland of this propor]li6n, he referred to 

from this kingdom. It Was. tile the authority of Mr. Crattan, the 

duty of hi^ niajefty*s miniflers champion of Irifli independence, 

viewing Ireland ju ilm Derilnus who fays, '* The parliament of 

£tuationj to extricate her from toe Ireland cannot ad independently; 

intriguesof the common enemy, by for, in all cafes^ of peace or war, 

prefcrving and improving the ron- it mufl implicitly follow the parlia* 

ne^iion which liad fo long and fo ment of Great Britain " The par- 

happily fubfided between that coun- liament, confliluted by the union, 

try and Great Britain. A more had not deprived Scotland of any 

appropriate remedy for the difcafe, of the privileges enjoyed previoafl? 

which poi4bned the peace and hap- to its incorporation with Englami. 

pinefs of Ireland, could ima- The union had increafcd the pri- 

gined, than the incorporating union vi.lege of the Scotch members : for, 

of the legiflaturcs of the two king- inflead of confining their delibera- 

doms. The Protefiant^ would lay tions to the affairs of Scotland, they 

aiide their jealoufics and diflru/l, were empowered to take part in 

and the Catholics would be confi- difcufhons rcfpedting tlie alkirs not 

dent that their caufe would be can- only of England but of the whole 

didly and imparlially confidered by Britifli empire ; and, fb £ur as re- 

a united parliament : the great body lated to Uie third efhiie, had even 

of which would be relieved from an interference with the affairs of 

apprehcnfions, jealoufies, and inve- Ireland. Tlie parliament of Irc- 

terate animofities, inter wbven into land, incorporated on the fane 

the frame and conHitution of the principles, .would have (he fame 

feparatc parliament of Ireland. An privileges. It was a mif-flatemcnt 

incorporated parliament, partly Kng- of fafls, to talk of deflroying tljc 

lifli, partly Scotch, and partly Iriti), parliament of Ireland; for an union 

would be better calculated for ma- would place the Irifti members in 

naging tlie affliirs of the Britilh the fame fituation as the members 

empire, than feparate parliaments of the Britifb parliament, Hecorv- 

in England, Scotland, and Ireland, demned t1:ef operations of perfonat 

The powers of a parliament fo con- vanity. He wifhcd lliat gcntlemtn 

fiituted would be more extenfive would dircdt their pride and honour 

and effedlual than when adling fe- to ads of hiudabic ambition^ They 

parately in di.fTerent places. It would evince greater patriot! fm, by 

flionld be recollecled, that the Irifh a due attention to the intprefis 4)f 

parliament, , with all its boafled both countries. If confideraliom 

independenc} , could not give vi* of perfonal vanity apd fclf-indeperv- 

gevr or effect to its ad)s, till ap* dence were to he allowed to openue 

proved by the third cftate, whoie on this fuhje£|^ lot gentlemen re> 

refidence was in |)ngland. Th^ collet, that if their genius were 

controuling power was properly ever fo acr"te, their eloquence evtt 

veAcd in the fbverei^n of this pou^i- & fplendjd, all tliqfe wonderful 



p.iwers were confined to one liUte articles of union, which had been 

rtland. Let the Irifli parliament agreed on at London, under tbeif 

accept of a participation of all the coniideration. '* The union has 

rights of the Britidi parliament, and long been deiired by both nations, 

Ihey ivoufd find> that their elo* and we (hall feftcem 4t as the greateft 

qiience would not be confined to glor^ of eur reign to have it now 

Kngfaudor any other country. They perle61ed> being fully perfuaded, 

would be heard not only in Europe, that it muft prove the greateft hap» 

botiiiAfia, Africa, and America. In pinefs of our people. An entire 

confidcring the prcfent queflion, it and p'erfe6l union will be the folid 

Ha< impollibfe not to tarn oar eyes foundation of laflrtig peace. It 

to the iiale of Scotland before and will liecure your religion, liberty, 

lincc the union, and to contemplate and properly, remove your animofi- 

Ihe advantages which had refulted ties among yourfclvcs, and the 

trom it to that part of the united jealoufies and difibrences betwixt 

kingdom. Having exhibited a our two kingdoms. It mufl increafe 

'ratement of its augmented com- your flrength, riches, and trade, 

ir.ercc and population fince that and, by this union, the whole iHand 

period, he obierved, (hat the in- being joined in aflcclion, and freed 

creafed improvements and the in- from all apprehenfions of different 

creafe of trade, were not confined inlcrefts, will be cmibled to refift 

to any particular part of Scotland, all its enemies, fupport its interefts 

They were experienced in every every where, and maintain the 

corner of it: and there was not hberties of Europe.** From this 

row an inhabitant of any fpot in all remarkable pallage, faid Mr. Dun* 

f>cofland, who had not caufe to re- das, it was evident that her majefty 

joitc at that event. was a true prophetels : for not one 

On that memorable occaHon, fyllable of her predidtions had failed. 

«nany melancholy pictures were It had been aiKed,'Mr. Dundaspro- 

pre/cntcd to the public view, in .ceeded, what right we had to ira- 

liie flijipe of prophecies. Among pute all thofe advantages to the 

other fafie propliecics, was a great union, and why it was not to be 

part of that celebrated fpeech of Oippofcd that Scotland, like other 

lord Belhaven's, on which Mr. nations, would have advanced in 

Dunda^ requcfted permiflion to profpcrity from the various caufes 

make a few ternaries. His lordfliip, which had contributed to the mo* 

in a kind of prophetic, or rather dern wealth of other flates ? There 

p^^etic vifion, fancied many evils, were a multitude of anfwers that 

the very revcrfe of which had adlu- might be given to • this queftion, 

3lly come to pafs^: as Mr. Dundas founded on the local (ituation of 

the wed by an appeal to fa^s. And, Scotland, her internal policy, and 

in om)0(ition to the prophecies of her relation to other nations, which 

Iwd Belhaven, and other opponents muft for ever have debarred that 

of th^ union, he brought under the kingdom from partidpating in that 

recoBcdlion of the iioulc the foltew- prolperity which had marked the 

ing paflage in a letter from queen progrefs of otJi*r dates in Europe. 

AniiC to the Scottifli parliament, But, irt place of conlumiiig the time 

fccomjnending to them to take the of the houte by rcalonij^g to wfaich 

9 it 

eio] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179§, 

it might judi? be imputed that it more on the particular points which 
«ras inftuencedf by fubfequent events he has fb ably treated. I (liall, 
be would give more falisfadion by however^ add one fa6l« which, in 
uiiag the words asi well as arguments my conception, proves bey«nd a 
of acoicDiporary][latefii]an,^v])ow<ij$ doubt, tliat the rapid progrcfs of 
one of Uie con J miflioners for treating prolperity in Scotland (prung from 
with England for an union. Here the union. Where did Uie profpe- 
hc read over Mr. Scton, of PItmed- rity of Scotland make its firfl ap- 
den's fpcech, on the firil article of pearance, and ra oft early progrefs? 
tinipn being brought under tlje conr In the weftern parts of the king- 
^deration of the Scottidi parlia- dom, owing clearly to the circuin- 
meot, in which he confidered the fiance of thofe parts being locally 
three different ways in which it had the beft fituated for taking the be- 
•been propofed to retrieve the Ian- nefit of tlie colonial trade, 
gni thing condition of the Scottilh A queftion had been triumphant* 
nation : which were, i:hat the Scots ly aiked, " why not give ail thofe 
iliould continue under the fame fo- advantages to Ireland without an 
vereign with England, with limi* union V' without an incorporating 
tations on his prer<^ative as king union they would be of no av^il : 
of Scotland; that the two king- for the ftrength and refources of 
doms fhould be incorporated into both countries mufl be con(pi'»l.v 
one; or that they fliould be entirely ted, in order to enable Ireland to 
feparated. Mr. Seton pointed out reap the full advantage from foch 
inieparable objections to the firft concelTionii. It is from, confidence 
and the third of thele modes. On in tho I'trcngth of government a luiie 
the fubjedl of the lafl, he concluded, that a communication of capital and 
from various confiderations, *' that other ;idvantuges can arile, Jnsd- 
the Scottiib natipn, by an entire (e- ditiun to this it might be obfcned, 
paration from England,*couId not that the Engl i Hi government coukl 
extend its trade fo as to raife its not, confiflentl), with (4)e duty 
,power in proportion to other traf- they owed to their Britith reIlo\\- 
iicking nations in Europe ; but, fubjecls, make fuch conceflions 
that thereby they might be m dan- to IreJ;ind under its pre fen t con- 
ger of returning to that gothlc con- i^^itutiou and feparate )egiflaturr. 
ititution of government, wherein Conceflions of fuch a pature could 
their forefathers were, which was not be fafely gcanted until an iinpe^. 
frequently attended with frauds?, rial parliament pofleflcd the con- 
murders, depredations, and rebel- trpl over the refources of the cm- 
lions." Thus, faid Mr. Diindas, pi re at lar^e, and the jx)wer f'i 
fpoke Mr. Seton, of Pitmedden, at ^ij'plyi^ig them to imperial mir- 
the time when he had no refources poles. Much, if not the chitf Kiefs 
from which to draw his conclnfions, of the arguments, by thofe vl-^ 
♦but thofe of his own enltghlencl un- oppofed the meafure under co^.ti- 
derftanding, and tho view he coyfd deration, had been laid on the op- 
take of the cxifUng f'tate of tlic pofit ion which was ma^Je to it by 
other nations of the world. But the parliament of Ireland. But. 
his reafoning was (olid, and I fhould Mr. i)undas, when circumftances 
only weaken its efiett, by iaymg were attended to, could not rothin 


in in 


from fliting, that this vij5w of the 
fiibjeft was given in very erroneous 
iTM)i:rs. Two cflates of tlie jcgi- 
Taliire of Ireland, the Jcingand the 
InrrU, had pointedly exprclted their 
(Ii lire that the fubjecl fhould be en- 
tertained and confidercd : and the 
Contrary opinion had been carried 
orly by a very narrow majority in 
ti.e houfe of commons. Under 
fii'.h circum (lances it was idle to 
ta'k of this as a folcmn decifion of 
J :vr!Iaraent. Sound reafon and good 
It-nfe would ultimately prevail : and 
he could not help auguring well, to 
the ultimate fuccefs of the raeafure, 
v\'nen he contemplated the clamour 
.'itk! violence b^ which the confider- 
suiunof it bad been refifted. Thefe 
were not the weapons by which 
tr:th and (olid reafoning maintain 
t'f.vlr empire over the uiulcriland- 
J'^^s and hearts of men. 

When gentlemen pretended to 
t' 'Ilk highly of the facrlfices of 
^fotland to the union, compared 
V iih lli(<fe of Ireland, they did not 
f'xollefl tjiat Ireland had not> for 
jjiany cen(urles, been free, or inde- 
pindcnt of England ; but that Scot- 
laj-d never was completely fubdued 
<K Tinder the control of England : 
t! .it Scotland gave up what Ireland 
could not give upj an independent 
li'^iflalure of king, lords, and.coni- 
rr.ons ; and Ihat Scotland gave up, 
v"hat Ireland could not give up, an 
independent ar^d fe pa rate crown. 
The Sco(<i undiuibtcaly furrendered 
tliofe honours at the time with ro- 
hi'Hance, and evinced the greateft 
l.-jfillity to the union, until expe- 
rience had made thtni acquainted 
with its Wcffings. Mr. Dnndas 
could not help noticing the vaft un» 
Jjopalarity of the duke of Qiieenf- 
borry and other CQmmifllonors who 
favoured the union, while the zeal 
'uid a£livity of the duke tf Hamil- 

ton, and Iprd Belhaven^ were, the 
theme of every tongue. The duke 
of Queenfberry, the nobleman who 
took the mod aflive part in carry- 
ing the union into effe6t, and was 
her majefl)'s commifljoner for the 
purpofc, narrowly efcaped, in feve- 
ral inftanccs, with his life. But 
the union foon became fo popular, 
that the pretender, having pledged 
himfelf to a repeal of the aft of 
union, excited fuch a fermentation 
againft him, that he was obliged to 
expunge this promile from his ma- 
nifeHo. Ti)is change of fentiment 
happened in the year 171.5, eight 
years after the union. It ought 
to afford a falulary ledbn to thofe 
falfe patriots who chufe to refl their 
charadler and fame on the fliort- 
lived clamours of the day ; and it 
ought alfo to afford a heart-felt con* 
folalion to ihofe who have the mag- 
nanimity to difdain fuch mean and 
paltry ails, trufiing that their real 
patriot ifm, founded on a confider- 
ation of the real interefis of tiiRJr 
country, will not fail ultimately ta 
fccure them that folid and perma- 
nent fame, which is alone wOrthy 
of pofTeffing. 

With regard to the final adju/l- 
ment of the year 17S2, it was a 
mifapplication of terms to call it 
final. Jt was alfo to little purpofe 
to the opinions, on that occafioii, 
of Mr. G rattan, who was only the 
mouth-piece of the volunteers,— ^ 
The wholt$ of the bufinefs was evi- 
dently done in a hurry, and could 
be confidercd only as a temporary 
expedient to ferve the purpofcs of 
the moment. However that might 
be, the parliament of Ireland after- 
ward's iucceedcd in obtaining every 
thing it (Jefircd ;. and he was fo iar 
from denying a particle of its inde- 
pcMidence, that he admitted it in 
its fullell extent, and even founded 


222] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

thereon no fmall part of his prefent kingdoms ; which bill was thrown 

arguments. Haa the adjuftment in out by the commons. Thus the 

1782 not taken place, it might have matter refled till the reign of queen 

been faid that the Iri(h parliament Anne* at whoie acceflion the pro- 

could not now treat fairly. But its jed of an union aifo failed through 

prefent independence gave it the the high church influence. Butfome 

lame competency to treat that was reveries in the progrefs of the con- 

Soflefled by the parliament of Great fedet'ate war, and fbme events, 
ritain. which took place in Scotland, made 
In various periods ot our hiftory England take the abrm, and be as 
attempts had oeen made to eSeGt an aiixious for the accoroplilhmcnt of 
union between England and Scot* the union, as it was before forward 
land, and till the beginntog of the in rejedling it. Now, Mr. Dundas* 
eighteen century, as of^en frudra- having glanced over the hillory of 
ted. Henry VIII. offered his the attempts for an union between 
daughter Mary to James V. of the two Britifh kingdoms, wifhed it 
Scotland^ hofding out fuch induce- to be recoUe^led, that when pro* 
ments as the Scottifh king was in* pofitions to that effeQ ^iled in 
cTined to Rflen to. But the plan ocotland, it always happened 
was defeated by the intrigues ot the through French influence and 
French and the popiih fadlion. £i& Frendi intrigue. What was then 
ward VI. of England, in purfuance the fituation of Scotland, had now 
of his father's defign, oflfered him- become, by various accidents, that 
i^If to Mary, queen of Scotland : of Ireland. France laboured, by 
and, though it was agreed to by the every means, to form a connexion 
parliament of that country, the in- in that country, and had in a great 
terference of the fame fa^'on ren- meafure fucceeded, as recent and 
dered this treaty as fruitlefs as the unfortunate events teflified. An 
former. Though, in the reign of union was propofed by Great Bri- 
James I. ot* Englahd, articles of tain, as the furefl way to put an end 
union were agreed to by commif- to that dangerous confpiracy# by a 
fioners of both countries, afl^embled confolidation of the whole powers 
at Weftminfler, and ratified condi« of the empire. If fuch a plan had 
tidnally by the Scottifh parliament, been difcufled and confirmed by the 
yet the jealoufy of the high church- parliaments of both countries, in 
men, at that time, caufed them to 1782, it was more than probable 
be rejeded in England. • The plan that we ihould not -now have had to 
of an union was again brought for- ' lament the a£tsoif outrage and rebel- 
ward in the reign of Charles I. but lion which had fo recently con- 
ended in fome unavailing confer- vulfed and defpoiled the iifier 
ences amongfl the commiflioners ap- kingdom.- It was the lamentable 
pointed to manage ih In the reign deficiency of fuch a principle of 
of William and Mary, the propofx* union, in the con»pa6t of 1782, that 
tion for an union came from the gave .rife to the moft dangerous 
Scottifh convention I and, on. a re^ paffions and aniraofi ties.:- It, iafad, 
commendation from the crown, the pfefenied Ireland with more relent* 
Englifli houfe of peers paffed a bill mients to latiate, and iefs ^thority 
for appointing commiflioners t6 to <}ontrol them. While, then tho 
treating of an union of the two bo&fe^ deplored tli« bte Id^o^nable 



€KceSk$t it was their duW to pre* Ireland, He did not know what 
vent the return of the languinary England had to >^i(h from fuch a 
fcoies. bjr an union of national in- conne6lion« for (he commanded al- 
tered, l&eJy to reconcile and com* ready all the commerce ijfihe world, 
maml the attedions of the people, and amply pofTeiled the means of 
From every con(tdenitjon> Mr. Dud- defence. As to the meafure pro* 
das wps induced tor vote for the pofed being an innovation, Ireland 
fpeaker's leaving the chain was in a dale politically to requiro 

Mr. Sheridan contended that the amelioration ; it was right that 

French had never built their hopes fomething (hould be done to correal 

in the foialleft degree, on the fepa- whatever was vicious in her fyflem* 

miion of the two legiflatures of He maintained that the diforders of 

Great Britain and Ireland, as had Ireland grew out of the Irifli condl- 

been inferred by Mr. Dundas ; but, tution, eflabliflied near a century 

on the contrary, had nil along refled and a half. Tho government was 

their hopes on the defires and dif- fuuated, as it were, in a garrifoned 

contents of tlie great body of the town. Government regarded the 

people; which the pccfent refolu- people with jcaiouly, and the peo- 

lioQs, puflied iorwarci at the prcfent plQ* in their turn, regarded govern*/ 

ttRK!, could Only (erve to heighten, ment as an ufurpation, or worfe.— • 

With regard to the great point, the But the feeds ot the mifchief were 

competency or incompetency of the in the conflitution itfclf; which 

Iriih parliament to difcu(s and de- contained not one principle by 

cide on the matter in qiiedion, he which the ignorance of the people 

faid, there was a fovereignty in could be removed, or their ferocity 

abeyance in the people. If there fupprefled. The proximate or ira- 

^vas not, the preient family on the mediate evil, however, was French 

throne were ufiirpers. ThopraAic^ prinoiplcs. This evil had withered 

of the revolution clearly (hewed the the aged, vitiated the youthful, poI« 

force of this argument. When king luted tho fources of thought, and 

James II, abdicated the crovn, the given to the whole (yflem of man* 

prliaroeot did not proceed to do ners and morals a malignity of cha* 

sn^ adiifelf for fetthng the crown, raster, a groHhefs and laxity, which 

butexprelsly called a convention, had rendered the obligations be* 

which the lord mayor of London, tween men little elfe than nugatory, 

and fifty commoners, were invited The cure of the diforders, with 

to attend. All the members who' which Ireland was convulfed, could • 

had iat in the parliaments of be found only in the improvement 

Charles II. were alfo fumraoned ; of the manners of the lower orderi 

^nd every flop that could betaken, of the people, by the introduflioii 

in the prcfling exigency of affairs,, of *Briti(li cufloms and BritiQi com* 

vvas adually taken, to fliew, that roerce, which, Iq his opinion, en 

ihe appointment to the crown was union bid fairer to do than any 

m the people, and in them only. other means tliat could poUibly bo 

Mr. Windham laid, that Mr. devifed. He would not now di& 

Siieridan had all along proceeded cufs the point which Mr. Sheri* 

^n a miilake, and appeared to im»» dan had agitated towards the dole 

g:ne that union was fought for the of his fpeech. He thought it 

idvintage of £rgbmd 99ii Po( xif enough to fa^, th»t the people ha4 


• . 

224] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

110 political right to change the go- tors to whom in fiiimefs the que? 

vernraent, or to refifl it : whatever tion mnft firft be referred. From 

might be the moral right that a fhe eleftors it muft go to the people 

people might be allowed fpecula- at large, who' mud be aflembled in 

tively to pofTefs. The right of re- convention on Srjiiburj Plain and 

fiflance was not a right acknow- the Carragh of Kildare. But "even 

lodged by, or known to, the firitifh when there aflerablcd, every ^ndivi- 

conllitution. dual votd muft there be coUefled. 

Mr. Tierney did not think that and a majority muft decide the qucf* 
the meafure propofed would pre- tion. Gentlemen would fee to 
vent ti)e attempts of the enemy, what ridiculous lengths their theo- 
becaufe it was now feen that its ef- retical dogma muil be carried, and 
fe£ls would be to create ftill greater he muft think that they law its fa!- 
divifions than exlft even at pre- Jacy. He concluded with giving 
fen t in Ireland. It had been laid his hearty fupport to- the motion.— 
that there are many inftances in The houfe then divided, for the 
which the compitence of parliament fpeaker's leaving* the chatr, 149; 
had been tried, and the cafc of ihe againft it 24-. The houfe then went 
Scottilh union had been alluded to. into a committee pro ybrTWfl.' bat. 
Parliament could do everything but as it was a late hour the committee 
deftroy themfelves, and in the cafe on Uie union reported prDgrefs and 
fTf the Scottifti union, the jKirliament afked leave to fit again on the four- 
did not dcft/oy themfelves. This teenth of February. The order 
Mr. Tierney thought was a very ob- of the day, for farther confidera- 
vions diftinclion. tion of his majefty's meflbge, relative 

Mr. W. Grant divided the argu- to the union with Ireland, bein^ 

mcnts againft the propofed union, rojid, and a. motion made, that the 

Into three heads: 1. That the pre- fpeaker leave the chak, a debate en- 

fent was not- the proper time, be- filed, in which a part was taken by 

caufe the free aflent of die people Mr. Hqbhoufe, Mr. J. Jones, Mr. 

of Ireland could not be obtained Wilberforce Bird, and one or tvm 

to the meafure. 2. Tlmt the pro- other member^ againft the union, 

jcfl of the union was not only^uiga- .and by Mr. Peele, lord Belgrnvc, 

lory now, but would be fo at all lord Temple, lord Morpeth, Mr. 

times. And> 3. That afier.what Rider, Mr. Hawkins Brown, and 

had paffed in Ireland, its difoufllon ^^r. Sylvefter Douglas for »^ Mr. 

was unnecefl^ry and improper. Mr. Hobhoufe contended • with great 

Grant argued againft all ihele pofi- energy agaifj ft the union,as tending to 

tions with his ufual ingenioufiiefs take away former cliecks on Jhecon- 

iind preciiion. As to the grand dutt.of minifter8,and tofurniflilli«n 

que ft ton of the competency of Ihc with new means of corruption, 

frifti pajlmment to decfde fuch a General Fitzpairick faid, that ibo 

queftion. It ^ras in fad bat a treaty onion of Ireland with Great Bri« 

between two independent parlia- tain was a confiitutional point, ?:td 

ments, who had a power to do therefore fo ff!r incondftent with the 

whafever the eonftitution had not feltlement of 17§2. For fftccn 

forbidden. The competency of tljc years following the refolutJon< there 

parliaments was not more a queftfou had no doubt been entertained 

than the competency of Jhcir dec- upon the independence ot the Irifh 



hxtdsinre, in a confiittitional point farther arrangements. And he 

of view. With refped to the terms maintained that the primary object 

of (he propofed union, he did not of the duke, when at the head of the 

mean to fay any thing, becaufe he government of Ireland, was diredt- 

lookcdon the whole bulinefs to be a ed to the eflabliO'iment of a new 

Vagrant breach of /ai(h. iydem, cakulated to promote and 

Mr. Ryder (aid, fhcre could be perpetuate (he connection between 

no doubt bat that (he fettlemenl of the two countries. From this con- 

17S2was not confidered as /inal by ^deration, it was evident that the 

the parliament of 1783, who paffud meafure of the union grew out of 

Si) ad for complefmg what was lefl what was improperly called the 

imperfed in the only point which final adjuftment. 

was (hen not fettled. Still lefs General Pitzpatrick faid> that 

could it have been the opinion of though he certainly had accefs to 

the parliament of 178^, who adopt- the official difpatcHes to the (}uke 

ed the commercial propofitions, of Portland, when lord- lieu tenant 

involving not only the regulations of of Ireland, it could not be fuppofed 

trade, but the moil important quef* that, after a period of fixteeen years, 

tions of navigation and revenue. he could fpeak with accuracy to 

Mr. Pitt aiked the right honour* their contents. But this he could 

able general whether he could main- adert, that the objed, which the 

tain that any recognition of the in- duke of Portland, ,at that period, 

dependence of the Irifli parliament a^ually had in view, as far as he 

hi 1782, hiade^ Ireland more incap- was acquainted with them, did not 

able of treating of the queflion of relate to any imperial conditutional 

union, or of any other grand poli- points. Mr. Dundas wifhedtoadc 

tical confident ion, than any other the general whether, at a period 

country .whatever } The power fubfequent to the addrefs alluded to, 

aflumM by the Englifli over the when a rdfolation was taken to pro-. 

Irifh parliament being laid afide, by rogue the Irifli parliament, that 

the repeal of what was called the meafure had not been delayed, in 

declaratory-afi, paffed in the reign confequence of the duke of Port- 

of Geo. I. An addrefs was carried land's faying that he entertained 

to his majefly, praying him to take fomehope of being able to obtain a 

fuch farther raeafures as might ap- fet dement of thole points, which 

pear to htm to be proper, for the independence of Ireland made 

ftrengtheniog the conned) ion be- it neceflary to arrange? General 

t ween the two countries. His ma- Fitzpatrick had no recollection of 

jefty's moft gracious 'anfwer was, the circumflance. Mr. Sheridan 

that be would take mealures for contended that the houfe had rccog- 

that purpofe. With this view the nized Irekind to be independent by 

duke of Portland was fent to Ire- an a€t as foiemn as the bill of rights. 

land, with the right* honourable He concluded a fpeech, in which 

getienl as his feeretary. Mr. Pkt he repeated his former arguments, 

^'ilhed to aik ibe* general whether placing them however in fome new 

there were not inftrudlions given to points of view, by urging the dan- 

the duke ibr the •ccomplidiment of ger o.f agitating the prefent queflion 

Vot.XLL [Q] -' at 


HI the i^refent tlme.-i-^n a divtfion to' his majedy, thanking him forhij 
of the hoiife, there appeared for the moft (;[racioiis communication, and 
i^eaker's leaving the chair, 131— - exprefling their lordftiips readiuer; 
egainft it, J 9. The houfe then to concur in any roeafure that might 
tefolved itfelf into a committee j>ro^ be found neceflary or expedient 
/ifirmct, and a(ked leave tb fit again towards the confolidation ofthegc- 
the next day,. neral interefts of the Britifh empire, 

February 12:— When the order Theaddref* was voted ticm, dis.^- 

tffthe day being read, for the houfe On the eightec^ith of February, the 

roing into a committee on his ma- meffage from the commons, dcfiring 

jefty's meflkgc, refpef^ing the union a conference being read, and the 

with Ireland, the fpeaker left the lords informed that. tl>e members 

^•hair, and the houfe went into a deputed by the commons waited for 

Cclramittee on that fubje^. The them, in the painted chamber, they 

feportofthecomnrtittee was brought went thither, and immediately re- 

iip on the frtDrleefnth of February, tumed with acopyof tlw rcfohitioiis 

when all the refolutions, with fome voted by the houfe of commons, on 

amebdments, were agreed to : and the fubject of the propofed union 

fent up to the houfe of peers. On the with Ireland. Thefe, being read 

^ghteenth of February, a meflage by the clerk, were ordered to be 

iVom the commons was delivered, printed. Lord Grenville gave 

by earl Temple, to the lords, re- notice, that when the refolutions 

duefting a conference, refpe^ing (honld be printed, and on the table, 

tne means of perpetuafing and im- he intended to mbvc that they (houid 

proving ihecOnnc6lion between the be taken into confideration on that 

t\vo countries. The addref^ of their day (en'night. 

Jordfhips, on the fubjedl of an anion Lord Auckland faid, there were 

with Ireland, was taken into con- certain papers, o\* which it would 

fideration on the twenty-second of be neceflary that the houfe (hould 

April. A motion was made by Mr. be in potlcffion, previous to any 

Pitt, " that the houfe do concur in difcuflion that might take place on 

the faid addrefs," which, after vari- thofe refolutions, that their lord- 

ous obfen^ations by different fpeak- iln'ps might be able to make up 

ers, was agreed to. A meflage wa$ their minds on every part of the 

fent to the houfe of peers, informing merits of fo important a fubjeft. — 

their lordftiips, that the commons Thcfe papers would fhew how 

had agreed to the addrefs, and filled great were the facrifices in regard 

up the blank with the words " and to capital and manufa6lures, which 

common^.*' had been made by this country to 

The meflage from the king, rela- Ireland, and what commercial bene* 

iive to a cloler conneflfon with fit^ it was in the power of Great 

Ireland, was brought, on (he fame Britain to withhold from that coun- 

day, as already obferved, (o the try. He therefore moved " That 

commons and to the lords : by whom there be laid before the houfe an ac- 

affo, as well as by the commons, it count of the imports and exports of 

was taken into confideration, on the Great Britain duriiv the four lal! 

twenty-third of January. An ad- years, fpecifying thole articles, to- 

drefs Was moved by lord Grenville gether with the amount of tl»e fame, 



exported to and ' imported from bring forward the quefiion of catho« 

Ireland in that perfod.'* The qaef- lie emancipation. 

t}(ni on th's motion was put and The marquis of Lanfdown WaJ 

agreed to. - ^ ibrry that earl Fjtzwilliam's fyfteia 

On t])e 1 9lh of March, lord Gren- for Ireland was not pvuceeded on* 

vllle moved the order of the day to be But he contended that there was no 

n-Ad, for fumraoning their lordfhips, ufe in. making a cofcparifon be-* 

lor the purpofe of taking into their tween the proceedings of 1782, re* 

ronfideration the" various papers be- lative to Ireland, and thofe of the 

fore iheni, relative io the fituation of prefenttime The former had for 

Ireland. He entered at large into their objcd the fcparation of the two 

a. recommendation of an union, parliaments; the latter had for their 

and anlwered the objeclioiy that objedi the union of the two parlia- 

hnd been caade to that mWifure. m<jnts. He had no doubt hut that 

With regard to the fa ppofed exift- both the landt^d and commercial in- 

i:ig bond of connection between tereft would be benefited hy an 

the two countries, he was not afraid union, not only in tome local re- 

to friy it was ahfolutel-^ null: not fpe^s, but on a general fcale. For 

Ihat It was imperfe^or inadequate the(e reafons, he was inclined to 

but abjoluteij/ null: if the two par- adopt all the refolutions alhided to 

1 laments were fuflfered to remain in by the noble fecretary of ftate, ex* 

tltfiir pre fen t Hale, if the countries cept that for the addition of one 

clung together by no other bond hundred members for the Jioufe of 

Ihan the prcfenl, the cx)nne6lion, he commons. However, if others 

repeated, was abf(>lutely null. And were fatisfied, he Aiould have ntV 

if this was fuffered, many evils thing farther to.fay. 

would be neceffarify entailed on Earl Camden reminded the hptife, 

their defcendants, if they did not that before the earl of Fitz^^^tiafti 

fall on themfelrcs. He fliould leH Ireland, there were diftuf* 

move that tbe refolutions of the -bances in the county of Cai'an, atid 

houfe of commons be read pro that the kingdom was quiet for liin^ 

fnna; he (hould then move that or ten months after; a proof that 

tlie houfe do agree with the rcfolu- the public mind was not afFe6^ed by 

tions of the houfe of commons, and the recall of the earl.— Lord Hobaft; 

ladly move that thefe refolutions be thought that an union wascfTential to 

read before his majefty in the form the prefervatlon of a connection be* 

ofa joint addrefs from both houfes, tween the two countries, becaufe, 

with a humble requeft, that his while three-fourths of the people of 

niajefty would lay them before the Ireland were catholics, a pro* 

pirliament of Ireland, at what time tedant parliament could never he 

lii« majefty (hould deem moft proper, a fatisfaClory government for the 

Karl Fitzwilliam objedled to the dif- kingdom. 

cufijon of the fubjed under the pre* The inarqujs of Townlbeod faidi 

fcnt alarming fituation of affairs^ he would give his vote for the union ; 

which he attributed Xo his never bijt there were many o»ther things td 

having received orders^ when at be done before Ireland could reco* 

\1^^ head of triib affairs, from the Ver from its prefent diftrelTed fitua« 

C9Vernm«nt of Groat firitaini ta tiotk Thetc otigbl to be feiident 

I 41 2 J nagiftratei 

228] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179&. 

inagiflrmteSi in order to enforce a doe was abfolutely neceffary, as it ttraj 

ob^ience to the laws; ona very not to be fuppofed thai a Roman 

great evil was, the itinerant clergy. Catholic parliament w'ould not an- 

who went about the country grant- nul the forfeitures of the eflates of 

ixig abfolution for the mod enormous their anceilors. But that afcen- 

offences. But the grand and direful dency would be beft fecured by an 

fource of the calamities of Ireland, incorporating union. The earls of 

was the exceiiive monopolization Carlifle and Weftmoreland, both 

of the land, and the number of fomierlylords^lieutenants of Ireland, 

bankers, fquires, ilewards, tackf- did not coniider the arrangements 

men, and other peribns, between of 17d2, about which fo much had 

the landlord and the tenant. been faid, as final, but merely as 

Lord Moira faid, there was no fuited to the circumdances of the 

perfon who would more heartily times, and calculated to remove 

concur in the meafure propofed than prelent grte\^nces. The two coun- 

himfelf, were he (ure that it was tri'es did not intend to bind poflerity 

founded in the wi flies of a majority and to legiOate for future gene* 

of the people of Ireland. But the rations. The duke of Portland, too* 

oppo(ition to it was not limited to faid, that the fettlement of 1782 

the Irifli parliament, only. It had had ;iot been confidered by him, 

been treated by the nation at large or any of the cabinet, aa a ^al 

With an abhorrence amounting al- fettlement. 

moil to a phrenzy. What could be The refolntrons, moved by 7ord 

more calculated to add fuel to the Grenville, were then read and 

Hame than our perfevering in the agreed to. ^nd their lordfliips, 

Dropofal after it had been fo ilrong« having been fummoned, convened 

ly reprobated? on the eleventh of April, when lord 

Lord Holland, on the argument Grenville moved tlie addre(s to his 

for an union, taken from the prefent majefly . 

profperity of Scotland, remarked . Lord Auckland rofe with pecu-^ 
that it was forty years after the aft liar fatisfedlion to give his fupport 
of union before the commerce of to an addrefs to his revercxi (bve- 
Scotland began to revive from the reign of the two kingdoms, 
fliock it had received. There was for the purpofe of communica- 
another fubje^, on which he could ting their refolutioBR to the lords 
not avoid faying a few words.— and commons of Ireland. Be- 
Nothing aflonifhed him more than fore he proceeded to the com- 
the apathy with which the propo- merciat conftderatioiis, he exami- 
iition, for adding one hundred mem- ned the nature of that independence, 
bers to the houfe of commons, was which, as fome advifers ot the peo- 
received. Thisinvaiionof thecon- pie of Dublin afierted, would be 
flitution was looked to with the fubverted and defh-oyed by the con- 
mofl perfedb indifference. This folidation of the two legillatftres. 
propofition, he (aid, was alio in« He thought it iitaportant to a(cer<- 
compatible with the opinion of all tain the value of what Ireland was 
thofe who w idled a parliamentary (ofd ilie would lofe, before He pro- 
reform. • ceeded to appreciate what it %vas 

The earl of KinnouU thought the that flie would gain. He recong- 

proteAant afcendancy ifi Ireland nized the independence of the Irifh 



nation» abftracledly coiifidered« a» 
fccured by the aitangeinent of 
nS'J. But we could not (hut our 
evei againd the truths pr^fented by 
the map of Europe^ ana by the rela- 
tive iiloation, fize, and population 
of the two iflands. What then 
was, in fad, the independence of a 
country, which had iK> means of 
defence, or fecurity, or felf-prefer* 
vation, but through the protedton 
aod aid of its more powerful neigh- 
Iwur? If two countries, fo circum- 
ftanced, took adverfe lines of con- 
du&, a (Irnggle muA enfue, and 
either the weaker muft be over« 
ruled, or confufion and all the evils 
of war mull follow. If, on the 
other hand, there fliould prevail 
ktween the two an uniform iyftem 
ofcondod, in lading points of com- 
BK)n concern, the weaker mull be 
prefumed thus far, virtually and ha- 
bitually, to have iacrificed itsexercife 
of independent power. Thisdelemma 
lord Auckland applied to the point 
inquefiion. Had Ireland, or could 
flie have, the power of negociating, 
oontroling, or even rejediing trea- 
ties? I^d (he the means of pro* 
teding her own commerce^ or of 
eAabli(bing colonies, or of making 
and holding conquefts? Had (lie« 
or could (he have any naval force ? 
And was not the diredUon of her 
military force conformably to the 
opinion of Britifh minifiers, refpon- 
fibie only to the Britiflt parliament? 
Had (be, in (hort, or could (lie 
have any contrbul whatever, any 
interference, or even any concern^ 
otherwife than in a vi(ionary and 
abHra^ claim, refpe£ling the impe- 
rial tranCiflions of pf^ace and war» 
alliances and confederacies? Had 
(he, evpn in the exercife oflegifla- 
tion, any accefs to tlie royal uincf 
tion> other wife than througn Briti(h 

minifters, not amenable to her parlia- 
ment, and under the great feal of 
the Britifh chancellor ? But waving 
all the(e confiderations, and fuppo- 
fing Ireland to have every advantage 
pofle(red by Great Britain> and in 
an equal degree, fiill however, with 
one executive power, and with 
(eparate and independent legiila- 
tures : would any individual of a 
found mind atfert, that the entire 
union of two countries, fuch as now 
defcribed, would be degrading or 
dctrimentaf to either? It would 
be grating, lord Auckland obferved^ 
to the feelings of all their lordfhips 
to (late to Ireland that (he was 
chained down, thqugh by b^r own 
prejudices, to a weak and inefficient 
independence, fubje£l to inceffimt 
collifions, and infeparabte from 
misfortune and humiliation. It 
would be ungenerous, he (aid, to 
make fuch a ftatement, if it were 
not in his power to preient to her, 
at the fame time, a real and per^ 
raanent independence, accompani* 
ed by a full participation of Briti(h 
opulence, Briti(h greatnefs, and 
Briti(h freedom, with its beft com* * 
panion, Briti(h (ecurity. It was 
impodible to open and contemplate 
the papers on the table without ex^ 
ultation of mind at (b brilliant an 
exhibition of the increafing profpe- 
rity of Great Britain^ and o( ner 
unexampled pre-eminence among 
nations. Thefe papers would give 
their lord(hips, what had never be- 
fore been attempted, the tme 
valuation of our whole commerce, 
'according to current prices and 
other documents, the accuracy of 
which was inconteftible. It ap- 
peared tbftt the. total value of oor 
exports and imports, in the year 
1798, was nin€?ty-five millions fter- 
line;: above twenty-two miltiona 
I Q 3 ] , higher 


higher than tlie average Value of the 
four lad years of peace. But, not- 
■withftanding all the exemptions from 
duties and other encouragetnents 
indulged to Ireland, that country, 
with a population equal perhaps to 
dne-third of the'Brilifli pop'uhtion, 
had a trade equal to not more than 
one-ninth of the trade of Great 
Britain. It would be idle to ima- 
gine that, in a Britifh parliament, 
this great que/lion could be debated 
with flattery, and cbmpiaifance and 
referves, and on Irifh intereftsonly. 
' The people of Ireland ought not 
to be kept in ignorance, that nume- 
rous and eifential bent; fits are con- 
ferred on them without reciprocity : 
but that thofe benefits, without 
union, remain liable, on any 
eventual difagreement, to a fudden 
cxplofion, with the utter ruin of 
»1I the Irifli interefts dependent 
on trade and manufaftures. Could 
it be cxpc61ed^ that capitals and 
commercial credit Ihould be tranf- 
fcrred to a country, draggling 
under an anomalous, incompetetit, 
•nd diflurbed government, and 
maintaining a claim of right io 
adopt, at any time, adverfe connec- 
tions vid interefts. Nothing lefs 
than an ynion could fatisfy thefe 
qneftions. They would not, faJd 
lord Eden;, reft on the Aim fey and 
undefined proteftation, fo often 
repeated and fo imperfedly rea- 
lized, that "the afTedlions of Ire- 
land are unalienable, ^and that 
both kingdoms ihall ftand or fall 
together.'* Let the union take 
place, and all commercial di- 
iiinctions, and all political jealou- 
£es would be annihilated. What 
were the multiplied and ineftim- 
able benefits ^hich the propofi- 
ttons and addrefs held out to Ire- 
land? The prefervation of hef 

afhial advantages, the extenfioi^ 
of capitals, the incrcafed employ- 
ments of her people, with the 
cultivation and fofteuing -of their 
minds and manners ; and, above 
all, the introdudion of a middle 
clafs, One of the great wants of 
Ireland, and the' qioil important 
link of fecurity between the highell 
and lowed orders : itill leaving to 
her the fame conftitution, the fame 
liberties, the fame laws, and the 
fame privileges, which flie now 
enjoyed." " My lord/' faid lord 
Eden, " in this awful period of 
crimes and calamities, amidfl the 
fuhvcrflon of flates and empires, 
the fabric of Britifh liberty ftands 
un(haken*and unmoved. We offer 
to Ireland the full fecurity of our 
happincfs and fe<iiFity. And im- 
Ie(s Providenceftiail have withdrawn 
from her all mercy and profeding 
influence, urlcfs it« difpenfations 
are to be fuch as tf> number her 
among the wrecks c>f nations, flie 
will gladly and gratefully receive 
our offers, and will become an 
integral part of the united empire 
of Great Britain and Ireland.^ 

The biftiop of Landaff, wtdla d^^ 
fi predicans, gave his hearty ap- 
probation and cordial fupport to (he 
propofed union. - He was afraid 
\^fi he fhonld be confidered by 
their lordfliips as a man vexing the 
reluctant ear with a dull repetition 
of a tale that ha;}, as it were,- been 
thrice told. But his heart was (b 
much in that bufinefs, and his mind 
had fo long been accu Homed to con- 
template it as an ofcjeft of ihe firf^ 
political importance, that he inoft 
intrcat their lordfiiips indulgence 
whilft he explained his icnti ments 
upon it. From feveiiteen to (ixty- 
one, his life had been pleafantly, 
and he hoped |)Qt unnro^tablV« 



fpenti in the purfuit of knowledge, jbut if you feparate i{ from this coiw 

and inabftradl reafoning on ft va* ne^ion^ and plant it in a foil bf 

rietv of tonics. He hsUi occafionally iifdf, it will neither Rrikfi rooC 

and incident^Uy reafoued on poli- <iownwards> nor be«r fruit up wards> . 

tical fubjeds ; but this, he prcfum- for a hundred #year8, though k 

ed, might be forgiven in a church* (hould be left to itielf, free from the 

nian, wbo>at the prefent advanced annoyance of its neighbours; but 

period of hi^ age^ could boldly and this Iriftj graft c»nnot be left tp 

ijoneftly declare, in the hearing of it(elf, it will either be ftunled and 

their lordlhips that all his political overfhadowed by the mighty branci^ 

ipf'culatious were ever fotinded on ing; of the Britifli oak, or. it will be 

^iut appeared to him the broad poifoned by the peftilentlal exhala« 

halis of public utility. Many others t ions of the Vrees of liberty, which 

underfioocf the fubje^ better than France will plant around it; trees 

lie did. But he was not ignorant of which have hitherto produced no 

it He had not confidered it flight- fruit m Ej^trope, or in the world, 

iy. His opinion upon it wm this : except the Bpj>ies of Sodom,— allu- 

that a cordial union would be much ring to the eye, but bitter and 

more advantageous to Ireland than poifonous to the palate. Ireland 

t'> Great Britain, but that it would cannot ftand alone. Would to 

h<' eminrntly ufeful to both coun- God ! that there was moderation 

tries. It would enrich Ireland and juftice enough, in great ftates, 

without impoveriQiing Britain. It to permit leflcr ftates to erjoy their 

Would render the empire, as to de- independence, ond to profccute 

fence, the Aronged in Europe. The their inlerefts in a ftale of iepara- 

iirtngth of every ftate principally tion from them : but this is a (> flem 

<i^7'ended on the number of its of politics more to be wiflied than 

pfople. The lands of Great Britain expefUd, in the preicnt condition 

aid Ireland, if cultivated to their of Chriiliun mot^vlity. 
fi!! extent, to the extent to which Ireland eannot Aand alone ; Hie meafure wovild carry cultlva- muft, of neceHity, be conne^ed; 

tion in half a centttry, would fup- nay^ ftie mufl, for her own fafety, 

port a population of thirty miUions in the pri^fent convulfed ftate of 

at lea(t: not to mention the un- European politics, in the prefent 

bounded increafe of population tuat progrefs of flrange political opi- 

iTiight arife from the improvement nious, be united either to Great 

ofour fiQieries. Thirty millions of Britain or France. She is not, 

people would afford five or £x indeed, at liberty to make, her 

million& able to bear arm*. We choice, without withdrawing that 

luight Xhen be more indifferent than allegiance, which the vj'\kil and 

we could hitherto have prudently beft men in Ireland have not, I 

been to continental politics, " I am convinced, any difpofition to 

''ill fpeak/* faid bi(hop Watfon, withdraw ; biU if (he were unfet- 

" niy whole mind on this point, tered by any bond of conne61ion ; 

Ireland, as a graft inferied into tlie at full liberty to make a choice; 

frock vf the BiitiAi empire, may is there a man In all Ireland, of 

throw put braocbes in every direc- a good heart and a cool head, wii<i 

tiCtfV and b^As b^U PU everv twig ; could hefitate in preferring an union 


232] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1799. 

with Great Britain to one with a<t on commercial advanta^s and 
France? United with Great Bri* difadvantsu^es attending an union, 
tain, Ireland will loon become a he could (peak at fome length : but 
|a(!y» weli-Iooking« well-fed, lidib of he purpofeiy declined it, partly 
the Britifli body politic : united fi'om a perfuafion that his advice 
with France, (he would be a wither- would not be needed, but princi- 
ed, (brivelled, palfted, (larved, ex- pally to his diflike to the appearing 
crefcence, which might be cut off forward in obtruding his political 
and thrown afide whenever intered fpeculations on the attention of the 
or caprice (hould render a reparation houfe, having no ambition what- 
iieoe(Iary. ever to affed the' chani6)er of a 

I forefee^ with great fatisfad) ion, ftatefman : a character, indeed, when 
the time when, if thit union takes wifely and honourably fullained, 
place, the whole ftate of Ireland T>f the higheft importance to human 
will be changed. The overflow- happinefs, but which did not be- 
ing of Britith capital will, on a /it a retired and unconneded 
peace, in (lead of finding its way churchman, who withcd to (pend 
jnto France or America, fettle in the remainder of his days in con- 
Ireland. It will^ in time, convert temptations of quite a diflferent 
the bogs of that country into corn- tendency. When the late doke of 
fields; it will cover its barren Rutland, wbnfe.roemorv would ever 
mountains with fbrefls ; it will dig be dear to the biAiop, was lord- 
its mines, cut its canals, ere^ its lieutenant of Ireland, he honoored 
fabrics, explore new channels of him with his confidence, and con- 
commerce, and improve the old vcrfed with him on fubjeds of po- 
ones; in a word, by fupplying litical importance. In writing to 
labour, it will render the people the duke, about the time when the 
induftriouflv enlightened, content- Irifli propoiitions, as thev were 
ed, and dappy., I, my lords, called, were under dilcufuon, he 
/hall not dive to fee the efle6)s perfedlly well remembered having 
of this meafure, for great objedls do laKJ to his grace, " you and vour 
not attain their full perfection at fneiid, the minider of Engmnd, 
once, but our poflcrity will fee would immortalize your charaders, 
them, and will nave caufe to blefs if> indead of a mere commercial 
' the enlarged policy of two legifla-^ arrangement, you could accomplifh, 
tures, which, riling fuperior to petty by honourable means, and on equit- 
jealoufies, which, facrificing partial able terms, a legiflative union be- 
intereds on the altar of general tween the two kingdoms. The 
iafety, have coalefced into one, for duke's anfwer to this uiggedion was 
the oenefit of both/' There was a fo lingular, that he (hould never 
queftion, bifhop Watlbn obferved, forget it. He wholly approved the 
of j^reat importance, whether the meafure, Hut added, that the man 
Britilh conditution would or would who fliould attempt to carry it 
not undergo fome change, and if into execution would be tarred 
any, what change from tlie intro- and feathered. Whether his re- 
du^ion of Irifl] members into our pugnance to an anion was at that 
two hou(es of parliament. On time the general (entiment of the 
thefeaod fixnilar.qaedionsj f^s well Jrifh nation, or which he fulpc^^^d 



of a few leading individualt only, 
he had no means of aicertaining» 
nor was it nov^ of any ufe to in- 
quire. He mentioned this circum- 
irance io (hew, that the vote he 
flioiiid give this day was founded 
on an opinion not radhly or recently 
taken up, but deliberately formed 
many years ago, when his mind 
was neither heated by refentment 
ai^in/l tebellron, nor diftrurbed by 
the apprehenfion of danger, and 
when he was mach more in the 
habit of confidering fach fubjeds 
than be had been of late years. 
In detaining their brdftitps fo long, 
He had pro&bly done as much vio- 
lence to his own feelings as their 
patience; for he felt a daily in- 
ccealind^ reludance to the mingling 
•1 public political debate. But 
this great fubje6t had compelled 
him to come forward. 

Lord Boriiifirdon, on the trite 
queftion of the iappofed^nal adjuft- 
mcnt^i 1782, referred to Mr. Fox's 
Speech on the commercial propofi- 
t:on$ of 17 85, in which he declared, 
that the reiblution of the houle of 
owmons, on the feuenteenth of 
May, 1782, in no wife referred to 
commerce, bat folely to obje6is 
p<'Iitical and imperial. 

Lord Minto (aid, that it was not 
only for the advantage, but neceflary 
to the fecurity and prefervation of 
both countries, that there (hould 
^^ibfifl between Great Britain and 
l''cland a clofe omnedlion of (bme 
kind : and the only mode of con- 
Aedion, that could perfectly remove 
tHe e\'ils of feparation, and fully 
confer the bcnetit of union, was a 
perftcl identity and incorporation 
ol their governments. Federal 
connections were, in their nature, 
very inadequate to the purpofes of 
«*ri.on, and of very precai'ioiis du- 

ration. As to the ^K>mpetency of 
parliament to decide on the pre- 
lent queflion; if parliament was 
not competent, where could there 
be found a more adequate authority. 
For whatever the whole nation 
could do, if tliere were no parlia* 
ment, could be done by the regular 
and fundamental powers of parlia- 

He analyzed the idea and fen- 
timent of true patriotifm ; which, 
he (hewed, confided not in a fond 
attachment to one nation, merely 
as it flood in a flate of diftin6li- 
nefs from other nations^ but in 
doing real and a^ual good to one's > 

Did our limits, which we have 
already fomewhat tranfgrefled, and 
were it our obje6l to exhibit (peer- 
mens of logical reafoning, and iu(l 
and fine compofition, we fhoutd 
infert in this fketch the whole of 
lord Minto's fpeech on this inWeft- 
ing fubjedl, which appears to us to 
be a happy medium between the 
fpeeches of the lad century, or 
rather the fird part of it, drawn 
from hiftory, the law of nations^ 
and maxims of jurtfprudence apd 
pltilofophy, but overloaded with 
quotation, and, in many inftances* 
degenerating into an affedlation of 
learning; ;and thofe clumfy and 
defultory, though flnlible remarks, 
on one hand, and thofe animated 
^Xii^f, and effuiions on another, 
that charaderize many orations well 
received in our times. At the 
fame time, as we have been led to 
affume the province of the critic, 
it may be proper to obferve, that 
lord Minto's fpeech was not more 
confolidated by a found and en- 
lightened judgement, than enlivened 
by manv delicate and plealing con- 
tours of^a fine imagination. It was 


284] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Ih* oratory <if Beicher, 0f SaUoxtnt 
employed in an oppofite and more 
au^icioas caufe. The queOion on 
ih% addrefs beii^ pMi, was carried 
nem. tan. Lord Grenville, lord 
Auckland* the bifliop of LandafT^ 
and lord Minto, were named as a 
qomftitlee^ for drawing up an ad* 
dref^i conformably to the motion* 
I'shichi after a conference with the 
commons, was prefented to his ma- 
jefly, as the joint addrefs of both 
houfes oT parliament. 

That the various proceedings in 
fiarliamenti of mo(t importance, 
might be contemplated wi'.h the 
tnore interefl, as well as order, we 
hatre thought it proper to view them 
tK)t in the conne61ion of adjourn- 
ments, from time to liaici but under 
the four headit of Anance, meafure^t 
of externa] defence, meafuresof in- 
ternal tranquillity, and meafures of 
political economy. * The union 
>^ith Ireland may be referred to 
either the. fecond or thfrd of four 

feneral heads, or more properly to 
oth. To both, alfo, may be re- 
ferred a bill, propofed in February, 
ai)d palTed in the courfe of the 
feffion) for reducing the militia 
and regulating the provifional ca* 
valry. The iupplementary militia 
Was now almoit trebled. If fully 
completed, under the prefent law9, 
it would nmounl to 106,000. It 
was, however, deficient of that 
tiomber, and did not exceed 82,000. 
This lail mtmber of 62,000 fapple- - 

mentaiy militia, combined witli oaf 
other forces, being confidered as 
perfedly adequate to every pnr- 
pofe, was not to be increafed, but 
continued as it now flood. The 
claufe in the bill, relating to the 
provifional cavalry, was founded od 
the fame principle as that refpect- 
ing the fupplementary militia, viz. 
a WfCh not to increafe our force 
beyond what Was adually necefiai y. 
And it was judged the more par- 
ticularly expedient to do fb, at a 
feafon of the vear when fo many 
hands woiHd be wanting for the 
purpofes of agriculture. The vo- 
lunteer and yeomanry cavalry had 
rifen from 51000 to 50,000. By 
this vafl augmentationi the provi- 
fiona I cavalry -a6t being fuperfeded, 
it was thought unneceflary to 
call ibrth that part of our intended 

On the firft of JVIarch, Mr. Wil^ 
ber force made his animal motion 
for the abolition of the flave-trade. 
A new and interefting circurofiarce 
varied tlie ufual topics and argu- 
ments, 4hfs year, in the debate on 
this fubjed : an army of negroes 
under Touflaint, in St. Domingo, 
and dcmocratical, 'or, as they ^wcre 
at this time called, French princi* 
plesf fupported and encouraged by 
that drilling revolution, living 
hard to make their way into iht 
very heart of the firitifii colonies. 
IVJr. Wilberforce's motion was loll, 
by SI* votes again fi ^4. 

* Finance might ccrtairtly be arranged tonder the head of political economy : hut wt 
htre apply this term to awafures for Uie improvement of the general itatse gr ooodirioo 
of the fmfnre« 



CHAP. xin. 

Treaty of Campo Formio Juddeidy form^d.-'^Dlfregarded and mijlrujl^d &». 

both Parlies^'^^M Uilary f reparations, '—^Gtrvsrai J our dan receives Or^rg 

to begin the Carnpaign,-^^lfnviCTife Scale on which IVar is now carrie4 

OH.^-Forcc and Pofiliojt of the French end the Imperial Forces, — Plans of 

th(f Frc'.'ich .^-^Si/uation and yieirs of the AHJlrians ^'-^^The French Army 

Q^'Ciipics Manheim, — Lays the PaUtincte under^C(miributi(/n."^And ad* 

ij rices inlo Suabia.^^-ConlribuiiQnf: thcrp ai/b, — J our dan appointed Com^ 

Tfunder'in'chieJ of the Armies in Germary and Suitzarland, Ppfitio/i^ of 

the A"ftrians in the Country of the Grijonx and in the f^oralbsrg^'-^Aiiif* 

jhia junrmons General Aujfcnberg, and attacks him at the lame Tirnc^-^ 

And takes him, with the greater Part of his Troops t-^Th^ Fmnch M^fi^rg 

of Chur, and almqfi all the Valley of the Rhine. — Phm oj the French (v comv 

^leie the Conque/i of the Country of the Gri/ons, — Maffcna repulfed in tht^ 

Voralberg with much Lah, — TJie French General, L'scaurbc, j'eizjes on ih0 

Upper an^Lower Engadithe,--^The French General, De/olley, attackjf an4 

^inns the Pojl at Bonnio, — 'The Army of the Archduke Charles pajffes t}u$ 

/^wA, and advances in. Suabia.-~^Movements end Pofitions taken by ihf 

Aijirianand French Artniof.^^ Battle btl:ctan the A t^/i^'ians and French, ftr 

The Frendi defeated, and forced to repafs the RhinC'-'^The Ai^flrians in 

Poftjffion ofalmofi all Suabia, 

T*HE treaty of Campo Formio 
proved, as was very generally 
foreleen, no more than an armed 
truce, during which, the oppofile par- 
ties were lets animated by the hop6or 
the defire of permanent-peace, than 
by ihofe of beiiig in a condition to 
renew the war. That treaty, though 
favourable to France, was fcarcely 
more (avoarable than what her fplen- 
did fucceC<( in arm$, according to the 
criterion of political morality, mi^ht 
teem to iuftify. It was, in fa£l, 
lach, that if it had been formed 
after long and leffurely difcuflioti, 
and after the parties had duly re- 
conciled their minds to it by habi- 
tual reflection, it might have been 
(}» l^afis 9f a general pac^i£<;atIon, 

and of a new fyftem of the political 
balance in Europe. But it appearf 
to be an univerfal law, in nature, 
prhyiical, moral, and political, that 
nothing fudden is permanent. Tho 
preliminaries of Leoben were/ignecj 
at a moment pregnant with dangcf 
to the French army, as well as \yill> 
ruin to the houfe of Auftria. Th^ 
French and Auftrian governments, 
in proportion as that moment oj* 
danger, was removed, and throwi) 
into the background of the pidluro 
of Europe, recovered their habiluaj 
views and pailions. The tn^aty of 
Campo Formio appeared as f| 
dream, a prcterJiatural intrufipn intq 
the great jiffain and intercfts of na- 
tions, Thi; French diretlorv, by 

236] ANNUAL REGISTER,, 1799. 

the mod overt ads of the mofi vio- therefore, did not think it sdvifeable 
lent injuftice and oppreifion^ mani- to open the campaign till the fprmf^ 
feded ftill a difpofition to extend favourable, in all circaroftances, to 
their principles and conqueHs. The the execution of great military 
Casfars of Vienna could not, with* plans, specially in moantainous 
out a ijgn, behold their long-loved countries. The iroperiahils, on their 
Italy, as well as Switzerland and part, had fi milar motives for tempo- 
Savoy, a prey to French influence ri^tion. Their army, for the pur- 
jmd domination ^ by which means, pole of recruiting, was difperft^ in 
alio, the Auftrian dominions were Bohemia, and other provinces, at a 
ilripped of that natural boundary diftance from Suabia and the Bava- 
andoarricr, which they derived from rian frontier; with the exception of 
their geographical fituation, and a thofe Rationed in Friuli, and the 
way was opened to the heart of the newlv acquired Venetian Hates, 
empire. Yet it is not improbable which were to be pre%rved from 
that the two governments had it in the revolutionary fermentation, and 
contemplation to avoid the danger- retained in a ilate of obedience 
ous conleqoeix:es of war, and to and fubmiflion, only by the pre- 
gain their refpedive objeds by the lence of an army. The march 
magnitude of their preparations, of the Ruflian troops, in diSkr^ 
and mutually prefenting to each ent divifions, and halting at diA 
other a front of defiance. B)' thefe, ferent places for refrefhment, could 
the Auftrians efpecially, after the not be other than flow. And be* 
inarch of the Ruffians, fur their aid, fides all this, a plan of co-operation, 
to Germany, hoped to reHore the between the imperial armies of Ger- 
independence of Switzerland, Na- many and Italy, could not be car- 
pies, and the papal territories : by ried into execution before the feaiun 
thefe, alfo, the French hoped flill to of communication by the Tyxol. 
retain them in fubjeclibn. Be this Thus, in the negociation of Raftadt, 
as it may, military preparations, there were, on both iides abundant 
during the congrefs at Rafladt, motives for procraAination. To- 
were continued, with unremitting wards its conclufion, it became a 
a6livity, by both parties ; each of kind of diplomatical war, m which 
which had an interefl in the gaining the refpe^live plenipotentiaries 
of time, by prolonging tlie negoci- were only fpies on each other^ and 
ation for peace. Tne dir«£lory fet themfelves only to confider and 
had begun to lofe the contidence determine the point to which party 
of the French nation. The recruit- its rupture or prolongation would be 
ing of the French armies, by of the greateit advantage. On that 
means of military confcriptions, point the dire^ory had no longer 
went on but ilowly. It required any doubt, when they were oeriain 
fome time to train the recruits, and that the Ruffians were dedined to 
incorporate them with the exhauf- co-Bperate with the imperial army 
ted battalions. Nor could the in Ital^, and when they faw the 
movements of troops, notwithfland- formation of a great Aufirian army, 
ing the pofleffion or Switzerland, be under the command of the archduke 
made without delays, amidfl the Charles, between the Lech and the 
rigours of winter. The direfiory, Danube. On the other hand^ U he- 


caiTic as Tiltle a qucftion tb the court ivhen even a few of (ho European 

nt Vienna, when they perceived the monarchies could make head again/1 

rr.ovemcnt* of four French armies^ fo numerous, accompli fhed, and 

namely that ot Ita!y, that of Swit- eoergelic a people, become a mUi^ 

zcrland, that of the Danube, and tar v republic. The armies of France^ 

tiiil of obfervation ; and when the in(lead of laying fiege to particular 

French, threatening to crofs the forts and towns, attacked whole 

Khine, peremptorily demanded the countries. FortrelFes, which hereto^ 

•^etreatoftheRudians from the con* fore arrefled, occupied, and con* 

hr;e5 of Germany. fumed whole armies^ Were pafled 

For many centurtesi the nations with unconcern ; ifblated, as it 

f'f Europe, as by a tacit compa6l, were, by the enormous mafs of the 

had ocodionally made war on one French armies. To this extenfion 

another, on a scale fuited fo their of the naval theatre of war, they 

rei'pedive finances, and other re- were invited by their numbers, by 

^'ilar refoarces. And many fpecu- the fupcriority of their artillery, and 

l^li?e men, concluding that the the proviHon that was made by 

progreffive coDYplexity of the ma« their moveable columns, for the ce- 

chinery of war, and of a concomi- lerity of their motion; which, to 

tant ipirit of calculation, as well as fpeak in tlie language of phyfics, be* 

the advancement of civilization, ing multiplied into the quantity of 

would contribute to the interefh of their matter, formed a lever fitted 

p^ce and the bappinefs of the hu- to fubvert flates and empires. Yet 

inanrsce. But, towards the end of the Auflrians, feconded by the 

|i)e moft enlightened century, and wealtli of Great Britain, met the 

in ihe nx>ft refined country in Eu- French with great courage and 

'^"W, an explolion broke forth, which glory on the whole extent of that 

'Jiiified all thofe aufpicious antici- ample field. It will not be ex- 

T'iimu The ardent geniu<( of the peded, that, in this brief fketch of 

fVetich nation, rouzed to action by Europe, for 1799, we flioiild give 

♦i'e revolution, incapable of repofe, any other than a very general 

and finding aliment only in wa/, ex- account of military operations fo 

^ bited movements fimilar to thofe vafl and various. Nor were a full 

<^'i barbarous nations, in former pe- account permitted by the limits 

^'^^t when, quitting their native either of our plan, or capacity and 

''/il, and fetting fire to their huts information, would it be defired, as 

t::ev pnedpitated themfelves in quefl we conceive, by the generality of 

^' new (ettlements on their culti- our readers. Military men, to 

^'^IH peaceable, and luxurious, whom alone fnch details could be 

''eij^hbours. The very deficiency intereHing, will not, for learn ine 

'' their finances, and the impo- the art of war, we prefume, be diu 

^yiflied fiate of France, impelled pofed to have recourfe to an An- 

tccm, as in a mafs, to arms : for nuat Regifler. They will find much 

^hat they wanted at home, they more fatisfadtion in the perufal of 

'"■Jght and found iii other countries, fuch books as the Precis des ev^ne^ 

It was a llrong proof of the Arength mens Militairts,'^ and the Hifiory (f 

of Uie antagoniil governments, the Campaigns from 1796 to 1799, 

• PubUihcdJby Drbrett. 


2381 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1790. 

. tfith Hioiujve,* to whofe luminous 
^iftwsi we take this opportunity of 
ftiaking; our acknowledgements, and 
to which wc beg leave to refer the 
Ittilitarjf reader, rather 'than to put 
i})tm off with any comprefred 
abridgement of their narratives. Our 
Objef^, in this general hif^orv, is not 
io enter into a full detail of military 
operations, but rather to mark fitua* 
lions, defigns, and refults, • and .the 
J^rincipal means, whether prepared 
6t accidental, by which plans were 
accompHibed, on the one hand> or 
i&iled on the other. 

Of the three hundred and twenty 
itiOufand, who, at this time com* 
pofed the French army, forty-five 
ttiou(and under the orders of general 
AlaHena, occupied Switzerland and 
^ left bank of the Rhine, almpft 
from. its fource, to th« weftern ex- 

ijremity of the lake of Conftance, and 
i*din that poiht, the two bankii of the 
fiver as far as Bade. Between that 
<6wn and Duffeldorf were flalioned 
about 65,000 men, commanded by 
general Juurdan, and forming 
"^hat was called the army of 
Ment^. They occupied' the fort 
6f Kehl, on the right bank of the 
llhine, lined the left bank, from the 
'frontier of Switzerland to Men! a, 
Jind from the latter town to Dufiel- 
dort poflefled all the country upon 
the two banks. The corps, in 
the latter portion, amounting to 
*about twenty (houfand men, wag 
galled the army of obfervation. 
The plan of the diredlory was the 
fame that had been purfued in 1796, 
and 1797; namely, the inVafion of 
(he hereditary ftales of the houfe of 
>iuftria, and the junction of the 
f rench armies under the walls of 
Vieiini* For this end it was re- 

ceflary that the army of obfervation 
ihould take poflefliop of Philiplburg^ 
tlie only fortrefs remaining on the 
Rhine to the empire ; that thcarmv 
of Jourdan fliould crofs that river, 
traverfe the defiles of the Black Fo* 
reft, extend itfclf into Suabia, tarn 
th^ lake of Conftance, and the 
fouthern part of the Tyrol ; that H:e 
army of Switzerland fliould dri\v» 
the Awftrians from the count ry ot 
the Grifons, attack the Tyro! in 
front, and feizc the vallies of the 
Lech and of the Inn, while the army 
of Italy fhould penetrate into Gcr» 
many, either through the T)rol or 
FfiuH. Thus the Auftrian troops, 
pofted oh the lake of Conftance, 
m the country of Regent* and that 
of tho' Grifons, would have been 
encompafled by Jourdan's army, and 
that ot Maflena; and thofc which 
defended the Italian Tyrol and the 
Veronefe, between Maflena's army 
and that of Italy. The fitoalion 
and the views of the Auftrians 
were as follows : 

More than fixty thouland were 
Cf)ncentrated under the apchduke 
Charles, on the Lech. Twenty 
thoufand were - collected in the Pa- 
latinate, in the environs of Auberg, 
or at Wurtzburg, under the orden 
of general Sztarray. A like num- 
ber was under thofe of genera! 
Hotze, in the Voralberg, and ti)e 
countfy of the Grifons. Near twen- 
ty-five thoufand, commanded bv 
general Bellegarde, were on ti«? 
frontiers of the la ft- mentioned ecu: • 
try and the Tyrol. The array nt 
Italy, part of which was on rh<» 
Adif^e, and the reft in Friuli ani 
Carinthia, was reckoned to be ir.tnf 
than fiKty thoufand* ftrcng. 1 Hk 
the empcrcf had to oppole to we 

 Pttbi;(kfcd hf Cadcil, Egcrton, Wrl^^, and Cardloer. 

Frern h, 


French, one hundred and eighty-five a fpiritcd thoagh moderate anfwer^ 
thoufand fighting men, ninety thou- ** Surely, general," faid he, '* it 
land of whom were in a fituation miift be your own opinion that I 
fof aclin^ againft Jourdan and Ma(^ (hould be culpable, were I to de-- 
f.iu. But, determined as the Auf- liver up a forlrefs, the command of 
tians were to let the odium of re- which lias been intruded to me by 
cmmencing hoftilitiea fall on (he the commander-in-chief of the army 
French, their firrt operations could of the empire. The fituation of 
onlv be defenfive, and dependent on the fortrefs under my command i« 
thofe of their enemies. Generals not fuch as you appear to believe, 
Hotze and Bellegarde could do no- nor do I know of any difoontents 
thintr but watch the motions of the among the garrifon. I mad, there- 
French, and ftirti fy and defend, as fore, declare to you that I will not 
weil a"? poflible, the ports occupied receive a French garrifon into the 
iiiSuabia, Tyrol, and the country place, nor commence hoftiljties, 
ouhe Grifons, as likewife thoieheld though I will refift any attack." This 
01 its frontiers, in the Valtellinc and foldierly, and gentlemanlike reply 
ia Italy. It was the bulioefs of the to Bernadotte, was jufliSed hy the ^ 
archduke, on his part, to confine condudl of the garrifon, compofed 
himfelf, in the firft inftance, to pre- of nearly two thoufand chofen troops 
paraiions for the paflage of the Lech of the empire, who had ferved with ' 
With ail his army, the moment he diilindtion in the proceeding oam« 
liiouM hear that the French had paigns. The officers, imitating the 
palled the R^inc, and, in that event, zeal of their leader, protefied with 
to advance fo rapidly as to come up indignation againfi the diflionoura^ 
with tliem, not only before they bl<; views- imputed to them by the 
froiild arrive on the lller, but eveti* French general. The inundations, 
b-tore they could puili beyond the which form the principal defence 
lake of Conftance. of Philipfijurg, prevented the Prench 

On the fecoiid of March, a de* from approaching near enough for 
tachnientof the French army of ob- the purpofc of reducing the p!ac» 
fcrvat ion took pofleifion of the town in a fliort time. Theie local c\t* 
U Manheim, in confequence of a cumftances, wilh events which took 
capitulation. On the fame day, place about this time in Suabia, 
general Bernadotte prefenfed him- compelled him to turn the fiegeinto 
Iclf before the town of Philiplbarg, a Wockade, and even that he was 
*'hich, in confequence of the treaty obliged to rarfe foort after, 
of Campo Formio, was garrifoned General Jourdan's army, contU 
only by the troops of tlfe empire, nuing to advance in the direftion it 
commanded by the rhingrnve of had taken, was beyond the moun** 
Sa'm. To ao infolent letter o\ fum^ tains of the Black Foreft. Its right 
mons from Bernadotte, in which he was at Rhinberg near Scha6f^ 
l^ated tliat the garrifon was ready haufen, and its left at Rothwell* 
to revolt, and denounced the moft The army of obfervation, at the 
terrible punitbment to thofe who fame time, fpread itfelf into the 
:'40uld qbiige hira to give orders for country of Helfe Darmfladt, and 
tiiC aflfault, the rhingrave, neither the Palatinate, and was bufily em- 
4(c«ived nor intimidated, t%\,\in\^ ployed in repair: n^j the fortifications 
1« ' • • at 



. at Manfieiin. The diflferent corps mcation wHh the reft of the etAptrf^ 
of Jourdan's anny met with no itn- enlivened the hopes bfihe direc)nrv 
pediment in their march, as the of realizing iU proje^of a partial 
Aaftrians were Aitl at a ^reat dif- pacification. The name^^ the armj 
tance, and th^ duke of Wartem- of Mentz, after it had~~penetrale(( 
berg, the only prince who could fo fw into Soabia, was changed into 
Ifave thrown any obftacles in their that of the army of the Danahe ; 
tvay» obierved the (irided neu- and Jonrdan was appointed com- 
trality; to which he was compelled mander-in-chief ofthe three arroiefl 
by the armiftice iubfiflin^ between of the Lower Rhine, the Upper 
France and the empire, by his own Rhine, and of Switzerland, under 
znilitary weaknefs, and flil) more by his fuperior diredion. The fir^ of 
the dread of giving the Frencb a thefe armies was commanded by 
pretext for efleding a revolution in Bernadotte, the laft by MaHena. 
his dates : to which the French pie* In order to form a junction, ac 
nipotentiaries, taking advantage of cording to the French plan, on the 
their refidence at Rafladt, and of eaflem fide of the lake of Con- 
difierences then exi fling between fiance, between the armies of Jour- 
that pripce and his fubjedis, had dan and Madena, the former gene- 
applied themfelves, with their ufual ral had only to march tim>ogh coan* 
afEduity and addrefs, to difpofe them, tries without defence, but the latter. 
That the entry of the French into in the very outfet, to encounter the 
the duchy of Wurtemberg did not Auflrians, in fpite of their oppofi- 
produce a revoltition in that flate, tion, to pafs the Rhine, to drive them 
is to be attributed to the hope they from the country of the Grilbnsand 
entertained of being able to detach. • the Voralberg, '*nd to force (liem 
the princes of the empire from the tn retreat into the Upper Tyrol, 
cauje of the emperor. They con- The difEcnlties attending thefe tspe- 
tented themfelves with preying on rations, rendered it ncceflkrv for 
that country, notwitliflanding ail the Maflena to begfn his attack before 
fine promifes of general Jourdan, the archduke could oppofe the 
sind treated it almofi as badly as (he march of Jourdan, and'find time to 
Brifgaw, on which they levied all fend reinforcements to the lake of 
kinds of contributions. Their Conftance. A body of Anllrians, 
amity with the new ele^lor ofBa- to the number of about' fix- tltou- 
varia did not proteft e\^en the Pala- fand, under the command 6f general 
tinale from their rapacity. Theab- Auflenberg^ and flitroned 'in dif- 
fhlute neceffity, under which tbe ferent polls, commoniciatei! along 
French government lay, of fubfifiing the lefl bank of the Rhii>e,'SvitlMlic 
its armies, and the impofTibility of army of getjeral Hotee, from which 
doing this at their own expenfe, out- it had been detached, and which 
weighed every other confideration.-- 'ay, part at Fieldkirk, and psrt at 
The diflridt of Rafladt was alone re- Bregentz, and tlie ^ intermediate 
fpe6ted : the circumflances of its places. In this manner were the 
being almofi feparated ^from Ger- Auflrians fhut up 5h a nairow 
many, by the advance of the French valley, having the Rhine'" before 
armies, and having, befides, but a them, and behind them a chain of ex* 
\ery precarious and limited commu* tenfive mountains, rendered impaf- 

1 1 fable, 


fcWe, during almoil the whple vear, with the additional advantage of 
bv liiO'.v Although they bad but having concerted before hand, all 
an inadeqjatc fore •, and th»* pjfi- their meafures. TFfiscircumftance, 
tion afforded bat few local refources in ihe end, turned the fcale, and 
in cafe the paflage of the river towards the evening of the fixth, 
ihoiild be effefted, yet they ftill the French made themfelvc^ maflers 
poflcded many means of impeding of the paflage and fort of Lucien* 
that paflage, which wa^ to be fteig, which commands the fort 
forced only through great difficul- from Chur, called otherwifo Coire, 
ties and dangers. General MafTcna, to Bregentz. While things were 
with a great part of his army, took in this flate of progreffion in the 
poft on the eveninar of the fifth of centre, the French had likewife 
March along the lefl bank of the gained ground 6n the right above 
Rhine, from the point where the Chur, and their left, commanded 
two (oarces of that river unite^ a^ by general Oudinot, vvhichhad 
&ras the lake of Conftance. Be- forded the Rhine at Hag, near 
fore day-break, on the (ixth, he lent Wordenberg, kept general Hotie in 
a fommons to general AufTenhcr^ check near Field-kirk, and preven- 
to evacuate the country of the Gri- ted him from fending reinforce- 
ions within two hours ; but, with- ments to the troops which defended 
out waiting for ananfwer to this de- the country of the Grifohs. 
mand, ana with which it was even The lofs of the important pofl of 
i^yiically impoffiblc, had AufTen- the Steig having entirely ioterrupl- 
oerg been willing to comply, he ed the communication between the 
made a general attack through all corps of general Holzeand Auifen- 
the line, flattering himfelf, that by berg, the latter had no other foiirce 
this mode of condud, he (hould than to concentrate his remaining 
avoid the odium of having begun fortes for the defence of Chur. — 
the war without declaring it, and. After feveral combats, during the 
yet fecttre to himfelf a!l the advan- night and the morning of the fe- 
taget of (urpriaoe. M.^flena, at the venlh, he had reached the heights 
lame time that he m»dn a (hew of near Chur, when he found another 
an intention to attack the Auflrians column of the enemy advancitig on 
in the whole extent of their line, his rear. Attack'jd on all fides, he 
and threatened to pafs the Rhine flill endeavoured, notwithflanding 
in feveral places, threw a bridge * his inferiority in number, and thefa- 
Over the river at ATraooz, oppofite tigueof his (oldicrs, to defend himfelf 
the nairowr pafs of the Lucien-fteig, in vain. He was obliged to fiirrcndec 
and marched to that point with with all his forces. In the mean time, 
5000 or 6000 men. The pof- general Hotze, in order to carry 
fefSon of this poft being the princi- alTiflant'e to general Auffenberg, 
pal obje6t the French had in view, made every effort to pfenetrate iilto 
it was there that they united the the valley of the Rhine, but he was 
greateft force, and the engagement obliged to return to Fleld-kirk with 
at that point was very obflinate the lofs of feveral pieces of cannon, 
daring the whole day. The Auf- and aconfiderabte number of men. 
trians had the fupcnofity in pofi- General MalTena eHimated the lofs 
tion, and tl»eir enemies in numbers, of the Auftrians in thofc two days 
Vol. XLI. [R] at 

242] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799« 

at 5000 men taken. The Auftrians fiom, to be the joint and'CDlieflh'e- 

computed that of the French, in wiflies of the wliole Griibn people. 

killed, wounded, and feveral hun- However advantageous the pof* 

drcd prifoncrs taken by* Hotze, at feflion of the vnlley of the Rhine 

4000. The Auflrians had flattered inrght be to the French, that fuccefs 

themfelves that they (hould receive could neither lead to others, nor 

 ftora the Grifons powerful afBilance, even be fecore as long- as the Auf- 

which had certainly been promifed trians w6re maft«rs of the Voral- 

by their chiefs. But it was a very berg, and, of the upper country of 

(mail number of individuals- only the Grifons. It was neceflary Uf 

that took up arms in favour of the drive them fromlhofe pofkions, in 

Auftrians. order to attack the Tyro! with a*- 

There is not a principle belter vantage, and to complete the' cxe- 

^eflabllQied in the fcience of poli- cution of the great dc(ign. It was 

tics, if it may be called a fcience, ' not* permitted, by the fit nation 

or in that of war, than that it is ex- and force of the army of Italy, that 

tremely dangerous to hazard any it fliould ad at the fame time tfgainfl 

plan of operations -in any country, the Voralberg, the country of i*la- 

or a reliance on the co-operation dentz, and in the fouthern partsi of 

and fupport of the inhabitants, .the country of the Grifons. I^ was 

Yet there certainly is a fhong and determined,, therefore, that the lat- 

inveterate propenfi ty in human na- ter part of this tafk fhouldbe under- 

ture to place fuch a reliance, though taken by a body of troops detached 

its ilipperincfs has been (6 often ex- from tnofe which occupied the 

perienced, and, in the prefent war, Valtelline and the Italian Bail?- 

on one (ide alraod uniformly. It is wicks ; that Maflena himfelf (houM 

the paflion for liberty alone, rightly attack the Voralberg, and that hts 

or olherwife iinderftood, or rather right wing, under L«conrbe, a^ng 

the fpirit of innovation, and a fond between the two, ihould attack the 

expedation of fome unknown good, wefl fide of the Tyrol : in a word, it 

that can animate a whole people to was by the three vallies of thc?^ 

any general fyflem of conftant ex- Rhine, the Inn, and the Adige, 

ertion. The Grifons had invited that the French hoped to pctic* 

(lie Auflrians to fave Uiem from the trate into that Aufhian provincer". 

tyranny of the French, but it is faid Maflena, being neareft to the 

. that the manners of thofe Germans enemy, began his attack on the 

were by no means fuch as to con- eleventh, but he found tite pofition 

cifiate the aflre6lions of the inhabi- of Field-kirk fo well fortified, that 

tants,' who probably began to think ^all his reiterated- efibrts agaiitfl it 

that they had only exchanged one ^ere fruitlefs; The divifion, under 

mafter for another, Maflena tranf- Lecourbe, in twelve days made 

ferred the government of the capi- themfelves mailers of almoft all the 

tal, and what he had fubdued of valley of the upper and lower En- 

tlie country of the Grifons, into the gadinc, on the cour^ of thejfbn. 

hands of i*ome expelled patriots. Encouraged by thefe firf! fvccdies, 

whom he had brought back with he advanced in the valley ofthe Irtn 

him, and whofe incfividual wifhes to the frontier .of the Tyroli and 

were declared, as on former occa- on the fourteenth in the morning 




attacked the Auflrians at St. M^ir- 
tinibruck» and at Finder- Mun- 
fi^r; but was obliged to retreat 
^*ith the lots of feveral hundred 
men. General LiOudon, who had 
heaa beaten by Lecourbe three days 
before, with a lofs of about 2600 
men, taken pri/oners, refolved to 
take advantage of the French gene- 
ral's line being weak, and io much 
extended^ to beat the enemy, and 
. on ihe fame fpot. Having procured 
reinforcements, partly or regular 
troop?, and partly of Tyrolefe vo- 
lunteers, having tent a detachment 
to Zernetz, and concerted mea- 
fores with the officer who com- 
manded the poll of St. Alartinf- 
hruck, on the fifteenth in the morn- 
ing, he imexpe^edly marched down 
the noontains, and fell upon fome 
companies of grenadiers and light 
infantry who occupied the village of 
Schulz. Thus furprized, they were 
firiven from the village and put to 
^ight. General Mainont and a 
;:'"eat part of thena were taken pri- 
foncrs. This corps would probably 
Lave been deftrf>yed, and the French 
exfxjiled from tbe Engadine, if Le- 
courbe had not, at that moment, 
^n accidentally on his way to 
Scbalz, and very near it. He ral- 
iieJ ih^ fugatives, and having (up- 
ported them wiib a frelh battalion, 
a)?ain made hinofelf tnafterof the 
village. But he could wot retake 
Mainoni and the horfes which hafl 
^^'Ita into the bands of the Auf- 
trians, who had time to carry them 
C'ff into Ijie mountains. We come 
row to tlie detachment form the Ila- 
Ian army which occupied the Val- 
tdjino and the Italian Bailiwicks. 
Defolles, wbo commanded this de- 
^chment, who had begun, on the 
inirleenth, bis march in the Valtei- 
^ric; YtgprooAy attacki^d the Auf- 

trians in the morning of th^e fifteenth 
near Borraio, without being able, 
however, even after repeated ef- 
forts, to diflodge them from their 
poll t ion. Next divt the French 
having relumed to the charge, in 
greater force, drove the Auftrians 
from the important valley of Bormio, 
the pofleffion of which opened the 
road to the conquerors to that of the 
Adige. On the fame day Lecourbe 
renewed an attack, which ,had 
failed on th« fifteenth, on the 
Auflrian poft at St. Martinlbrudc, 
while another column, by defcend- 
ing tlie mountains, between Finfter- 
Munflerand Neuders, endeavoured 
to turn it. None of thefe attacks 
fucceeded. General Alciani, who 
commanded in thofe parts, made 
fo good a ufe of his pofition, of 
tlie fmall number of regular trootis 
that he had, and of the Tyrolefe 
peara,nts who had joined him, that 
he made a fuccefsfalrefi fiance on 
every fide. After a defperate en-, 
gagement of (everal hours tlTb French, 
wxre obliged to abandon the attack, 
leaving a great number of dead in 
the fieli, and M)0 prifoners in the 
hands of the enemy. This check, 
tbough balanced by the fuccefs gf 
Defofles, retarded the operations of 
Lecourbe, forced him to take new 
meafurqs, and delayed for fi^rae 
days the invafipn of the Tyrol. 
I The archduke, whofe head-quar- 
ters were at Friedberg, was informed 
of the palTage of the Rhine by the 
FreiKh, on the night between the 
fecond and third of March. He im- 
mediately, ordered the whole of his 
army, cantoned on the Lech, to 
prepare to pals that river. Oa the 
very next diy, 6000 men, part of 
the vanguard pufbed forward, by 
fotced marches, and on the morn- 
ing^ of the fifth reached Ulm, whi- 
iK 2} ther 



ther alfo the whole of the iroperhl oflhe army, at this period, "was 
army arrived on the (ixlh. This not f.jr diftant from the vanguard, 
was a ftrong point of fiipport wliich It occupied t e fpace between the 
tlie archduke wiftied to fecure on Federfea and the lake of Conftance, 
tl)e Danube, and from which, as and tike the Ffcnch, had placed 
from an extenfive fortrefs he meant the greased part of its force on this 
to cover all the approaches to (lie latter point. This port of fouthem 
hereditary dates. A military pro- Suahia was the ground which the 
clamation, by prince Charles, in an- French were the moft inteteil^ in 
fwer to that of Jourdan, already feizing, and the Auftrians ixl de- 
Tioticed, infpired one fentiment of fending. ' JourJan's aim waf to get 
indignation aeainf! the French, and between the archduke and general 
one defire of fighting them. The Hotae : the prince's to Separate 
head-quarters of the archduke were, Jourdan from MaflTcna. Neither 
on the ninths fixed at Mammingen. could attain his end without beating 
His vanguard, 15,000 ftfong, com- his adverfary. The fpace occupied 
nianded by general Nawendorf, by the two armies, between the Da- 
pudied very tar on, and, on the nube and the lake being too confined 
eleventh, took poll near Raven f- for great manceuvres, and the ad- 
berg, while the corps, which had vanced pofb almoil touching each 
qpcupied Ulro, was fending detach- other, both'iides prepared for d 
ments along the two banks of the battle, which had become unavoida* 
Danube. The line poflelTed by the hie. 

Auftrians, between Bregentz, and Not a (hot had yet been fired in 

Ulm, had already frudrated the Suabia, and the French, a^ing in 

firfc part of Jourdan's plan, which conformity to Jourdan's prodaina- 

was, to gain the flank of the Tyrol tion, but in dired oppofitioh to the 

by mere marches. The French ge- attacks in the country of the Gri- 

ncral, with ^vievv of concentrating fons, continued to aver, that they 

the force of the armies of Switzer- had no other view than to take pu- 

Jand and the 'Danube, and to give ^tions of fafety. The dire^orj, 
more conctirt to their Qperations^ of however, feeing that there no longer 

which the common objedl was to remained any hopes of reaping ireih 

drive the Auftrians from the Tyrol, advantages from its grofs artifices, 

placed the right wing of his army had thrown off the malk, and, on 

on the lake of Coodance, neiLr the thirteenth of the fame month, 

IMarchdorf, his centre atid head- had caufed war to be declared by 

quarters at Pfuflendorf, and his left the Icgiflative body againft tlue em- 

at Mengen. In the mean time the peror and grand duke of Tufcany. 

archduke, with all poflible celerity. General Joordan, informed of this, 

brought up the main body of his on the nineteenth, difpofed his army 

army, that had remained confider- in order ot battle» the \ery dav af- 

ably behind the vanguard, which ter, and poHed it on the .two tinall 

had advanced witjj great rapidity rivers of Afck and Oflrach t thus 

to cover the Tyrol, and to fu{)port occupying all that fpace which lie* 

general Hotze. It had already, on between the lake and the Danube* 

the fixteenth, puQied fome parties from fiuckhern to Mengen. Ha- 

' as far as Stock-ach^ The main body ving t^ken thefe meafures^ he (ent 



An officer to genepal prince Schwart-- 
zcnbtfg, who commanded a part 
of the AuHrian vanguard, io, aQc 
whether the anfwer expe^ed from 
the court of Vienna, relative to llie 
fending back of the RuOianshad been 
vat received. That officer, being 
told that no anfwer had been fent, 
annoanced that the armidice was at 
an. end, and declared war, on the 
part of thediredlory, againfl the king 
ot Bohemia and Hungary. No 
fooner was he returned than an air 
tack, by orders of Jourdan, was made 
on the Aaflrian vanguard, which 
was obliged to fall back ; but> which 
meeting with reinforcements, re- 
jiulfed the French in its turn, and 
regained the ground it had lo/l.* — 
On the fame day, the main body of 
the archduke's army had arrived 
near to Salgau and Altzhaufen, be- 
ing then diflant only one day's 
inarch from the French army. This 
consideration induced the archduke 
to concentrate his force, in an en- 
campment on the heights adjacent 
to thefe two plac*es. < 

General Jourdan, encouraged by 
the flight fuccefs of his van-guard, 
and by the nat^rc of th^ ground, 
determined to come to aaion on 
tl)e twentyrfirfl. The archduke, 
wiihing to take the advantage of 
the enthafiafm of his troops, and 
not to give \un adverfary time to re- 
inforce himfelf with the corps on 
the other fide of the Dauube, was 
before hand with Joufidan. He di- 
vided his army into tnree column-? ; 
that of the right, commanded by tlie 
prince of Furftemberg, was to 
march along the Danube towards 
Mengen, and to diflodge the left 
wing of the French armv from that 
place, or at leafl to keep it in 
check- General Wallis, with the 
left wing or divifion followed the 

road to AUzhoufen, and dire6led 
his march upon Oftrach, while the 
archduke, with the centre, advan- 
ced on the fame point, along the 
caufeway of Sulgau. The united 
columns of the ^ullrians overthrew 
the advanced polls of the enemy in 
their march, though in this they 
fuffered very confiderable iols from 
the Katteries erefled pn the heigiils 
.and commanding the roads by which 
ili.'y were obliged to advance, attack- 
ed the bridge ofOftrach in front, which 
wa<i at length forced, aft^er a brave 
defence. The centre of the French 
army, having thus loft its principal, 
fupport, was obliged to fall back, 
ftiffering greatly in its retreat, from 
the Auftrian cavalry, to Pfullen- 
dorf, where it took up a pofition on 
. the heights in front of that place. 
The right wing, whictii hi^d not 
been attacked, followed the motiqii 
of the centre, and fell back to ^ 
Salmens-vyeiler, The left wing, 
which, from the very beginning of 
the day, had been hotly engaged 
with the Auflrians, and had de- 
fended itfelf well, alio in the end 
retreated alpng the Danube, placing 
itfelf in a line with the reft of the 
army. The Auftrians calculated 
the lofs of the French as amounting 
to 5000 killed, wounded, of pri- 
foners. The latter eflimated the 
lofs of the vi61ors at 4000 men.-r- 
This day was ve/y honourable to 
the archduke, who again difplayed 
the bravery and military talents of 
which he had given fuch repeated 
proofs three years before. The firfi: 
fuccefs in 8|ll campaigns is of gieat 
importance. But it was of more 
than uiual impprlanc© in a war de- 
pending fo greatly on public opi- 
nion ; and by which, m its* turn, 
public opiulon mufl be powerfully 
influenced. The engagement of the 
[R 3] ' twfenty-r 

246] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Iwentv-firft, to which no name has 
as yet been appropriated, and which 
we (half therefore call the battle of 
Oflrach, ffopped, in the lery oulfet, 
the execution of the plan adopted 
by the French; repaired the bad 
effedls which the misfrrtimes in the 
country of the Grifons had produced 
in the n^ind<; of the people; in- 
en afed the confidence of I be Auf- 
trian army in its chief, and fonueri to 
Europe a prefage of events yet more 
fortunate. The French commander 
^ifured, from the po(ition v<hich 
the i\u Brians had taken on his right, 

- that it was their iniention to attack 
him on the morrow, in the night, 
between the twenty-firft andtwenty- 
fecond, retired from a poll which 
he did not coniider as fufficientfy 
flrong for fuflaining an attack, to- 
wards Stock -ach, ^here he fixed 
his head-quarters : the right of his 
lirmy being on the kike of Con- 
Hance, near Fridingen. Retiring 
again from this po(ition« the dav after 
he eftablifhed his right at Hoher- 
Tweil, his centre in front of Ei^en, 

•where he had his head-quarters, 
and his left on the heights of Tut- 
tllngen, near the Danube. 

The archchike, in piirfuil of Jour- 
dan, drove the republicans every 
wht^re b fore him. C n the tweiily- 
fburth he ^jafiied his v.^.r?r '.^H !o ine 

'very line of the enemy, who were 
forced, with loh, f-oni fevcral pofis 
on their riglit and centre. On the 
fame day, the wholv of the Ai'Ori^n 
army had taken up a pofition in 
ihe rear * f Stock-ach. * However 
well chofen this p<?iit'on might be, 
in llie profent circumftames and 
course of a6)ion, it wa* not withcut 
its c'^^idvanl^Kes, and was f:\r f,i»m 
beii g l-cuie, as the Danube, being 
nearer to the lake of Con fiance, 
towards Its fource^ than in the reii 

of its courfe, Jourdan could nione 
rafily occupy the fpace, lying be- 
tween that river and the hsike, than 
the archduke, \^ho, iiUhoiigh obli- 
ged to have a more extended front, 
wa^ yet unable to turn his advcrfary, 
while the lattir coold caiily torn 
the pofition of fhe Auftrians. 

Whilfi the archduke, by the diC 
pofition of his cavalry, and dired* 
ing attacks to be madb-on certain 
pofts of the enemy, was employed 
in correcting the unavoidable de- 
feQn of his pofition, Jourdan was 
confidering how he might take ad- 
vantage of (hem, Alt Ihe efllorts 
which that general and Maflfena h^ 
fucceflively made to cffedl a jun^idn 
of their forces, beyond fhe lake of 
Coijftance, had mifcarried. There 
remained, therefore, no other means 
of realizing the plan adopted for 
the campaign by the French than 
to gain a decifive \ iflory over the 
archduke : and Jourdan accordingly 
determined to hazard a battle. The 
plan, which he foimed, was to brirg 
iiis left againfi the right flank of the 
Auftrians, in hopes that the>, feemg 
them fe Ives in danger of being turn- 
ed, m ght weaken their centre, and 
thqs enable htm to break through 
this arid feparate the archduke 
from the lake of Conflance. ] Ha- 
ving formed hUi array into three 
principal columns, he cfire^ed thefe, 
at break of day, on the morning of 
the t. cnty-fifth, to three p-ints of 
attack. Tl^ archduke, who had 
proceeded to reconnoitre the pofi- 
tion of the enemy, and wa^ then in 
the vdlage of Aach, teeing that tho 
attack OR his army became general, 
inflanlly made the beft difpofitions 
that the circuni fiances would admit. 
Having placed lome battahons and 
artillery on the heights of Nellcm- 
bcrg, a centrf^l point, which he in- 

• t 



♦ended to make the principal fup- road. Thefe battalions, advancing 

port of his Avhole pofition, he let tothe wood occupied b)' the French, , 

out himfelf, with reinforcements, took them in flank, and made a 

drawn from that wing, to afliil the dejmibrigade prifoncrs. Tl)is well- 

rigbt, which the enemy had begun timed manoeuvre, executed with 

to attack on two iides, wliile ano- vigour, and . rupj>ortcd by the cq- 

ther column iwsis endeavouring to operation of .tlie other columns al- 

tura it by Mofs-kirk, and to cut off ready engaged with the enemy, de- 

it< coiDmunication with Pfullendorf. cided the fortune of the day in (i- 

On that fide fortune had favoured vour of the imperiah'fts. The 

the French fince the beginning of French, driven from tlie wood, 

til e day, and vi^ory Teemed already foon gave way on all fides, . and 

v'idiin their grafp. Nothing re- were purfued on the road to Lyp- 

mained lo be done, but to diflodge tingen, till victors and vanquiQied 

•theAnftrians from fonae heights which were overtaken, by darknefs. WhiJe 

they ftill occupied. The archduke viflory was thus fn^tcbed, though 

k»il not a moment to extricate him- with difficulty, from the centre of 

itilf from fo critical a fitnation. He the republican army, the column 

directed an attack on the right and that had advanced to Mofs-kirk, 

l«.'lt fides of the road of Tuttlingen, with the defign of turning tlie right 

at llie (ame time. The prince of of the AuArians, was vigouroufly 

f orflembcrg, while bravely con- repulfed by the prince of Wurtom- 

tluding the Tecond attack, in the berg, and efcaped certain deftruc- 

ffiidil pf a raoft deadly fire, was tion, only by crofling the Danube, 

Ulled by a grape (hot, and colonel Over the bridge of Sigmaringen. 

prince Anbalt fiernburg wui mor- The right of the republican army 

tally wounded. Thcfe commanders was not ultimately more fucJcefsfaf. 

were replaced by general Hapf- In fpite of feveral vigorous attacks^ 

■chiit2, who was aMo wounded, and firft uppn Nellemberg, and after- 

by prince Anhalt Coethen, who, ward on the village of Wallenwies, 

ililmounting from his horfe, ufiered it could make no imprefiion on the - 

•to lead the in&ntrv to the charge. Aufirian pofition, but was held in 

The excellence of the new difpoii- - check the whole day by. general 

tio&s, made by the archduke^ and Staader, \tho commanded tJiat 

the hcroLfm of fome regiments, wing of the imperialifls. In t!iat , 

i^pped, for awhile, the progrefs of quarter alfo night put an end to Jie 

the French, who retreated occafiqn- battle, which had lafte i al ng the 

ally, only, however, to return with whole line from break if dav, with 

a^iditional fury to the charee. The an unexampled obfliiiacy, iuid great 

infantry of the two aitniesftruggled, lofs to each of the armi js. Gene- 

along time, wilh Qnfpeakable ob- ral Jourdan, whether be ftill letain- 

ftinac^ ; and the carnage was great ed a hope of being able to force 

on both fides. Still, however, the the archduke's pofition, or, wJiat is 

^'idory remained undecided, till more probable, that he witbed to 

the archduke fent fome battalions of difguife his defeat, by conlinuing to 

grenadiers, which had jaft arrived a6t on the defenfive, again aUacked, 

liom the left wing, to make ano- before break of day, the right ot 

Iherattack on the left of T^ittlingen the imperialifts,/on the twenty-fixth, 

[R4] near 

248] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1799. 

pear Wallenwics; but his reite- 
rated e0brts^ were unfuccefsrul. 
Seeing all his projects fruflrated, 
having been twice beaten in the 
ipace of five days, ^d finding hipi- 
ielf unable to refif! the attacks which 
inieht be expeded from the arch- 
duke, he commenced his retreat in 
the night, between the twenty- 
iixth and twenty-feventb, and, afler 
Ibme (harp encounters with the 
Aullrjans, by whom he was fol- 
lowed and obferved, rather than 
purfued, in the vallies of* the 
Necker, the Kintzig^, and Hell, 
repaired the Rhine, with his cenire 
and right, in the fir ft week of April. 
His lefl alfo was driven from Schaff- 
liaufen acrofs tliat river, on the 

The archduke, at firft, occupied 
the places abandoned by the French 
army, fixing his heacl-quarters at 
Stock>ach. But, on (he feventh of 
^prii, the Auftrians advanced be- 
yond the mountains, into the vaHey 
of the R hine, and pufhed their left 
as far as Weill and Raichen, before 
JBafle; and their right Tieariy to Raf- 
tadt. Suabia was thus almoft en- 
tirely freed from the French, who, 
after having remained fix weeks in 
that pai-t of Germanv, again faw 
them (elves very nearfv in the fame 
poiition which they had occupied 
Defore their invafion. Jourdan pro- 
ceeded from Strajburgh for the rv 

ejiablijfiment of his health, to Paris 3 
wherp, meeting with the reception 
that is utually given by popular gOt 
vemments to unrucccrsful command* 
ers, however blanrelefs, and even 
worthy of praife their conduct, he 
was flripped of the command of the 
army. He would have been a jufl 
objedt of refpc^, as well as (ym- 
pafhy, had he born this with a dig* 
nified filence; inftead of artributing 
his defeats to Uie generahc ferving 
under him ; devoting himf<?if more 
and more to the jacobins, the tifual 
refburce of the republican mal- 
contents; and extenuating, in an 
af>ologetic publication, his own 
force, while he greatly exaegerated 
that of his adverfary. In tnat pub-i- 
Iication, entitled, Jfn AhfraQ nf iht 
Operations of the Army of the Danube, 
he did not Jcruple to a^rm, that he 
had only 34.00O men» and that the 
archduke had 80,000: whereas, it 
is well known, that, the republican 
army was about 40,000 ilrong, and 
that the imperial troops, which had 
any (hare in the adion, amoonted, 
at mod, to 45,000. He compbined 
bitterly, not only of feveral of hii 
generals, but of the minitler of war, 
^rd of the directory. Jourdan cer- 
tainly proved, what every ope was 
already convinced of, that the mi- 
litary means of the dire^ory were 
far trom being adequate to its pro^ 



X H A p. XIV. 

T^e French pafs the Rkine.'^-PoJUians of the jfuflrians in the Country fffeJte 
Giijbns, and in the yorallerg .**^Coniplett Congfte/i of the Country of /he . 
Grijbns, . hy the French, '^^The jlufirians, tmder the Archduke Charter, 
paft the L'ch, mnd advance into Suabiai-^^ Nearly the tt4iole (^ which /allt 
int* their PoffeffiotL'^The Frerchfall tfock to Stock' Ack avd Efi^en.'^^Are 
forced to repafs the Rhine, — Make themfelve Mafers qf the yaUies of the 
Inn,''^The Inhabitants qf the Tyrol take up Amu a^airtfl the FixHch, 
who, being defeated^ are obliged to evacuate that Country,^ ^Proclamation ^f 
the Archduke Charles to the People of Sv iizei land ^^Majfena appointed 
Commander'in''Chief of the Armies of the Rhine, the Danube, andof Oin 
Jervatioft '-^Breaking up of tJte Congrefs at Rafadt. — In/ult offered to- 
Bemadotte, French Atnbijfador^ at yienna^^^-Conferehces at Seliz,'-^ 
Ajjajfination qf the French Deputies to the Congrefs at Rafladt, — General 
Situation qf the Allies, ^^The Fremh are efttirelydriveti out qf the Country 
cf the Grifons, and ihe Avjirians take Pofl on the left Bank of the Rhine. 
'^Maffena evacuates the Eqflern Parti qf Italy - — General Bellegarde^ ha- 
ving reduced the yaltelline, embarks, uith tlte greater Part of his Army, 
on the Lake Como, — The French driven from St, Gothard.-^/rong Pofitio/t 
taken by Maffena, in Front of Zurich, -^iluatinfi qf the Archduke, and 
Caufes of his InaRiont^-^RcfpeBivc Forces, and Forces of the oppr fife Ar- 
mies inSwiizerland,''^Poliiical Meafuros oj the Allies, — The Elefior qf 
Bataria, and the Duke qf Ifttrtembcrg enter into the Goali/ion. — Plan of 
a general Attack on the Allies formed at Paris, — Particular Plan of 
Maffemtj-^r^The Atyirians attacked on the wttole Exlcjit of their Lt'fie,'-'^ 
And entirely driven from the Cantons of Scltwitz and Uri.-^-T/ie firjl Di" 
tifion of the Ruffian Auxiliary Army arrives at Schaff-haufen, and pro- 
ceeds to Zurich ^''•^Meafures taken, by ilte Archduke, to flop the Progrcfs 
of the Republicans, ^^The French Army cf the Rhine pajjcs, that River oit 
feveral Points,^^The Archtfake, with his Army, quits Switzerland. — After 
cblaim'f g fome Succejf&r, obliged to fall back, and return to Menlz.^—The 
Allies t on the 25th of SepteMcr, attacked on tl\i whole of their Line the 
Linth and the LimaU. — Zurich furrowideiL^^The RuJ/ian General, 
Korfakau', who fuccceded to the Archduke in t'lC Comviond of the Allied 
Forces, in Sxeitzerland, retreats '^-^Marjhal Suwarrow marches from Italy, 
into Switzerland.'^^His March, Progrefs, and Retrat to the Country of 
the Grijbns, one Series qf Battles, or a continued Ertgagement.—^A^ion at 
Conflance.^-The French, on the ^th and 5th of OQoher, pafs the Rhine.^-^ 
Take Pqffejfion of all the Country between the Maine and the Lake.'-^They 
tire compelled to withdraw into the Angle, formed by the Necker and the 
fihine, and complete^ to repafs this River, 


230] ANNUAL R«GIST£-R> 179^. 

THE archduke, fetting proper deavourcd to eflaWifli a battery 
bounds to the defi re of profit- upon it. The Auftrian artillery 
ing by hrs vidory, with mature rendered that impoffihle, and tlje 
judgement, -did not make it bis firft Auftrran general Jellacheick, who 
objedl, immediately to drive the commanded there, having attacked 
French beyond the Rhine, but re^ him, fword in hand, drove hire 
mained tor feme time, with the from .the height -s^hich he had oo 
rreater part of his foorc, near tlie ' cupied. As Ficld-kirk might be 
bke of Conftance, rightly judging, . confidered as the key of the T^Tol, 
4hat if he abandoned tliat point, and Madcna renewed, in p^rfon, the 
advanced into the Brifgau, his led attack, next day, with the brigade 
and rear would be ^xpofed to the of general Oudioot, retnR)rced with 
, incurfions of Mailena. All his iix thoufaiid grenadiers, the flower 
thoughts were now bent on the in- of the army. After, a verv obflinate 
vafion of Switzerland. The French and bloody battle, which lafled all 
iKid made that country a kindofffarong the day^ he was not only obliged to 
ii^ld, from whence they intended to 'relinquifh the attempt, but to re- 
fall on Germany. Itwasaieceflary to pafs the Rhine« witn Uie lofs of 
drive them from it, in order to be three tlioufand men, in killed, 
•able, in his turn, to menace their wounded, and prifoners. The 
own country. Switzerland was a Auiirians, who had not lofl above 
two-edged fword, which could be one- third of that number, advanced 
made ufe of either againfl France or to the Rhine: while general Ou- 
Germany. This prince Charles dinot tookpofl at Rhejn-neck, and 
refolved to feize, and x:ommenced Maflena. entrenched himfelf on the 
iiis preparations for that great pur- other iide -of the river^ having bis 
pofe. But the time that elapfed, head-quarters at Chur. This ge- 
i)efore be could execute his defign, neral, having in vain made an effort 
permits us to look back on the central for penetrating into the north of the 
war which was carried on, in the Tyrol, determined to fend his left 
country of the Grifons, and. tlie wing into the wcfl of that province, 
frontiers of the Tyrol. The gejnerals Defolles and Lecourbe, 
It has been already feen, that the on the twenty-fixth of April, at- 
French, on the leventeenth of tacked the AuHrians, in the vallies 
March, were almofl entirely maflers of the Ii^ and the Muniier, re- 
<if the Grifon country,- and that duced them under their power, and 
their plan was, to advance along took a great many prifoners. Thefc 
the three vallies of the Inn, the fuccefl'es,.which rendered the French 
Rhine, and the Adige. That this mailers of two of the principal en- 
plan might be completely executed, Irances of the Tyrol, occaiioaed 
it was abfclutely neceflary that Maf- great alarms in that province, the 
fena fbould drive the Auftriansfronl Ibuth of which was ^ threatened, at 
the Voralherg. The French ge- the fame time, by the French armv 
neral Oudinot, fcized on a height, in Italy. General Bellegarde, witn 
which pomrnanded the Auflrianpo- the aflifiance of the Tyrolefian 
fitlon at Field-klrk, guarded .only peafants^ who, at his call, rofe 
by fix thoufand regulars, and en« m a' roafs^' obliged tb(i Frencib on 



trie fifth of Apnfj to ^'acQate the 
TyroK ^ 

The ibort ftay of the French, in 
(hat country « was marked by the 
rr.oft horrid excefTe.s. They pro- 
profaned the churches, jniul'.eH the 
^^cmen, dif^reOed the inhabitants 
m general, wafled the fields, pil- 
h^*:d the houfes, and even r6dac«d 
levcral village*; to afhes. 

The retreat ofgtneraU Leconrbe 
and Delblles the bad feafon, and^ 
above a!)> the defeats which the 
French had met with in Germany, 
and in Italy too, as flialt, by and by, 
be related, left no longer any fears 
for the T^ri, and therefore gene- 
ral Bcllegarde, thought l^fs of re- 
pining the country of tho Grifons, 
by force of sirm«, than of promoting 
the fuccels of operations, which 
would reduce the French to evacu- 
ate it, or which, at leafl, would 
xenderan attack much eafier. The 
formidable lii»^ of the French, on 
tSe Miwcio, had jufl been broken, 
and the fuperiority of the Auftrans, 
ftxjn to be augmented by Ruffian 
auxHianes, enabled them to attempt 
every thing' in the plains of Lom- 
bardjr. But, ia long as the French 
were in pofleffioYi of the Valteiline, 
a'd of that part of the Upper Alps, 
which commands the paflages nilo 
the Brelcian and Bergamefe, they 
could fend reinforcements to their 
army in Italy, or attack, in flank, 
that of the Auftrians. General Bel- 
t'^rde, theretorei detached three 
colnmns, which, under the orders 
ot generals Vut^aObvitch and Al- 
ciani, and colonel Straucb, were 
commiflioned to diOodge the French 
from die upper parts ot the Brefcian 
ail 1 Bergamefe: in a word, 
frf>ra all the country between the 
lakes of Garda, Jaro, and Ifco. " 

After fifteen days of ina6lion> 

which had been imifafcd by Le- 
courbe, and which was rf ndcred 
neceilary by the inovvs, wliicij co- 
vered all the vnlley and p:»n'iges of 
the Julian Alp,*?, general Bell(^;»arde 
refolved to ai tempt the attack of 
the country of the Grifoii'^, in order 
more ann more to facilitate and 
fecure the progrefs of the allies, ia 
Italy, and at the fame time pave 
the way for the exet ution of the 
defigrs vvhich they had formed a- 
gamft Swi'gerlai.d. He Iherelore, 
on the twentyfecond of April, fent 
feveral fmall cofumns to ire 
the paffagcs on the frontiers of ihe 
Engadine, and the Brett igau. One 
of thc!e, purfuing with too much 
ardour the out-pf>J!s of the 4»nemy, 
whom they put tu flight, was over* 
powered, and the great* r part, with 
major Schmidt, whotoromanded it, 
taken prifoners. This (mall check, 
but ftill more the impaflable ilate of 
the vallius, obliged general Belle- 
garde to delay the attack of tiie 
country of the Grifons. 

To the Swifs nation the arch- 
duke addrefl'ed a proclamation, cal- 
culated to deftroy the effi d of ihofe 
abfurd views, wiiich the French had 
never ceafed to attribuie do the 
Auflrians, and by whicii they were 
enabled, in lome mcafure, to re- 
vive the former hatred oi the* Swifs 
again ft ihcm. It ha.i, likewife, the 
more lecretcbjefi of exciurg Inftir- 
reftion^ among the inhabitant of 
Switzerland, and of preverMU;^ 
their arming in favour of the French, 
Twelve months of fervitude had not 
yet extingu iihed the love of liberty 
in the hearts of the Sv^'ifs; the (irong 
pafiion-i of hatred and vengeance,. 
not being yet Aicccsded, by the in- 
• difference and cowardice tvhich 
follow corruption. Scarcely had 
the law for forced enrolm"iits been 


/ « 

252] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

prolaimed, when infurrefttons broke ^ 
out in feveral cantons^ and parti- 
cularly in the fmaller ones, in which 
the French had not been able to 
edablifli their dominion fo firmly as 
thofe which lie nearer France. This 
flate of things, however, did not 
difcourage the French from propo- 
fmg to the Helvetic* directory, to 
declare war again ft the emperor : 
but the councils, fubjeded as Ihey 
•were to the will of the diredlory, 
and the bayonets of Maflena, could 
not be induced to accede to their 
propofal. . They confented how-' 
ever to a decree for arming all the 
unmarried men, without diflin^ioii, 
from the age of twenty to that of 
forty-five, and of all the married 
men under thirty. The punilhment 
of death was enafted againft all 
who ihould refufe to enrol thcra- 
felves, or who (hould oppofe the 
meafures of government either by 
actions or words:' The national 
ti'oopii, which were at the difpofal of 
the dire6tory, were employed for 
the execution of thefe laws. A 
vaft number of pcrfons were arrefl- 
ed in the principal towns, and that 
of Berne was put in a ftate of fiegc. 
Such was the flate of things when 
the archduke announced his inten- 
tion of entering Switzerland, and 
followed up his declaration by re- 
ducirfr the town of Schaifhaufen, 
and forcing the French, in thofe 
parts, to retire entirely to the lefi 
oank of the Rhine, as above re- 

The Auflrians, the day after that 
on which the town of Schaffhaufen 

fell into their bands, drove ihe 
French from the fmall town of 
Peterlhaufen, fitnated oppo(ite,and 
OR the narrowefl part of the lake 
of Confiance. Some entrench- 
ments were forced by seneral ?tC- 
fack, while a flotilla of gun-boats 
fitted out at Bregents, and com- 
manded by colonel Williams, * aid- 
ed his attack by their fire. Petcrf- 
haufen being taken, the Jrench 
were fummoned -to evacuate Con- 
fiance, their refulal was followed by 
a cannonade, which had no other 
efle£t than to injure the town, and 
to fink part of the boat which the 
French nad collected on the left 
bank of the lake. The Aufbrtaas 
having, about the bene time, got 
pofleflion of the pofls of Stein, and 
of Fglifau, the Rhine, fh)m Bre- 
gentz to Bafle, became the line of 
divifion between the two armies. 
Thefe events, with fbme Ikirmiflies, 

. in Suabia, and on tlie banks of the 
Neckar and the Maine, where the 
inhabitahts, to tlie number of fome 
thoufands, took up arms againfl the 
French, about the middle* of April, 
were the only military occurrences 

'which took place in that month, 
between that of the archduke and 
thofe of the French in Germany, 
and Switzerland. This ina^ivity 
on both fides, occafioned much 
fpeculation, and various, conjec- 

Jourdan, having loft the com- 
mand of the army of the Danube, 
Maflena was appointed, firfl, ad 
jTtferirn, and then finally, to the 
chief command of that army, which 


* Colonel Williams, a native of England, and 'at firfl employed in the naval fervke 
of his country, entered Into that of Auftda, at the beginning of this war. He was 
charged with fe/ting up al| the flotillas, either on the Rhine, or the lakes of CooAance 
and Garda. This able and active officer is at the head of the new imperial mariney in 
the Adriatic gulph« 





united with thofc of obfervation, 
and of Switzerland; .formed aUoge- 
ther but one, under the name oT the 
armj of the Danube. Thus in veil- 
ed wjlh the fuil power of gcne- 
ralifimo over all the French forces, 
from the frontiers of the Tyrol and 
Italy to the palatinate, Maffena 
repaired, early in April, to the re- 
organization and the movements of 
that great machine. He left about 
SOOO men at Manheim, placed two 
divifion* in front of Kehl, forced 
the left bank of the river, from 
Strafburg to Baile, with fome light 
troops, and marched two other 
divifions into Switzerland to in- 
creafe his force there, tind to replace 
ibme troops which he had fent into 
Italy by the St, Gothard, On the 
twelfth of April he fixed his head- 
quarters at Bade, as the central 
point of that long line which he 
had to defend. A new campaign, 
if we may call it (b, now opened 
on the whole theatre of tl\e war. 
Maflena had then, from Manheim 
to the fource of tbe Adige, about 
100/X)Omeii; and the archduke, 
on the fame, but a lefs regular line, 
above 110,000. It was- from this 
lime that the war aflumed a more 
decided chara^er, and that all the 
hopes, which th^ French dirediory 
and fome princes of Germany had 
founded on the congrefs of RaRadt, 
vamlbed. The viclories of the 
archduke had confirmed the depu- 
tation of the empire in their refolu- 
tion to rfcfer to the diet of Ratiibon, 
fi>r an anfwer to the categorical 
demand of the French deputies, in 
confequence of the march of the 
Ruffians into Germany* On the 
feventh of April, the imperial com- 

mifiioner announced officially, to the 
congrefs, that he had orders to quit 
it, to revoke all the conceffions 
which he heid made, but with the 
refcrve,; that they (hould not b«( 
valid lill ratified by the emperor, 
and to declare that matters fhould 
thenceforth be confidered as being> 
in the fame Hate in which they were 
before the opening of the congreft. . 
This declaration, which was foop 
followed by the departure of the 
imperial commifllon, and of the 
grealefl part of tiie deputies of the 
empire, notwithfianding the efibrts 
of the French plenipotentiaries to 
continue the conferences with the' 
deputies of the empire, gav^ a mor- 
tal blow to the congrefs at Ra^ladt. 
it may here be proper to take 
notice of fome events, which, in 
the hifiory of that ridiculous and 
fatal conucil, the (port of France, 
and the difgrace of Germany ^ may 
be confidered as a kind of epilbdes. 

On the thirteenth of April, 1796, 
the mafs of tiie people -of Vienna 
had voluntarily taken up arms to 
defend their city, and the palace 
and perfon of their mdnarch, againU 
the attack of the French army, 
then fuppofed to be 'on its march 
towards Vienna. This mark of 
loyalty and attachment was record- 
ed among the public adts of govern- 
ment, and orders were given, by the 
emperor, that its anniveriary fiiouid 
be celebrated with ceremonies of 
civil pomp and religious folemnity. 
On the evening of that day, 1798, 
and during the ferment of thofe 
fentiments among the people, the 
three-coloured flag was difplayed, 
for the firfi time, in triamph, on 
the balcony of general Bernadotte's,^' 


• Theconitoft nf Bernadotte, at well as that of his fuite, was marked by an uncom- 
mon 4tfpu 9C infolcncei kgrn the day of their arrival in Vienna, fiernadoiu iuiiuted 


254] ANNUAL RBQISTfR, n?9!. 

the French amba(Sid')r*!t hotel.— ^ 
The |xipalace demanded* with loud 
and repeatL-d cries ^^^^ it (hould 
be taken down. The fla^ wait 
torn (o pieces, and tiie (^aQd^rd, to 
which it was attached, burnt. Tht: 
ref^^ntment of the people. Once exr 
cited to action could not flop here. 
Th^y burft open the gates of the 
botcl/hreatenin^ to facrifice the am-. 
bafTidOi and all hi^ fuke to their ven- 
' ^eancc. Every thing they found ofl» 
the ground floor of the hotel, they 
demolidied, laying hold of two of the 
ambaflador's carriages the% dragged 
them, the one to a neighbouring 
fqnare,, the olher to the court of the 
palace, and broke them to piecea. 
while they were thus employed, a 
confiderable detachment of military 
arrived, and availing themfelves of 
the abfence of the niob^ who had 
gone to attend the public facrtfice 
of the carriages, occupied the en- 
trances intQ the ftreet in which the 
ambaHador's houfe is fitualed, and 
prevented their return* At the 
fame time, the baron Dagelman was 
difpatched to Bernadotte, by the 
xninifler baron Thugut, to ex pre ft 
the concern with which the Auftri- 
an government had learnt what had 
happened. Next morning, he dif- 
patched one of hh fecretaries with 
a letter to the emperor, requiring as 
conditions of his continuing at Vi- 
enna: — \(l. The difmiflal of the 
xninifler Thugut. 2. The punifli- 
xnent of the mayor of Vienna. S» 
The eflabiifhment of a privileged 
quarter in the city of Vienna, for 
tlie French mitfion, and its coropa* 

triotft. 4. That the emperor boold 
repair, at his own expenfe, the flag, 
and flag-flalT^ and the pi^ure of the 
French arms. Thele demands be* 
ing peremptorily refded, Benia* 
dotte quitted Vienna, 

For the oHenfihie purpofe of exr 
pbnation, and preventing any difa- 
greeable confeqyences that might 
arife from this popular explofion, 
though it was evidently opt charge* 
able on thecourt of Vienna ; a feiTet 
conference was opened at Seltz» on 
the Rhine, oppoiitc Rafiadt, be- 
tween the- oounjt Cobentzel, on the 
part of his imperial majefty, and 
Francis Neufchateau, on that of 
the directory. • The count declared 
that, although his imperial raaye/ly 
was ready to graiit ample (atislac- 
tion for what l^d happened in re- 
gard to Bernadotte. yet, from a 
due regard to the fentim^nts of the 
people of Vienna, it was neceffary 
to condu6l this buiineG^ without 
precipitation, and without Doi£b« 
Therintercfts of both countries, he 
/aid, feemed to require that the 
conferences at Seltz (boald be chiefs 
ly devoted to the fettlemeot of foi;:e 
more material points* which called 
for a definitive arrangement. Neuf^ 
chateau having acquieiced in this 
proportion, count Cobentzel went a 
Rep farther, and propofed that, af 
the congrefs of Rahadt was a mere 
farce, a/dled en the paft of tlie 
empire under tlie imperial cabuiel 
and ecdefiaflical courts, the nego- 
ciation for peace (liquid be carried 
on entirely, and brought to an. iflfue 
at Seltz, at the ciofe of which it 

the condoA of JotVph Buonaptrte, at Rome, hy demanding that the quarter ^f-tht c^f 
where be retidH Oiould be free, and ihat aJi PrjB««hf)Den, re^dUif in Vifppa, ihouM iir 
amenable to him only for their condud. . He was in the habit of conTerliil|;'with the 
Auftrian private foldiers and non-commltnoncd officers, and remarking to them that it 
was only under a republican government that a man could rife from thcyanlf^t at he 
had doiie> to be a general officer, and an amhafladgir. 



rrnuM ^ cailjr to force Pruffia and ^ bis ne^ociation, to ilte fote point of 

tie empire to fubmit to what had fatisfa^ion, for the infult offered to 

i)oen a^rreed on between Auflria Bernadotte, and to declare, that, as. 

jff<i France. By cotmnand of the aH the propoiitions made on the 

thrcdoiy, NeufchaCeau reje6ted part oP the imperial court, tended- 

iht; laltcr propofition, but entered merely to aggrandize Auftria, at 

r.:o (he difcuRTon of other propo^ the expenfe of other powers, unle(«> 

f^'^ Hie firft of which was, ** that, coHnt Cobentzel could and. would- 

2$ the ceflion of Bavaria, ftipukted agree to give the prom i fed fntisfiic- 

Ti Ihe fecret articles of Campo ' tion., the conferences, at S«hz (hould 

l-ormio, feemed to nreet with great be broken offr wliich, as die count 

'Dibde*, even in regard to- the decHned all fatisfa6lion of anj kind,. 

zuartntee promifed by the direc- they were accordingly. 

'/^7, Audria wou!d> for the pre- After the French mi niflers had no- 

'^nt, dcfift from this ceflion, on tified, to the deputation of the em- 

■t;<' conditioft rtiat fuch parh of the pire, that they ftiould depart irv 

Wders of Bavaria^ and the upper three days fuom Raftadt, the ba- 

Palahnate, as were neceflkry for ron d'Albini, one of the imperial 

ihr •• ,...■;... . .« r,. 


P.i;Ji2o, and Betchtoldfgaden, and manding efcorts for the deputies of 

•^'' the poflefDon!?, without except the empire, who were ready to 

twn, formerly belongin]^ to thfe depart^ and fafe conduct for the 

\Vnetian republic." lliis being French plenipotentiaries. The com- 

^I'O rejeded, the count offered a mander, in a note dated at Gem-, 

^prond propofition, wherein *• he bach, the twenty-eighth of April, fa id 

♦^•nunded, onee more, the celfion that, as it did not accord- with mi- 

't the remainder of the ancient litary plans, to tolerate citizens of 

^'pnetbn dominions, together with the French republic, in .countries 

the three Roman Icgati<ins, and tlie poflTefTod by the imperial and royat 

iJachr and fortrefr of Mantua, ar^iy,. they fliould not take it iil 

The treaty of Bafle to be refcinded ; if tjic circum fiances of the war, 

and neither Pruflia nor the houfe of forced him to fignify to them to. 

Orange to receiv^ any indemnifica^ quit the territory of Gernbach and 

titm in Germany : on which condi- the army in the fpace of twenty-^ 

tjon, Au/iria engaged alfo to relin- four hours. At the fame momcat, 

<tQifh her claiA of l^ing indemnified four hundred huflars entered Ral« 

^y a part of the German territory/' tadt, and took poQellion of the pofis 

Thii being alfo declared to be^in- and gates of the town, %vith ai\ 

yiraiffiWe, a variety of other pro- order to fuffer no perfon to enter 

J^'^iUions were maae, in none of in^ or go. out. At night, ia the- 

^'^ich, the eeffion to Aufirta, of all evening of the twenty ninth, the 

the Venetisti' tecritories, and the French miniftcrs were in their car- 

'i'lchy of Mantua, was forgotten, riages r but on coming to the j^ate- 

But after thb negociations had been of the tow*n, they were f urpi'ized 

'■'^nlinaed for fix months, Neuf- to find the pafTage refufed them, 

•^hateaii wa» dire£led to con&ie But at lengtu permiflion was oU. 

1 tained 

256] ANNUAL REGISTERi lt99, 

tainecf to leave the town with two oat of the carmfi[e ; his wife 1R)1<1* 

huflars for nn efcort The f^nte ing him ftrongly locked in her arms, 

being opened, the miniders bec^n They murdered him in this poiition» 

their route, but the two huflars re- cutting off the back part of his 

mained in the town: it wa< then head with a fabre. The hul&rs 

nine in the evening. At aboqt now went off: and the carriages, 

five hundred paces from the gate» with the ladies and fervants, turn* 

a troop of huflars on foot as well ed round and went to Raftadt | 

8S on horfeback, burd out from a whither Rofenftiel alfo came about 

wood that (kirted the - road, and eleven the fame evening, and Jean 

furrounded the fird carriage, in Debrie, after pdfling the nigbt 

which was Jean Debrie with Ids in the wood, the next morning. 
wife and chijdren. Thinking it was The Pruffian minifters wrote im- 

(bme patrolc to vifit his pafsport, mediately a letter to Barbaczy, to 

he held it out at the window, demand an efcort and (afeguard^ 

mentioning his name and quality, more fuie for what remained of 

He was immediately dragged out the Frehcb legation. The com- 

of his carriage, and fell, covered mander exprefled his forrow for 

wiih blood from firokes of fabres, what ,had pafled. Jean Debrici 

which he received on his arms, and the otlier French miniilers, left 

head, and (houlders: but he was Raftadt oh the following day, 

Ail I able to crawl unobferved> into under an Auftrian efbort, and a 

the ditch, on the iide of the road, ftill Rronger efcort of the prince of 

In the fecond carriage were Jean Baden, accompanied by the Ligo* 

Debrie's fecrclary and valet x de rian minifler, w1k> had followed 

chambre, who cried out that they them on the night of the 29th, 

were domeftics. They were order- but who, obferviag what was paf* 

ed to alight, and received a few fing in fronts efcaped hack te 

blows, but no other harm was done. Raftadt, leaving his carriegej which 

them. Their carriage was pHlaged. Was pillaged, like that of the 

In the third carriage was Bonnier Frencn minifler's. 
alone. They afked in French if he Various were the conjeAores 

was the roinifler Bonnier ? On his refpeding the motives whitii could 

anfwering in the affirmative, a have urged this aflaflination. How- 

huflar opened the door of the ever, the court of Viemia might J 

carriage^ took him by the collar^ have been inclined to overlook it, 

dragged him out of the carriage, when committed, it is by no means 

and cut off his hand, head, and credible that they coiiU l»ve be<Q 

ftrms. His carriage was likewife its in/ligators. It appears to us, in 

pilliiged. The fourth carriage was ^eneral^ to have fprang^ like the 

Rofenllic'l, the fecretary of legation, mfult to BernadottCi from a popular 

who feeing, by the light of a flam- and lively indignation^ whether on 

beau, what was pafTing> faved him* the part of tlie Aoftrians or French 

felfby jumping out of his carriage;, loyalifls, or both* at the Arrogant 

and got clear off. In the fiflh car- pretenfions of a neW and np- 

riaj^c was the minifler Robert fott flart governijient, which had ce- 
ami his wife. The huflars had fomle * mented its power, by the blood- 

druggie with this vi£lim to get him royal of AoAri8# as wd| «s <^ 

3 Trance, 


France, and amon^ its deputies to this murder; which b?inncrs were to 
Ra(hdt, hadfent the regicide, Jean be carried at the head ofearh armv; 
Debrie, a« well as the rufiic, Bon- and that indemnitios (liould beciven 
nier. Barbaczv, and anMher offi- to the widows and chililren of' the 
ctT, Bourkhcndt, were arrefied, by decea((;d miniiters/* Hi< imperial 
orilers of prince Charle?. in order to mnjelh', in' an Aulic decree to the 
undergo a (rial bv a court-martidl : Gerrmn diet, aftor exprWiinir the 
but, as it wa^ afterwards declare.^, iitmoU abhorrence at tin; birharous 
tliat the affkilins were not Auftrians, and atrocious deed, dechred, " that 
but French emigrants under the an in'^^u'rv had b'.-en infrstutfd, ac- 
alTumed appearance of hufTars, head* cordini^ to »he prcl'cription of the 
ed by one Danicon, this trial did laws and which was 10 be con- 
not take place. The French go- du(51od with every dcj^reo of rigour, 
verncnent had not the fame can- that tJie horrid a61 might be traced 
dour or forbearance. For, who- in all its circnmrtancc?, it^ authors 
ever were the afluffins, or by what- and' accomplice:? difcovered, and 
ever orders the aHHlTinaiion was the imputation of the offence be 
committed, the court of V:c»nna properly fixed : and cliarg.-d tho 
Was perempl:orily charged wUh the diet to appoint deputies of tl»eir 
marder, by the dheciory, who fent own to be prcfent at the in ftiiry ; 
a nielTage to the councils, with thus, by giving its conjoint advice, 
ojficial notice of the ex-en t. The to convince the whole impartial 
counciU adopted a refoluiion, the world, that both the emperor and 
principal articled of which were, empire were' animated with tht^ 
" that this a^ fliould be denounced, fame uniform fentiments, for the 
in the the nairfe of the French execution of the moft rigorolis 
nation, to all -good men, and to juftice." After a long examina- 
thc governments of every conn- tion, there diti not appear fufticicnt 
trv, as .commanded by the cabinet evidence to bring home the charge 
•>r Vienna, and executed by its and guilt of afl'afli nation to any 
troops ; that funeral foleranities party. My (lory flill hanG:s about 
Aould be performed in honour of this dark tFanfadion : which, like 
(lie murdered deputies, throughout GouwrieN confpiracy againfi James 
tiie republic ; that the government, VI. of Scotland, may, perhaps, 
guilty of Ahh aflaflination, fluHild even for centuries, remain a^ lub- 
l)e configned to the vengeance of je<!ft of curiofity and inveftij/Htion* 
nations, and tlic execrations of to antiquaries and hiltorians. Never- 
pofterily; that, in the place of thelefc, it excited a Vt^ry lively 
fitting, of every municipal admi- fentiment of horror and refcnt* 
niflratioti, in tribunals, fchools, and ment throughout France, and df- 
public eftablifbments, an infcrip- verted, for a moment, the public 
tion (hou Id be put up, flating, that indignation, which vva<? every where 
the Aulirian government had cau I'd poured down on the directory, on 
this af1«i2)nat ion to be committed by account of their pr^fufion and fa- 
its troops; that a bamKT fliould be pacity at home, and tlieir neglei^ 
fc-nt to every array by Tea or bind, to recruit and ftrrngthen theit 
with rji int'cription provocative of armies abroad. This fidpenfion and 
Vengeance againfl the AuHrianSi for di^erfion of the public ^tteiition 
Veil. XJ-I4 I S J ftt^a 

258] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791;^. 

and dii^tisfacticn, wac prolxibly tli€ Salt2d>urgh and other, tcrritortet. 
preci(e object that (he dirtclurj In return, live emperor confentt;!) 
nad in view when tliey penned the to the ceflion of the left bank d 
piece juil quoted. Whether any the Rhine, and promifed the en- 
thing very 'profperoua or adverfe cuation of Menlz, Manheim, and 
happened to tbe nation, it was oUier confiderable towns and for* 
fire, for • a fliorl time, to afford trelfes. From this political digrel^ 
iome relief to the directory, by iion we return to military opera- 
turning the keen edge of the French tions. 

genius to fbmething elfe than the The French, in the outlet of tbe 
former condod 6f administration, prefent campaign, had not content- 
But, it w<nild appear that, baily cd thcnifelves with tracing out a 
and precipitate as the French are particular plan of each of their 
in giving way to their imaginations three armies ; but combined every 
andpaflSons, the fentiment of hor- partial operation, fo as to dired 
ror and refentment, infpired by the the whole to the attainment of one 
accoiints they received, with many common objed. The cafe was 
comments and cenjedures from now the fame willi the Auftrians, 
their own countrymen, who had who, aAer viAory had fuddenly 
come from Raf?adt, were not of enabled them to a6t on tho offen- 
I6ng duration. Their pafTion cool- five in Germany and Italy, found 
ed, they began fird to doubt ; and tliemfelves obliged to regulate each 
then, very probably, to difbelicve operation, giving the idea of a 
what had beon lo peremptorily military manoeuvre, in which tbe 
charged againft the imperial cabi* different corps, advancing depen- 
net. Certain it is, that it did not dently on each other, would regu- 
render tlie decrees, which had pal- late, by tlieir left, their march, and 
fed ele\'en days before, for making dired^ion. A plan was combined 
the military confcription general, between general Hotzc and Belle- 
more popular or effedlivc. It was, garde, for a general attack on the 
on the eighteenth of April, a few country of the Grifons. General 
days before the final rupture of the Bellegarde, after f^veral engage* 
negociation at Rafladt, that the nients, gained poifefljon of the 
French government, from a defire upper and lower Engadine. On 
of exciting odium again ft -the em- the firfl of May, gerMfs^l Hotze, 
peror, for his felfiih ambition and whofe army, reinforced by the 
inattention to the intcrefts of the archduke, confifled of Wore than 
Germanic body, and alfo of aug- 20.000 men, adx'anced through the 
menting the iealoufy entertained of valley of the Grifons againfl the 
the views of that prince, by the fort of Lucienflcig, whilll another 
court of Berlin* publ idled a ftate column marched towards the fame 
paper,, which thev ftyled, " The point by the defiles of Langwart; 
.Secret Articles ana additional C6n- and other detachments, in order lo 
vcntion of the Treaty of Campo keep tlie French in check upon all 
Formio." By this agreement, his points, penetrated by correfponding 
imperial maje(l]f was to be aflifted vallies. General Hiotze's plan was 
by the influence of France, in tlie to attack Fort LucienAeig, on two 
acquifilion of tlie archbifliopric of (idcs at once, and tliereby prevent 


it from hein^ relieved. But the Alps, In the rear of the two French 
column, coming by the way of corps ported in the valley of Char, 
Lnnj^wart, did not come out of the and at the head of that of the Inn. 
defiles at Flaifeh and Mayenfield, The failure of general Hotze's ex- 
III! feveral hours aft<?r general pedition enabled the French ta • 
Hotze had appeared before the unite their whole force againft tbc» 
Lucienfteig, which, for want of infurgents. A part, in the canton 
thecoK)peration, on which he had ofSchwiti, laid down their arms t 
relied, tie could not carry. The the reft, to the number of feveral 
French general, Menard, who com- thoufands, were cut to pieces in 
manded in thofe parts, had already two battles which they fought in 
refifted general Hotze, with fucceis, the valley of the Rhine, and near 
when he few the fecond column Altdorf. Thefe cruel difarters fti* 
coming upon him. At fird he fled in its birth the general infur- 
rellrecf, but, being fpeedily reip- region, by wh?cU the Auflrians had 
forced by fome troops, which had hoped to be fupported. 
fet out from Chur on hearing the Th,e pofition that had beei\ taken 
fire, be found himfelf ftronger than by general Bellegarde, upon the 
tlie Auilrians, attacked them at the chain of the Alps, which covers the 
moment when they \yerc ifl'uing principal valley of the Grifoas 
out of the defile, beat them, and greatly favoured an attack on that 
killed, or look, the greateft part of territory. General Hotze, there* 
the corps. fore, prepared to make a fecond 
The failnre of thi^ attack was eifbrt, and arranged bis meafures 
the more to be regretted by the with general Bellegarde in fuch a 
Auflrians, that, if it had fuccecded, manner, and with fucii a force, ,» 
ibcv might at biKc have gained to render fuccefs almoft inftUible : 
pofTeffionof the whole of the Grilbn and, the better to (ccure, and af* 
league, and even of. part of the terward« improve it, tho archduke 
kffer cantons. General Hotze, ti had fcnt to general Hotge frefti re- 
native of Switzerland, had collected inforcements, including the fine 
t'le emigrants from that country, regiment of light-liorfe, of Kinlky* 
and had formed them into a corps The fort of Steig, aflailed on both 
of Infantry, about 1000 ftrong. fides by Aufirian columns, the one 
The confidence which his country- under the command of general 
men repofed in his talents, ^enabled Hotze, in perfon, the other under 
him to promote the difpofilion to that of general Jellaclieik, on tht 
rnfurrection, manifeiled by the in- fourteenth of May. The reduiftiou 
habitants of the leflbr cantons of of this, place was quickly followed 
th(i Grifon country, and of the by the total cxpulfion of the French 
Valais. who, being informed of the from the country of th^ Grifons, 
Rtrncral attack projc6!ed by the ,and the Auflrians, under the com- 
Auftrians, took up arms, and occu- raand of Hotze, took poft on the 
pied at once the vallies of the left bank of the Rhine. In the 
higher Rhine, of the- Ticino, of mean time, feveral datachments of 
the Rcufs, the Mutten, and the French, which had retired out of 
Rhone; forming a chain of infur* the Valtelline into the Rhetion 
t^ioii upon the line of the gre^t Alps, afraid of being Ihut in by the 

[S^] different 

260] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

different Auflrian vorpn, tFiat al- 
ready occapic<l the ps^fTes ofSplugcn 
and Gunkels, endeavoured (o trsH 
ver(e the inoiiiitains and reach St. 
Got hard. They were purfuevl by 
the corps of general Bellegarde, 
who went hinafelf to Chiavenna, 
his Vo- operation beingj r.o longer 
of ufc to general Jlotze; with 
wliom, however, he left fome troops, 
and hrs prcfence becoming more 
and more neceflary every day to 
the army of the aHies in Italy. 

In confequcnce of the furpriae, 
defeat, and lofles, which the divifion 
of general Menard had fuffered; in 
ihe country of the Grifon% on tire 
fljurteenlh of May, the French rn 
the Fog^enburg, in the canton of 
Appanzel, and (ome other place*, 
eould not maintain themfelvcs in. 
thofe territories, or e\'en beyond the 
Thur, without recovering the poft at 
Walleriftadt. This tl^y attempted 
to do on the nineteenth, a few hours 
after the advanced guard of the 
Aulirians had taken poilenion of it ; 
but were rcpulfecl, towards the clofe 
of (he day, as far as Murg, on the 
foiith bank o( the lake of Wallen- 
* ftadt. It was no longer in Maf- 
fena's power to keep pofFeflion of 
the eadera part of Switzerland. 
The generals Hotze and Beliegarde 
had gained his right flank, and even 
his rear, and, therefore, he could not, 
without much danger, longer delay 
to flrengthen his centre, and (horten 
his line. He ordered the Foggem- 
.berg, the canton of Apnenael, the 
country of St. Galf, ana the Ton- 
gaw, to be evacuated on the twen- 
tieth, and withdrew all his forces 
behind the Thur. 

But the fuccefs obtained by ge- 
neral Hotze would not have been 
fufficiont to indtirc MalTena to eva- 
eivftte fo great an extent of country. 

had he not been certain that the 
archduke Charles would alfo v^rv 
foon pafs the Rhine. The hoftifc 
appearances in Suabia had not in- 
duced the archduke to change the 
concentrated pofition which he had 
taken between Stock-ach andSchaff- 
haufen, and as little did the en- 
Irenchmcnt*, made along the river, 
hinder him from palling it. That 
prince had refolved not to enter 
Switzerland till its {inith and eaA 
quarters fliould have been previ- 
oufly invaded: which bcinj; done, 
he loft not a moment in excculing 
an enterprize, too long dcla)ed, and 
anxioufly waited for by aH Europe. 
As f()on as the retreat of the French 
was known, the advanced pofts of 
the Aurlrians. which guarded the 
Rhine from Field-kirk to Rheineck, 
pafled that river, and the flotilla of 
colonel Williams had landed fome 
troops on the weft fide of the bk« 
of Conftance. On the twcnty-firff, 
the main body of the archduke's 
army marched from Stock-ach to 
Singen, and on the twenty-third, 
from that place to Srhafniaufen : 
where it began, the fame day, t« 
pafs the Rhipeon bridges of boats, 
and to occupy a camp marked out 
near Farad ife. A jun6lion was 
formed on the twcnty-fixth:and,on 
the fame evening, it was deter- 
mined to take advantage of this for 
attacking the pofition of the enemy 
at Winterthur. The French, on 
the twcnty-feventh, were forced to 
abandon their filuation, retired in 
g<xxl order, and witli little lofs, bo- 
yond the river Tofs, their retreat 
being greatly favoured by tlif 
woody and- mountainous nature of 
the country. The Auftrians had 
now the advantage of refuming of- 
ten five operations,^ and of being 
finnly enabliflied in Switzerland 



^•'ith about fifty-five thoufand men, barked on the town lof that name, 

while Maflenji, on account of the whence they were condu6led b^ 

Jt-n^ih of his line, and the neceffity gcfneral Bellegarde, acrofs the Mi- 

oHeiiding ten thoufand men into Janefe to thefiegeofTortona. The 

llie Valais, could not op pofe to them reft of that army, Hnder the com- 

quite that number. Though tlie mand of ^general Haddick, d*^ove 

tounlry, bordering on the Tofs ihc French fr«-mi St. Gothard,. and 

^>rclent« many advantageous pofi- forced <l)€ra to retire behind Ahe 

lions, for oppoit^g the paflage of Reufs. The lofs of St. Gothard, 

^lial fiver, yet Maflena, fearing to and the progrefs made by the im- 

k out-flanked, rcfolved to draw pcrialifts, in tlie cantons of Glarus, 

«parer to the central pofi t ion of Zu- Schwitz, and Uri, threatened 4he 

rich, where alone he could ftop the whole pofi t ion of the FreiKh in 

projrreU of the Auftrians. He de- Switzerland. Repeated attempts 

camped, therefore, in the night, were made to regain a part of tfie 

between the twenty-eighth and terniu»ry they had loft. General 

nvcnty.»inlh, and retired to the Lecourbc, on the thirtietii, forced 

^'itL The archduke, in confe- the A uftrians to yield a little ground 

quence, paihed on his advanced in the rallies of Reufs and Schagen: 

guard, on the right to Balach, and apd, on the fecond of June, in a 

on the left to Baflendorf; on .which very obftinale battle, which ended 

account, the Frenclj, on the follow- in hfs favour, he kiU^d> wounded, 

i..{^ da^', failing back ftill farther, put or took one thoufai^i men. This 

ihe Glatl between them and the affair obliged the Auftrians to fall 

f'M'ny, and occupied the poiition back to Urferen. 

l:l«re Zurich, which, for two Thepoffeflion of St. Gothard was 

riomhsy they had been carefully. en- fo important to tlie allied armies, 

trenching. Their right, at the fame that they negle^ed nothing that 

lime, evacuated Rapperfchwill, lets, could contribute to its defence. 

irom any apprehenfions of danger Acid genera) Lecourbe, through 

'ti their front, than by the progrefs i:ROvements by the Auftrians, la- 

already made on their rear, by the tigue, loll'es, and the difficulty of 

^^'h wing of general Holze's army, ^wocuring fubfiftenre in a ravage 

(General Bellegarde, who had ceafed country, was obliged to give up 

to co-operate with general Hotae, every hope of recovering the St. 

^:jd, on the eighteeijth of May, Gothard. He embarked his troops, 

/jonc in purfiiit of the diflTerent part on the lake of the Four Cantons, 

\0Tps of the enemy which had de- and part on that of Zug, and took 

ivnded the (burces of the Rhine, a poiition behind thefe, to cover the 

laving on the ftxteenth pufhed op town and lake of Lucerne. Tlie 

^column to Chiavennat advanced, Auftrians occupied the valley of the 

-ii the eighteenth, with tlie. rc/l Reuls to the Inke of the Four Canr 

•'i his army, in three columns, tQp |ons, and Ailorf, Fluelen, Brijnnen, 

\\ards the valley of the^dda. Two a"d Schwiltz; Irom which they 

•'I lliefe did not dlred their march communicated v^'ith the reft of the 

-yilnll the enemvi but towards the r.rmy, acrofs the Sihl and the lake 

f«ijj Co^o, Oil which they jem- ofZurich. 

[5 3] Th«« 

262], ANNUAL REGISTER, n9§. 

. Thtos the upper plateau* of the 
Alps To oiten difputed in thecourfe 
Df this campaign, was, for the^firll 
time, reduceil by force of arms. 
By the pofleriion of this pre-emi- 
nent military poft, and of the valley 
of Urleren,' tlie Auftrians com- 
pileted the communication between 
their two grand armies, and formed 
th<$ central Ihik of their vaft military 
chdin, extending from the banks of 
the Maine, to thofe of the Bormida, 
ecrofs the mountains of Suabia, the 
Rhine, Switzerland, the Alps, 
Lombard y, and the Apoenninex. 
It was from thi^ time that theft* 
IVftem of operations became more 
hmple and better combined : it was 
at tnis time, too, that thev fliewed 
-greater force, a more active fpirit, 
and decided faperiority, than at any 
other period in the whole campaign. 
Tliey kept the French in check on 
ihe Mayne, the Neckef, and the 
Kintzing, drove them ^rom the 
half of Switzerland, feized or AiUt 
up the paflages from that country 
Into Italy, occupied the town of 
Turin, befieged its citadel, and 
blockaded, at the fame time, the 
fbrtrelTes of Alexandria, Tortona^ 
and Mantua. 

Maflena having reafon to fear 
that the Auflrians would very ibon 
-invade Switzerland on all (ides, and 
that it might, in confequence, be 
impoilible for him to prel'erve the 
femicircle, formed by the Rhine, 
from the fource of the Linth to the 
mouth of the Glatt, wifhcd, at leali, 
to defei.d it^ diameter. He there- 
fore fortified that chain of moun- 
tains, which lic!i in the Iront of Zu- 
rich, between the Lilnmat and (he 
Glatt. Thrown back behind the 

Glatt, by the affair of VVinterthur. 
he went' to occupy that pofition, and 
completed its entrenchments. Hit 
right, entirely compofcd of infantrv, 
was pofted on the Zuricbberg, tbr 
moA elevated part of all that chain 
of mountains. Accefs to it was 
rendered almoft impoflible b^ a 
thick wood^ by feveral ranks of ab- 
bati^ and redoubts, and by a for* 
midable artillery. Between his 
right and the lake of Zurich there 
was no point through which it was 
poilible to penetrate. His ici! 
was placed on the fame chain of 
mountains, and the approaches tu 
it. Between thefe two wings on 
ground gradually (loping, open, and 
cut by the roads from Schaifhaufen 
and Con(lance,-to Zurich, Madera 
placed his cavalry. This pofitien 
was (o well chofen, tliat the ard)- 
duke could not make any eliential 
progrefs until he bad diflodged the 
French: which could be done only 


by either attacking them in front, 
or by turning (heir flank on the 
left hank of the Limmat, which 
would have been arduous, long, and 
even darigercus. On the fourth of 
June, the Auftriatis advanced in fe- 
veral columns agdinft the Zurich- 
berg, and attacked it on feveral 
points, at 4 he fame time. The ap- 
proaches to the Zurichberg were U) 
ibrmidably entrenched, and the /ire 
of the batteries fo commanding, that 
the generals Hot^e and Rofenburg, 
who conducted the two principil 
;^tt3cks, were unable, for foroetimc, 
to make any progrefs, although two 
coUimns, acting on their flank, had 
already penetrated to the foot of the 
abbatis. PriiKc Charles ordered 
f(.ur battalions to aflauit the Zurich* 

* A f renci) terni, (isni^'ing a grcun I at once high and flat, 



l)cr^ with fixed bayonets. The qiiarfcrR to Klotem His army, 
Atifirian greiiadrers made their way which from the twenty-fifft, and 
tHroii^h the abbatis, and carried the pert of it from the fotirteculh of the 
/inl 'iuc of the entrenchment*, but prcceedinfr month, had been conli- 
('ojlil not'kdvance a flep farther, nually under march and fighting, 
N-^ver'heier?, the Aiiflrians did not required fome repofe. BeHde^ the 
give ^oand, but kept the French new pofition, taken by Mallena, 
within their works, and gave time wastooftrong to admit of a chance 
to the other at(ackin>r cdumns to offucccfs in any attempt to ^rc^it* 
r^.ich ihe foot of the entrenchments. It was neceiJiiry to conquer almoft 
Nii^ht overt<)ok them here and put the whole of Switzerland before 
im end to a contefi which had raged Mnffena could be compelled to 
wif'i deadly obftinacy during the abandon his pofition, and retire 
whole day. Each party lotl two upon the Aar. On the whole, the 
thoulAnd five hundred men at leafl. archduke was determined not to at- 
On the fifth, the archduke took an tempt any thing important in Swtt« 
exact view of the pofition of the zerland, ' in the prefent circnm- 
enemy, and refolved to aHauItit: (lances, for the following reafons: 
but, as the fjtigue of the preceed- the ftrengtii of the podtion occu- 
ing day rendered It necellary that pied by the French ; the fmallneGj 
the foixliers fhould take fome Te(k, of the affiflance which he either re^ 
^ paM)ffthewexecution of his de* ceived, or eould expeft, from the in- 
%n ti)I the (ixth. But, on the night liabitants of Svyitzerland; the weak 
between the fifth and iixlh, ^aflena /late in which his army had been 
abindoned his poiltion, and jctired left by the departure of general 
to the other fide of the Limmat, Bcllegarde for Italy, whither, it was 
where he took pofl on the chain ainady revived, that general Had- 
of mountains called ^bis^ which dick diould follow him ; the ex* 
lie^ between the lake of Zurich, peeled arrival of thirty-five thoufand 
tbe Limmat, and theReufs. The Rudian auxiliaries who were on 
archduke, after taking polleflion of their march to join him ; and above 
Zuricli, diftributed his troops along all, tiu; fccret orders 6f the' cabinet 
the right binLs of the lake of Zii- of Vienna. He had tlien no longer 
rich, oftho L|immat, andof the Aar. any other obje£t than to prevent 
The archduke, dcfirous of extend- Mailena from profiting by his in- 
ii<< his right on the weftern fliorcs a^ion. And this objcc^l he could 
oHhe lake» and to remove a little not better eife^ than by giving the 
the centre of the enemy, on the French general employment in the 
eighth of June, attacked the FrencJi Brifgaw, the \fargra*iate of Baden, 
adx'nncrd polls only half a league and' the Palatinate, where nothing 
Irom Zurich, and drove them from worthy t)f notice had paflbd during 
the village* of Albifrioden, and of the month of May, except the cap« 
lome heights, on which two points turc of Heidelberg, by the Auilri- 
tho Aartri.ins pf)lted themfelves. ans, on the nincteentfu A courle 
On tlicfe points the archduke con- of movements and adlions followed 
fined himfelf on the fir It days after in thefe countries, which in ai^y 
tlw; capture of Zurich, from whence other war, and even in any o:her 
h<* Uwn after removed his head- campaign of the prefent war, would 

[St] ^ " have 


{lave fixed (lie a4tontion of tne pub- (l)ould in good earned attempt tkt 

lie and the hi dorian. But the in- of tlie latter, i\wy nuverthticfs 

terefi, which tht'fe mi^it! have in- judged it nectflTary to make lome 

fpirftd, is in a manner abforbed by fliew pf military defigns in the Va- 

thal which Italy and Swifzerland, Ws which might keep up the in- 

the tun great theatres pf the war, furrection, and detain in that coun- 

'bai'e rondantly commanded. It try the body of the Fr«-ncb>by which 

IS hift In the unprecedented multi- it was occupied General Had- 

plirity of the operations, move- d'ck, who, iince the faking of Si. 

menls, and adlions of tl)is ad(<nifli- Goliiard, had (uccelhvely received 

ing campiipn. The war cirried orders, ibmetiiiic; fo enler ii>lo ihe 

on, on the left b:ink f»f tfjfe Rhine, ' V'alais, fonietimes to remain in 

from the. month of May to that of Switzerland, and fonietimes to re- 

Seplemher, however fit a fuojedl pair to Italy, which he finally did, 

fbr military defcription and ohfer- on the (ixteenth of Juh, fen I an ad- 

yation, in the political hiflory of vanccd guard inlo the va ley of the 

Kurope, on the Iciile of this Annual Rhone, where it was joined oy (omt 

Regifler, is to be regarded as merely companies of infurgents. Some 

epifodical. Ikirnuftiing enfutHJ, in which foicc 

On the third of July, Mafi'ena prifbners were made on bath fide-s: 

attacked the left wing of the arch- after which, each party refumed its 

duke in the cantons of Schwitz and pofition. Although the month of 

Zug. He gained fome pods, but July and the half of Augud were 

on the fame and fuccceding day loft iiot marked by an\ great enterpriz?, 

them. There' was not, at the be- it was during this lapfc of time, tlut 

ginning of July, any great difparity mod preparations were made, and 

between the effective forces of the n)oft political and military raeafuri-s 

two contending generals. Malfcna^ taken for future operations. Tlic 

it is true, had a greater number of French prefled the levy of their co/i- 
, troops in Switzerland than the arch-, fcripts, of which they fonutd (wo 

duke; but then he could not make Jiew armies. One of thefe v^as 

ufe of them all in the field, as he dedined to a6t on the Rhine, and 

■was under a neceflity of leaving invade Franconia and Suabia. The 

ilrong garrifons in the principal other, under the nafne of the arinv 

towijs. for enfuring the obedience of of the A Ips, was to cover Fraiicc on 

the country, and of reinforcing the the fide ol Dauphiny and Provemf, 

divifion which had been fent for to acl offenfivcly in Piedmont, and 

fuppreding the infurre^ion in the and tMo to co-operate with iIp 

the Valais. That infurrredion, army, which occupied the Geiwck). 

which had employed for pear two Tbey likewife marked out acaD:p, 

4' mths many thoulands of repub* near Geneva, to defend the eii- 

Iw^ans, intended for the army in Italy, trance of Frartce, by tjie way of the 

V'oiiid have been of itill greater Valais apd Savoy, 

utility to the allies, if their^plan had The Anftrjan forces, which li'l 

been to make tlie conqucd of Italy then had been (u(Bcient to cnnqut-r. 

go 'hand in hand with that of Swit- but part «of whom had fallen a 

^trlai.d. Though determined to facrifice to victory, were now uo> 

c^fed that of the former, before they longer adequate to tliat which re- 

• • • 


mained to be done ; whether to kepp 
what had been already acquirer}* 
or to piirlue the career <if beginning 
conqued. The court of Vienna 
inclined to the former of the fe alter- 
natives, but thofe of London and 
Pclerlburgh to the latter. To ac- 
coniplith this lad end London pre- 
llnicd money, and Petcriburgh 
if(.o;)s. But it was ncceiruf)', and 
it was naturally expe(5^e(i, that the 
German empTC, in a caule, which 
wa> more immediately its own, 
lljoald alio make facrifices and ef- 
fiirts The emperor, in an impe- 
rial aulic decree, dated the twelfth 
of July, called on the ftates and 
princes of the empire, to pay the 
Roman months, and furnifh the 
quintuple contingents, agreeably to 

felf the partifan of France, ai)(J 
dependent on Pruflia, changed all 
on a fudden his apparent fyAem, 
and engaged not only to march hii 
contingent of troops, but oven to 
furnidi befides ten thoufand m^n, 
whom England propofed to take 
into her pay. The duke of Wur- 
teniberg engaged to i'urnini 6000 
men, mcluciing his oantingent, 
amounting to one half^ on thft 
condition, which was accepted, of 
his being fubficjizcd by England.— 
Of the 45,000 men agreed for, by 
a treaty of iub(idie«« sihove noticed 
by the Ruffian emperor ?ind Great 
Britain, more than 10,000 had ?!• 
ready been fent to reinibrce, in 
Italy, the 23,000 who bad been 
thcr« ever fince the ffjring, with 

the lall conclufums of the diet of marllial Suwarrow. The remain- 

Rilifoon ; in conformily to which, ing 33,000 had been on their march 

the kiflg of Sweden had, about two many months, and were expediecl 

nionib^i before, in his quality of to join the archduke in SwiizUnd, 

duke of Pomcrania, declared him- towards the middle of Auguit, 

felf ready to ad. But the charac- 
terifiic llownefs of all the refolu- 
tions of the diet of Ralifoon * in- 
duced the allies to feek for auxilia- 
ries among the princes who had 

In the beginning of that month 
the archduke and Mallbna foun4 
themfelves in tlie fame pofitions^ 
which they refpec^ivcly occupied \}% 
the month of June. If the inactivity 
tri/f>p« to ^ifpo(e of. The kin^ of of the archduke could be accounted 
Pruffia perfifting in his neutrality, for, by hisexpcdationof the Ruilian' 
and having won over to his own army, it was not lo ealy to con- 
^i^^^ all the northern princes of ceive why Maflena, who had recei- 
tjcrraany, except the king of Swe- vcd g eat reinforcements during the 
den, who contented himfcif, how- month of July, and who, at tlTe be- 
ever, with makipg thp above declars^- ginning of Auguft, hadatleaft 20,000 
tion,thealIied courts addreiled them- men more than that prime, did ndt 
ft:l\es,and wiibmore fucce(<, to the makeliafte to attack Jiim ber9re ho 
Sector of Bavaria and the duke of (liould receive any fupport from 
Wurtemberg. The former, who, the Ruffian*. The inaction of 
leforc his fuccefTion to the eledloral MafTena was matter of j^tlpnifliment 
dignity, had conftautly fliewn I)lrp- \o all Europe. 

• ThcimfMrhl decree, of the twelfth of Jply, was not taken inra eonfideration till 
the twenty ftcond of Au^a/), and was fi'iX. 44optC|} as a cauclujum till the fixeenh of 
Otlolwr. Noc is it probjblc that, had the Frcncli reached itic \tT^ wal.s of Y*cnp*| 
batten would liave titen carried on with more difpaich. 

266] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

In the midft of all the emharraiT* 20,000 under his command, divided 

menls of the French f^vernment, into fix columns attacked all the 

political, military, and ftnancia), at politions of the Auflrians from 

a moment when it did not feem ca- mount Si. Cothard to the northern 

pabte of even defending ilfelf, it extremity of Hie canton of Schweilz. 

determined to refume the offenfive. The operations, intrufled to this 

and combined apian of general at- general, embradng a great extent 

, tack on the whole line of the the'a- of country were to be carried on, 

tre of war acrofs tlie Alps, through (bme upon mountains almofl inac- 

Switzerland, Piednfont, and the ceilxble, others in deep vallies : the 

dates of G^noa, froxn. the Maine to different columns could neither acl 

the Mediterranean. General Jou- in concert, nor communicate with 

bert, with SO or 40,000 men, af- each other, nor could they effed a 

fembled in the ftate of Genoa, was, jund^ion till after each of them had 

if poffible, to force the , fiege of penetrated by the point of attark 

Tortona, and to drive the allies be- alHgtied to it, and that the objed 

yond the Po. About 1.5,00dmcn, of the expedition was arcomplifhed 

collefted by Championet, on the in all its parts. This was no lefs 

frontiers ofDauphiny and Piedmont, than to drive the Auflrians from 

were to annoy the allies by pene- the fummits of the moft elevated 

trating through the vallies which country in Europe. 

conne6t thefe two countries, to fup- . On the iixteenth, Lecourbe found 

port Jouberl's lefl on the maritime himfelf mailer of the canton of 

' Alps, and to form a central army Schweitz, of almofl the whole of 

between the armies of Switzerland that of Uri, and of tfje inoft elevated 

aifd Italy. This lafl, the moft nu- points of the great chain of the 

meroas and moft advantageoufly Alps, which bounds Switzerland to 

pofled, was de/lined to drive the the fouthward. Generals Jella- 

' archduke from ihe whole of;;Swit- cheik and SImbfchen, who coin- 

zerland, if poilibte ; at any rate to' (nandcd in (he cantons of Schweitz 

confine him within narrow limits, and Uri, had retreated, the former 

and by all means to interrupt or im- as far as the canton of Glarus aj)d 

l^e his communications with mar- behind the lltntli ; the latter into^the 

ifaal Suwarroiv. Madena, guided Grey League, on the ffiountains of 

by thefe views, refblved to make Crifpalt, which cover tlie pafTage 

an attack on the whole A uHrian line, of the Griloii country. Bnt from 

On the fourteenth of Auguifl, the this commanding portion they were 

whole French army marched on all driven by Lecourbe, and fnrccd to 

fides againfl the enemy,' While fall back as far as Tawetfch. 
genera1Chabran,withtliatdivifionof If the French had met with this 

the right of the corps which was great fucceis, which difpofleircd the 

immcidiatoly under Maflena's or- Auftrians of the f mall cantons, fome 

ders, extended himfelf in front of days foonor, the archduke, being 

the mountains of the A Ibis, and got inferior ip numbers, and on the 

poile/Iion of almofl all the country point of having other aflairs on^is 

between thefe mountains and the hand, would probably have been 

wedern bank of the lake of Zurich: forced to evacuate almtlfl the whole 

g*»neral Lecourbe, who had nearly of Switzerland, or couki not have 



tnaintalred hirofelf there but by find this on its rin^ht, it was necef^ 

gr^'At Ikill, and at 'tlie* cx^pcnfe of fary to look for it on the h?ft : and 

ri'w h biof)d. But the daf on which the army, whiuh the directory ht*d 

Mj'.v*na lx*i:;r\n his j; -neral attack, been bufy in forming on the Rhine, 

\h • firi\ divifinn of* the Rullian received orders to advance on tlie 

army of general Korfakow, follow- Mnirie and the Neckar. Tiic ob» 

td, ^l a fraall dirt iiK^, by five others jrd of this expedition was, by a 

arrived, by forced marches, at powerful diveriion, to prevent the 

S( naff- hau(cn, from whence it archduk^ from -turning againft Maf- 

tnirched two days afterwards to fena the mafs of force which he 

Zirich. The timely arrival of this had at.his dirpofal, (ince the arrival 

re-nForcementallowedprinceCliarles of the kufliaiis, to prefervc Swh* 

to d.-niiiilh the force of his principal norland by threatening Germany; 

IK^iition of Zurich, and to lend ^e- to procure in this latter country 

i»^al Hotze with (everal thoiifand money and provifions, and to era- 

irun to fupport the two Auftrian ploy, for the benefit of the republic, 

fnrps, which had. retired into the tiie rich granaries, which the har- 

canions of Schweitz and Glarus, vcft had jull filled, of the Palatinate, 

and which, after having been pofled On the twenty-tiflh of Auguft the 

beyond Rappcrfchwill and the Lin th, republicans, 10,000 in number, un- 

retook thefe two pofitions. The der general Mu Her, palled the R him; 

Lintf), the bke of Zurich, and the at Manheim, and near that (own, 

Limmat, W'cre, properly (peaking, reduced Heidelberg and Heibron, 

t^ie limits of the' two armies. On and extended themfelves into the 

the following days, the whofe Rfif- countries lying between the Rhine 

tian array, with the exception of the and the Neckar. Another divilion, 

uvalry, which would have been under the command of general 

n!elefs in Switzerland, and which d'Hilliers, proceeding from Kfentz, 

remained on the right bank of the levied contributions on the town ot' 

^'iiT]t, joined the Audrians near Frai>kfort, notwithftanding its a- 

Zurich. greed neutrality ; puthed an advan- 

A great battle, which the French ced poft tow.irds AlcfliafTenberg, loft at Novi, in Italy, had en- marched towards the lower Neckar, 

tirely deranged their offenfive where it arrived on the fecond of 

plans. The parlaffigned to MalR'na September, and joined itfelf to the 

•impended in a great mcafure on centre of the army of the Riiinc, 

tl. a which was, at the (aine time, which-enabled general Muller,on the 

to be acled in Germany and Italy, twenty-lixth to invell P])ilip(burgh» 
bv ihe republican armies, which The incurlion of the French upon 

nii^ht be contidered as the two the Maine, and their march t#»- 

wiags ofhis It was ncceilaty that ward?? Suabia, furniflicd princ* 

both, or at Icaft eme of ihem, (liould Charles with a pretext for avoidin^- 

-ilvancc, in orcjcr that the centre a co-eperation with field-marflia^ 

inij^ht do fo, without danger, and Suwarrowin Switzerland, whicli 

ijjflced that it might with falety he had pr<>bably received orders to 

preterve its pofition. It wanted a elude. This young prince, the in; 

[KMnl of fup{>ort, and not being willing initrument rtf Aulfriari po- 

^ikf fiftcc the battle of Novi, t'> lie), alarmed, or preusnried to h' 





(n, At th« dan^r vvhich threatened and all (hat the imagination of foW 
Gormany, and that jran of his army diets no Icfs then that of other ©en, 
which was on the rij^ht bank oi' the add stow hat is unknown to thero/im* 
khine> and profcfliing <o feel the pofed on the^Frpnch army under 
defire, as well as obligation, of refcu- Alailena« Tiiey did not even attempt 
lng» from the ravages of the French, any thing worthy of notice irom the 
llie eftates of the el«;(^or pa)atinc, twenty*ninth of Augufl, when tlie 
find the duke of VVurleniberg, or- kuOians relieved tJie Anflnan ad- 
riered his army to hold itfcdf in rea- vanced pofis before Zurich, till the 
dinefs to quit Switzerland, and im- eighth of September. Onthatdair 
mediately roarcl.od part of it to- tljcy renewed the attack, which 
Wards Schaff-hau fen. He intrufl'^d they had often made, un the pod of 
general Hotae with the defence of Walliilio.Tcn, but were obliged to 
the fmall cantons, and fent him fbroc return to their pofition, with foine 
Reinforcements, which raifed \m lofs. This affair, however, had 
force to about 29,000 men. Dur- no other object, on the part of the 
ing the lad days of Angjad, the Frendi, than to bring tne Rufliaiu 
KuiTians, in number about ^0,000 to the UU\, and to familiarife them- 
efledlive men, replaced the Auf- felves with their manner of lighting, 
f rians along (he brooks of thf Lim- Tlie original plan of the allies, as 
m-it and the Aar, and in front of above obferved, Jiv^ to turn Swil- 
Zurichf where general Krofakow> serland on the north and limth.— 
wirh whom the command now The departure of prince Charlcj 
refted, fixed his head-quarters. Ge^ from Switzerland made it neccHan 
lierat Nauendorf was left with to fubflihite to the former a pianof 
about 1 0,0C>0 men, on the right attack of lefs magnitude, which re- 
bank of the Rhine, to form there a ifuired a lefs confiderable force, anj 
body of obfervation and referve.— which (hould be purely military. 
Thefe were the arrangements whicii The plan propofed was^ to recover 
prince Charley before his depar- immediately the pofleffion of the 
lure, made for the defence of the fmall cantons, and ^o turn the po* 
conquered part of Switzerland. He fltion, fo long held by Maflena, on 
left bfliiiid him i5>Q0O' men, of the lakes of Lucerne and Zug, are! 
whom more than 40,(X)0 were op- on the A Ibis, which would have 
poled to^ Madcna, from the Grilbn obliged him to retire On the *4ar, 
counlrvj as far as the motith of the the whole line of which ii would 
i\ar> reduced Manheim and Neck- have been abfolutely iropoOIble to 
erau, and drjven the French back prelcrve. Ma(Ie«ia ifnew this pro- 
Into Metitz, he eftabli/lied his head- je£i,.and having leafnt that the 
tjuarlersi on the nint?leenth, at g«?nprals Korfal^ovv and Holee had 
**>chwelzingen ; .x\here, ^n the relolvcd ii> begip the execulion of 
twmty-lc\'^nth, he receive<^ news them on the twenty-iixth ; he dc- 
t>f ihe events which had taken tenniucd to be before h^nd vlth 

1>l3re, two days bi*iofje, in Swil^ef- thenu Bridges thrown over the 

and. Linimat, and various movenieni* 

The rrputalion of fnix?riorI(v and a«I:lioni, in one of which gcne» 

winch the Rulii;ii.s had aquired, and ral Unizc lell, and on which gene- 

>*hich-U»ey had not lofvMiedip Italy, ral l\traich, to whom rank srd 



his troops and of his baggage, and 
dire^ed his march, with the body of 
his army, towards Eglifau. Th& . 
French had nn expefbitioii of beings 
cd}ed into action ; but, feeing tha 
Ruffian army approach, they con» 
eluded that it was coming to attack 
them. Advantageoufly pofled on 
the heights wiiich command th« 
road, they fuffered /he Ruffians ta 
approach, and then opened on iheoi 
terrible and commandini^ tire afl 

fiipenority gave the comioand, on 
his death, fearing to be tomed on 
his ri^hl, precipitately retreated to 
the Rbinlhal : — thefe meafures and 
€i(cidcnts enabled the French, oft 
Oitf (w?nty-fifth to invert the town 
of Zurich, on the ead, north, and 
ueff. General Korfakow, embar- 
railed how to acl, paffed the night 
bv'iween the twenty -fifth and tweti- 
ivlivilj, in preparing for battle, 
and ftill more for a retreat. Maf- 
ll'na, judging that the Railian ge- 
neral, furroundcd as he was aimed 
»n all fides, could not think of 
mamtaining himfelf in the town; 
bit, al the fame time, knowing what 

artiHery and mufiquetry. Thus th<) 
battle began, but partially and irro» 
pularly. The Ruffian regiments, 
in order of retreat rather than 
of battle, fought individuully, with' 
ht had to fear from the bravery of out concert or objcft. Ovof* 
RufHan foldierfi, if reduced to the whelmed, along the whofe of their 
litvellity of eutling their way with column, by the grape fliot of ilw 
tl»e bayonet, and not being himfelf French, whofe flying artillery ma- 
fnfUciently ftrong to occupy, at the nceuvred on thisoccafion with gnpat 
»ime time, the roads of Winterthur effecl, they ruftied repeatedly witli 

and Eglifau :— -Maflcna, under the 
influence of tbefe con fide rat ions, 
^^ithdrew his' troops from the for- 
ner, and contented himielf with 
piardlng, in force, the heigh Is 
^vhich command the latter. At the 
Jimc time, he* (ent an officer with 
a flag of truce lo the Ruffian gene- 
ral, fo offer conditions ibr the quiet 
pofletiion of the town, and for hi8 
retreat to the Rhine; but the Cof- 
facks robbed this officer of his.dif- 
patches, and he was kept in the 
t^wn till the following day. On 
that day, while it was expeiSled 
that the Ruflians would make a 
capitulation, general Korfakow, 
taking with him all the troops that 

fixed biiyoncts on the enemy, and 
forced them, for fomc moments, to 
give way. But, as the prodigies of 
valour, performed by the Ruffian in» 
fan try, neither were, nor indeed 
could be turned to any account by 
the fuperior officers, in their prefept 
eircumftances, they ferved only to 
render the defeat more complete q« 
well as fanguinary. General Kor» 
fakow, with all Jthat efcaped from 
the enemy, forced his way to 
l^glifau, where he haflened to pafs 
the Rhine. 

Marflial Suwatrow, conformably 
to the plan of which the outline Kaa 
been above flated, inteiided (o 
have fet out from A&i on the eight 

be could collefl, began his retreat, of September ; but the French 

having his baggage and artillery having (hewn a difpofition to relief's 

difpofed in the intervals of his co- Tortona, which had engaged, if not 

himiis; but, infiead of taking the fuccoured, to furrender on tbo 

road to Winterthur, which the eleventh of the fame month, defer* 

enemy had left open to him, he red his departure till that day.«v« 

r:en ihat way gnly a fraall part of Anxious to regain tlte time he b^d 



thns loft, be marched his armj» arrajigements prerioitfly coiicerte<(| 
compofed of I7|0(X) effedive men, the Auftrian i^enerals Xincken and 
tKt remains of the SO^OOO, which had Jellacheik were to have advanced 
been fent into Italy, with f uch ra- Into the canton of Glaras, in order 
pidity, that in five days it had ad- to join themfelves on their right, to 
mnced 116 nniles« and s reached general Hotze, and on their left to 
Tevema, near BeUinztma on the marlhal Suwarrow. Jellacheik hav<» 
jiflcenih; that is to fay, on the very ing, on t}ie twenty-fixth, penetrated 
fime day on whichMie had propofed as far as Miollis, from which be 
to be there» before the delay took drove the republicans, having lesrnt 
place. 3ut he unfortunately expe- the misfortunes of the precedinj^ 
tienced another delay, which he day, and the retreat or general 
liad it not in bis power to prevent. Petrarch, returned towards Sar* 
Tor, inftehd of finding the neceifa* gens, where he arrived on the 
ry beaAs of burthen ready for him at twenfy-feventh. General Linckwi, 
Tavema, as had been promifed after lie had, on the twenty-fixd), 
liim, he was obliged to lofe three beaten a French folumn under ge* 
days in endeavouring to obtain neral Soult, near Rettarn, and 
ihem in the country; and, not be- made himfelf mailer of Giants, not 
ing able to proctire a fufficient nam- learning that' any corps, either 
I>er, he Was obliged to dtfmmint his Auflrian or Ruffian, had penetrated 
Cotfacksi and to employ their horfes into that canton, and not oeing able 
in tranfportiog the baggage. The to commupicate with any one, either 
impoiTibility uf making ulc of cnr- on his riglit or lefit, retired alfo, 
f iages in the road of the G reat Alps, and returned into the country of tiic 
liad obliged him to fend his artillery Grifons. Marihal Suwarrow, who 
by the lake of Como, and the route had entertained the hope of being 
of Chiavenna, from whence it af- joined at Mutten by general Linck- 
lerwards rsjoined him in the conn- en, learnt, by a difpalch from that 
try pC the Grifons. Every thing officer, the events which had taken 
being ready for the pallage of the place on the Linth^ and the Lim* 
Alps, general Rofenberg, with the mat; and it may be a well eon- 
Ruflian advanced guard, twelve ceived with what bitter regf^t he 
battalions' Orong, began his march faw-the hopes vanifli, through the 
en the nineteenth, and arrived ofi mifcondudl of others, which had 
the lame day at Bell incona. Field- brought him into Swits:erland. It 
marflial Suwarrow fucce(sfully crof- was exculable in hira to redfei^'c 
fed the Alps, drove the French this blow of fortune with ibme im- 
from Mount St. Got hard, and for- patience. In circumftances fo cri- 
ced thedivifmn under Lccourbc, on tical, however, inflead of feHin;^ 
the twenty-fifth, to retreat to A I- back on St. Gothardi or rclirll^^ 
torC the capital of Uri, in which into the country of the Grifons, !#c 
TOhton is Sl.^ Golhard. ©n the relolved to pafs by tlie Mutten and 
twenty- feventh, he puHied his ad- Clonthal> into the canton of Gli- 
Vance(l-guarcLacrofsthc.'Colmerberg, rus, there to join general Lincfcen: 
as far as N'tutten, Whither the re- -flattering himfelf that, on the 
mainder of the array alfo arrived on news of his arrival, and of the (h- 
tlu; tw«nty<eighth« Agreeably to parture of general Mattcim to f n» 


f^ge him, generals Korfakjow and wounded. The field-marfhal had 

Petrach having a kfs force againft flattered hlmielf that he ihould there 

them might be enabled to turn be joined by foole Audrian corpii. 

about, and that every thin^ might But general Petrarch having already 

be retrieved. It was in this hope, retreated into the Voraloerg, and 

fo glorious for him to have Oil! re- generals Jellach«ik and Linckeh 

tained, that be wrote to the Ruilian into the country of the Grifons* 

general Korlakow's army '^ You the Audian general had. no other 

will anfwer with your heads for fupport to cxp«£i but that of one 

every farther Hep that you retreat. Audrian brigade, under general 

i am coming to repair your faults." AuSemberg, He was obliged^ 

On the thirtieth, marflial Suwar- therefore, notwith (landing an ar* 

row put himfelf in motion, by the dent defire to maintain himfelf in 

Muttenthal, and through a (cries of the fmall cantons, to renounce it| 

bloody combati:, t]ie whole march and to think of his ownfafety^ al- 

being in a mannecone engagement, ready greatly endangered. Having 

{mlh«d on 'through the narrow vai- allowed his army to repo(e throe 

ey of MuitenthaK On the fame days he began his march, on the 

day he was pnrfued by Ma(rena, fiRh of October, toward the Grifon' 

who bad joined Lecourbe at Altorf- country, leaving his wounded ^at 

hau/Ten, as advanced guard, 4,000 Glarus. After an arduous and fa- 

ftrong c^me up, on that day, with tigujng march, tlwough the vallies of 

general Roienberg, and attacked Zernaflf and Ileim, wlicre he wn^ 

him, but was repulfed with lofs.— - fometimes obliged to cut away $\on^ 

On the next day, the (irft of 06to- the fides of rocks, and in which helofr 

ber, Maflena came in perfon, with part of his beafts ot burthen and 

1000 men againft general Ro(en« oaggage, and a prettv large num- 

berg, who was left at Mutten to ber of fo]diers> not anle to follow 

guard the entrance of that vjiUey, him, it reached the valley of the 

and to fecure the march of the red Rhine ; and, on the eighth, wa^ re- 

of the army. Maflfena attacked him united In the environs of Chur, ftill 

In three columns, one keeping the amounting to near 14,000 mvn; 

centre of the valley, and the two having thus lofl, in tlu<; (liort, but 

others occupying the two fides of the terrible campai;;;n, 3000 men, in 

mountains. General ' Rofenberg killed, wounded, or miffing. ti\ • 

charged AIa(Icna'<i centre with three killed, wounded, and prifuners, the 

battalions, and forced it to take to French loft at lea ft 4(X50. 
flight; an example which was iol- The archduke being informed, on 

lowed by the other two columns, the twenty-eighth of September, at 

The RuiCans purfued the enemy his beiid-quarters at Schwetzingen, 

beyond Schraltz, after having killed of the dilafters of the allies, haiicned 

or wounded 5 or 6000 men, and to their relief, with a part of his army, 

taken more than 1000 prifoner.-?.— leaving the remainder under princx: 
Thefe advantage-?, gained at the Schwartzcnbcrg, for the protection 
fame time by the adNimccd and the of the Neckar and the Maine. He 
reairgaard, gave the Ruffians peace- arrived, on the fourth of O^ober, 
able poflelTion of the road from and fixed his head-quarters at Do- 
Schmitz to Glarus, in which laft naweefchingen. Being made ac- 
town t^jjjk^coUcctcd their fick and quainted witU the firfl ruccelTes of 
^ 4 mar&al 

272] ANNUAL REGISTER, il9§. 

tnflrfhal Suwarrow, and with the and a large body of in&ntryi W- 

inconvenience which thence refult- ed by Maflena, in perfon, came up 

ed to Niaflena» he was delivered and faved them. It being no Ion- 

from ^11 appreheniion of an erap- ger prudent to continue the en-i 

tif>n beyond the Rhine, on the part gagement ngainfl a force' now be- 

of the f rench, and refolved to carry come gfeatly fuperior, and which 

the war again ii^o the canton of fnight he flill farther reinforced, 

Zurich, with the intention of making general Korfakow withdrew his 

s diverfion, at leaf), in favour of corps, and arrived in his camp at 

the Ruiiian general, and thus <o fix in the evening. At the &me 

.enable him either to derive advan- time, the French attacked the town 

fage from his fir(l fucceOes, or to t>f Con (lance, where the prince of 

fecure his retreat into the Griibn Cond^ was iiationed with his troops, 

country. This diverfion, however, amounting to 4 or 5^000. The 

io much wiftied for by Suwarrow, prince bemg too weak in numbers 

and rendered neceflary by circum- to oppofe the enemy, and defend 

fiances, was refolved on too late, the town, after fome unfuccefsful 

The field-marflial was already in efforts, was obliged to retreat; 

the valley of tlie Rhine, and MaC' and finding the town in pofTellian 

fena already 'returned with his of the enemy> and no other means 

troops into the canton of Zurich. of bringing oflf his troop*, was 

The Ruffian army^ under prince forced upon the meafurc pfiighting 

Rorfakow, afler the retreat from his way through the ftreels ; in the 

Zurkrh, took a pofition extending execution of wjiich deQierate mca- 

from Eglifnu to Conftance. On the fure, his corps difpiayed the greatell 

^xth of October, the French, in gallantry, particularly the grena- 

force, came to reconnoitre, and re- diers • of Bourbon. The prince 

tired in the evening; but, as fup- encamped on the other fideofihc 

|»ored, not far^ and therefore an lake, and on the ninth fixed his 

immediate attack was expeded. heed-quarters at Stachingen, near 

General Korfakow the next morn- Stock-ach. It may be expe^ed, 

ingcroffed the RhinCj to fefek the that fomething (ball be'^faid with 

eneniy, and found him ftrongly regard to the lofs of men, on both 

pofted. Notwithdanding fucif a fides, in Switzerland, from the 

fituation, the general of the Rudians ttventy-fifth of September to tlje 

attacked him immediately, with ninth of October. According fo 

the grcatefl intrepidity, and with the mofl ingenious and accurate 

fixecT bayonets. The. French* fled Computation^ it appears, that the 

to the woods, by which their right void occafioned in the ranks of the 

was covertjd, and endeavoured to allies, in the courfe of three weeks, 

take a frefh pofition^ from which tVas about 15,000 men; and tliat 

they were likewifo driven, as they the lofs of the French, in the fame 

were from a thirdj which was periofl, did not exceed 9,000. 
nearly n\or^ unfortunate than the The petition taken b? the two 

two others. Two of their bat- Rcifiian armies, behind the lakcot 

talions had thrown down their Conftance, obliged prince Charlet 

arms, and were on the point of to put his troops in motion. He 

farrelideringi when their cavalry/ leinforced generals Line^n, Auff- 



f mberg, and Jellacheik, in the Such ts the difference refolling from 

Voralberg, mod the the country of the choice of generals, and fuch 

the Grifons. Several companies , the importance of that choice! 

of chaflears were formed of tlie Marfhal Suwarro\y, who had hit 

inhabitants of that diflrid, and head-quarters at Lindau 4iH the 

man/ more of thdfe of the Tyrol, thirtieth, without having^ had an 

Thefe TCieafures, together with the interview with prince Charles, 

feaion, put tlie Grilon country out quitted the banks of the lake of 

of danger, and enabled prince Conftance, with his whole army, 

Charles to emplov his forces in and that of the prince of Cond6, 

Franconia and Suabi^, till he (bould and marched towards Augflburg. 

receive the ne# regiments, which where he arrived on the eighth of 

were hadening to him, out of November, with all his ftaff", and 

Auftria and Bohemia. Afler red- fixed his head-quarters. A few 

ing his army two or three days in days afterwards, he received orders 

the environs of Thur, mardial from Peteriburgh, to re-condu6t hij 

Sawarrow proceeded on his route army into the ftates of his fovereign ; 

to operate with the other Ruffian and thefe orders he put in execution 

army on the banks of the lake of about the end of the month. Th6 

Conflance : a junction which he Ruffian troops traverfed Bax^aria 

J«d hoped to form on the Reufs. and the Upper Palatinate. Frefli 

On the thirteenth, he Arrived at orders flijpped them on the frontiers 

Fieldkirk, and on the fixteenth at of Bohemia: and marfhal Suwarrow 

Lindaii, where he was joined, on placed his head-quarters at Prague, 

I he eighteenth, by general Korfa- from whence he continued his 

kow's cr)rps, which had re-afcended march towards Ruffia fome time 

the Rhine, and been fucceeded on thereafter. 

that river by the army of the arch- The Fwnch, ever fi nee the re- 

dukc. The two Rullian armies, taking of Manheira, by the Auf- 

united, formed one of about 25,000 trians, had kept on the defenpve, 
nominally, who, in the courfe of bank of the Rhine. But general 

elTeflive men, the remains of 70, guarding, with attenticm, the left 

the campaign, had been fent into Ney, at this time commanding the 
Italy and Switzerland, but who, in army of "the .Rhine, had no fborier 
fa£t, amounted to no more thaft learnt the vi^orics of Maflena, and 
50,000 in the field. • Mardiafi Su- the departure of the archduke, 
warrow, and general Korf^kow, had than he thought of again refumin? 
nearly Che fame number of men the offenfive. His army amounted 
under their command : and the to about 25,000 men, and fome re- 
former, during more than fit inforccments were on their niarth 
months of the moft adtve and to join it. On the mornin^of the 
eventful campaign, loft no greater fourth of Odober, the French, 
number in killed, and not near fo fetting off, in force, from ^^entz, 
many prifoners, as general Korfa- advanced rapidly on the route to- 
kow loft in the (pace of fifteen wards Frankfort, which they enter- 
days. The firft has enjoyed the ed, and on which they attempted 
honour of victory ; the iecond has to levy, as they had done hnl 
(uffered the difgrace of defeat, lately, a fevere contribotivir* Butt 
Vol. XLI. [T] this 



this was redeemed by the ma* 
giilratest at the expente of onl^ a 
few hundreds of Jouis. Ha vine 


made themfelves mailers of Man- 
heiiDy between the Maine and the 
Lahn« they proceeded in tlietr 
career, apd drove the imperial 
troops from Manheim and Heidei- 
berff, to the Enss. Towards the 
end of 0£lober, the archduke 
found himfelf in a iituation attacked 
in the Palatinate and in Franconia, 
and threatened in the Griion coun- 
try and Suabia : he faw the Ruifiaus 
abandoning the theatre of war. 
The two armies oppoGte to him 
confined of more than 1 0(^000 
men, and he had himfelf fcarcely 
^ 70,000 to line the banks of the 
Rhine, from its fource as far as 
KchI, to defend Suabia, and fupport 
the^ armed peafanU, who covered 

In thcfe critical circumflances, 
the poHs of the archduke were fo 
well chofcn, that on whatever 
points the enemy might wi(h to 
pafs the RhinCj a large body of 
troops might immediately unite 
againd them. The ^rchduke, who 
m'crlooked the whole from his 
excellent central poiition at Pon* 
awee Schwingen, was enablt-d to 
fend feme reinforcements to the 
Neckar, which arrived there on 
the laft days of 06lober. On the 
tenth of that month he addreded 
» proclamation to the Hates and 
Inhabitants of the German empire,* 
recapitulating the efforts made, and 
the expenfes incurred by the em* 
pcror, for the defence of the former, 
and renewing bis felicitations for 

the arming jnf i\ie contingents, and 
the payments of the Roman months^ 
It was alfo about this period that 
the declaration of the emperor of 
RulTia to the members of the Ger* 
manic empire,^ (alluded to in our 
fiftl) diapter, and to be found 
among the State Papers in this 
volume), was prefcnted to the diet 
of. Ratiibon. * The felicitations of 
the two emperors had no effect on 
the principal powers of Germany, 
Pruflia, Saxony, and all the north, 
perfifled in their nutrality, and iii^ 
the treaties by which this was 
guaranteed; to them by France. 
The ibuth, more threatened wilh 
danger, not being included within 
the line pf demarcation, and in 
fbme meaf^re dependent on 
Auflria, made feme efRirts. The 
eledor of Bavaria contributed net 
only his contingent, but all the 
troops he had m the Palatinate : 
the duke of Wurtemberg about 
2,^00 : the circle of Suabia refoiv(*d 
on the future armament of 10,000 
men, Wurtzburg and Bamberg 
thought alfo of contributing to tht; 
defence of Franconia, ana formed 
feme companies of peafants. 

The imperialifts and the French, 
at the end of O^ober, were op* 
pofed to each other on the banks of 
the Maine, tlie Neckar, the Y-rm^ 
and the Rhine. The object of the 
Frerich was to cover the fiege of 
Philipiburgh, which they bombard* 
ed, and hoped to carrv, by Ih^ 
weight of their fire ! tnat of the 
Auitrians was to raife it, and, at all 
events, to (lielter the duchy of 
Wurtemberg. The AufhiaDs« be*- 

* Thit deddn^on hsm not proved in any rcrpe£l vain t for, m the emperor of Ruflia. 
HifDugfaout the whole campaigo, contributed powerfully to tiie fafety ot Germany, l^ 
|)e likcfeifir> according tf^ hU wordp abaadontd that GOirotry to itfelf, and re.catted his 
irpopSf u juil itoted* 


iM mnfbrred on the third and 
fotlowtrif^ daysi of November, com« 
pelled them Co withdraw into the 
ariKle formed by the Neckar and 
the Rhine, and raife the blockade 
of Fhilipibureh. This fortrefs, dill 
refolutely defended by the heroic 
rbingrave, of Sa1m« was again 
attacked and again relieved; and 
iha French, under the coauuand of* 

Lecourbe, forced to retire to Man- 
heim. The French funeral pro- 
pofed an armiflice, which was ac* 
cepted, on condition that it fiiould 
be ratified by the archduke, who« 
for the bed military realbns, refufed 
to do it. The French were there- 
fore obliged to evacuate Manheim 
and Neckerrau, and completely to 
re-pafs the Rhine. 



376} A#JKUA:p REPI6TB,P^.n»P. 

.. t f 


Situation and Force of (he French and Aujlrian Armies^ inltalj^, af (he Be* 
gifirtirig of 1799. — The French driven, with greet Lo/s,J'rom th^ UJt Bank 

* vf the j4dif[e, "^Operations of the Anjlrians ot{^ (Ik flanks of the French 
Army, — The French, on the Fijth tf^Aprit, defeated with great Lofs. — 
Retire to the Mincio.-^yJnd afierxcerds to the Chiefa.^^The Atj/irian 
Cenerai, Me/as, pajfes the Mincio with alt his y/n/zy.-— 23,000 Ruffian 
Aufiiliaries arrive with Afarjhal Suxrarrow, who takes the chief Comnimtd 
of the Troops of the two Ejnperors,»^Pefchiera and Mantua invcjlcd,"'^ 
Brefc ia taken by the Allies, — Who march to this O^lio, which the French 
abandon, '■^Morcau fuccceds in the Command of the French Army to 
Scheerer, who was become the Ohjcci of public Animadtferfioti.^-^'l he Allied 
Army encamps on the Adda.^-^Di/lrHmtioti of the French Forces on that 
River. — Dijlodged therefrom on the Twcnty-fcvcnth, by Mar/hal Suwarrow, 
•-^Battle of Cajfano, — The French compelled to fly totcards Milan.^-^ Which 
is entered by the Anflrians on the Twenty-eighUt. — Embatrafjing Siiuatiurt 
of A foreau. — The Plan he delermine\' to pnrfue, — Reduflion of the Forfreffes 
tf Pefchiera and Pizzi^hetone.'^Plan of Operations pnrfued by Marjhal 
Smear row, — Capture of the Cities ofTortona and Tnrin.-^Mareau paffes 
the liormida, and retreats towards Coni .^^-^Reduftiott of the Citadels of 
Milan and Ferrara,^^The French driven from Ravenna. — General Mac- 
dona Id, with all his Army, en^c nates the Kingdom of KapUs. — Crojj^s the 
Appenines. — Makes hinifclf Majtcr of Modena, Reggio, Parma, oftd 
Placcntia. — But is defeated in a Srries of Battles, on both Sides q/ the 
Trcbbia, by Marjhal Sutfarrow.^-'Morean^ who had crcffed the Appf.nines, 
with a View of drawing near to Macdvnatd, and gained feveral Advantage^, 
on tlw Approach of the Rujfian Cofnmatidcr, retires to Genoa. •"^Redn^ion 
of the Citadel of Turin. — Infurreclion of the Inhabitants of Tufcatiy,^^ 
Afacdonald accojnplijhes his Retreat and funRion with Morcau.* — Alexan- 
dria and Alautua fur render, by CapHnlatioti, — Cardinal Rujfo, on the 
Twentieth offune, makes himfelf Majler of the City of Kaples, — Complete 
Deliverance, by the Englijh Fleet, of the Kingdom of Naples, --^ Military 
Aleafures taken by the neiv French Direclory. — The Command of the Army 
of iL'dy rejiorvd to foubert, who puts his Troops in Motion on the FJeventh 
of Augufl, — Battle of Kovi. — f^itlory long doubtful at lujt decided in 
Favour of the Allies. — Et.ormous Lofs on both Sides. — Cfwditioua/ CapttH' 
lationof Tortona, zihiih falls on the FJeventh of September. ^^Gettcr at 
Suwarnrw fels <ffjvr Switzerland. — Coni becomes the the Jole OhjeR of the 
Campaign, — March of the Neapolitans and the Arctines againjl Rome.^—» 
" General Gamier, French Commander, in Rome, furrenders the Rotnen 
Territory, by Capitulation, to CommOiiorc Trowbridge. — Siege and Capture 
of Ancona.'^ And of Coni. --^Other Places taken by the Aufrians.'^Gettoa 




end ifs fmall Territonjf, the o^iU/ Pof'/fion tcmaiuhitc to the Frrr/ch, in 
Ifulj/, at the Clofe of Jl 99."^ R/fhfiate of the Advantniies gained- on hoitt 
Sides ifi the whole of the Campoiirn or CamjiCti gns in Germajiy, Sivilzvr* 
landy and Italy. '^^'Maritime Affairs. 

THE republican forcrs In Ttalv, 
at the comitiencrincnt of 1 799, 
rrmfifted of nearly 80/X)0 French" 
ToIHiers, ;ind more than .)0,fX)0 
Poles, Swifs, Piedmcmtefe, GeiKicfe, 
Koman^, or Neapolitans, difperfed 
TToni the frontier^ of Piedmonf. 
They w^re formed into two armies: 
0K»* «f which was called the army 
of Italy, and the other thatofNrf- 
pl^. The army of Italy, confining 
o< 90,000, occupied the' Modenefe, 
the ftate o^ Genoa > Piedmont, 
the Milanefc, the Valtclline, and 
the coantrtes of Brefcia, Bergamo, 
and Mantua. Thi?? difperfion of 
force, which a gerteral hatred of 
the French rendered ni^eflary, 
f educed the number of men, who 
could be employed in aflive opera- 
tion% to about 30,000. They were 
in cantonments to the banks of the 
hke of Garda, of flie Minico, and 
of the Po, from i\\^ frontier of the 
Tyrol to the mouth of the laft-men- 
tioned river. The arwiy of Naples, 
confiftin^ofaboui 4-0,o6o, occupied 
the capital and the conquered part 
of his Sicilian majefly*s dominions, 
a^ alfo Rome, anrl the different 
provinces of the church. Though 
»t had not to contend with reg^ular 
troops yet it was not without one- 
injei, nor free from danger. On 
one hand, it had to guard again fl 
ti>e fiery population of Naples, 
while, on the otlier, it had to com- 
bat the inhabitants of Calabria, 
Bafilica, Tarentefe, Puglia, and, in 
a word, of all the pro\'tnces (ituated 
to the fouth ; and Abruzza and Bene- 
vciitOf which, condii<6led by cardinal 

R 11 fib, a< oftce a pfie(l, a pdlitfciarr', 
and a warrior, had taken arms in 
favour of their, lawful fov^reign*. 
On a third fide, the fame ai'my had 
to defend itfelf againft the rnliirrecS 
fions, in a great part of th^ ftatc^ 
of the church, often checked, btst 
never totally fupprefTed. Th6 
French army of Naples was diftin- 
guiflied by an infatiable fhirf? of 
plunder, and a fpirit of infubordi- 
nation*. Officers and foldi^rs all 
thought of nothing but plunder, 
not for the republic, but for them- 
felves. The commander-in-chiefi 
Cliampionet, wifliing to put a flv)p 
to thofe difoi'ders, at leaf! to make 
the plunder more fyflematic, and 
Jefs under the wanton arbitremcnt 
of civil commiflTarirs, equally igno*- 
rant and regard Ids of military de- 
figns, was deprived of his command/ 
as has been leen, in chapter ninth, 
recalled into France, and threaten- 
ed with the lof? of his' head. His 
fuccefTor, general Macdrmald, knew 
better h^yv to flibnjt to the 
defpotlfill of the directory, to thfc 
pride of their pro-con'i:l;, and to 
the infubordi nation of his army. 
About the fame time, and nearly 
for fimilar reafons, ;;eneral Joubert 
had loft the command of the army 
of Italy, which had been given to 
Scheerer, commonly called Tht 
Peculator^ who poflefled tlie confi- 
dence of the directory in the fame 
degree thnt he had loll that of the 
nation, and who, in order to accept 
that command, had quitted the 
place of rainifter of war. Scheerer 
arrived in Italy about tlic end of 
[ T 3 ] February, 

278] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

February. The Auftrian army, at f ary /latest and the key of Germany 
d fliort diftanoe from the French and Italy. The Auflrians bad iaken 
army of Italy, occupied the parallel three principal portions on tlie 
line of the Adige, from the Italian Adige, which were well fortified, 
Tyrol to bejond • Rovigo. About and well chofen. - The drd was an 
50,000 men were diftributed along entrenched camp at Pai^rengo, near 
this lioQ, whiie the army of referve, Buflblengo ; the fecoml pofition was 
amounting to nearly the fame num- oppofite to Verona, and confifted 
ber, were cantoned in the Trevi- of entrenchments; thrown upon all 
iano, Camiola, and Fruili. All the avenues to that place. It was 
thefe troops were under the com- intended as a point of lupport, both 
mand of general Kray, until lieute- for the right and left, and therefore 
nant-^enend Melas fliould come to it was the moA important : lor 
take the chief command. From this which reaion a camp had beeo eHa- 
/latement it appears that the French blilhed behind it, on the road of 
Bad a vail fuperiority, ip point of Vicen^a, to be occupied by the 
number, but that the Aullrians had troops of referve quartered in Tre- 
their forces concentered on a (hort vifano s^id Friiili. The third and 
line, and that they could not be left hand pofition was, the fortified 
attacked on that line while the town of Legnago. Nothing ma- 
French and their auxiliaries were terial happened between the twq 
icattered over the furface of Italy, armies till tb^ twenty>ifitth of March, 
from the foot of the Alps to the Qn tl^et^enty-fixth, general Scbeer- 
firulohs of Naples and Manfredonia^ er, bis ^rmy formed in fix divi- 
iiad conflantly to keep in fubjedion, ifions, and confiding c^ about 
and oflen to combat, a population of 45,000 men, piarch^d agaiafl the 
above ten millions of fouls, and three principal pofi lions' of their 
were obliged to guard the coafls of opponents.. The battle was very 
the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, obflinate during the whole day.—: 
on which hoHile troops might, at Several pofls were taken and re- 
any time, be landed by the £ng- taken. The AuHrians acknow- 
lifh, RufTiaii, and Turkifh fleets, ledged, in the conQi^l of that day, 
which held the dominion of the two 2,800 killed and wounded. The 
fcas, (>loc|ccd up the ports of Corfu, French fuffered as feverely, but tliey 
Ancona^ and Malta, and frequently lofl only 300 men in prifoncrs.— 
appeared before thpfe of Leghorn, Scheerer had complete fuccels, and 
Civita-Vecchi^, and Naples. maintained his equality jn the 
The tafk allotted to the army of centre: but his right divihon, which 
Italy, was, tp' pierce through the was ordered to take and burn Leg- 
Jine of the Adige, to drive the nago, twice repulfed by t^c Au- 
Au Brians behiri4 the Brcnta, and /Irian advanced polls, were corn- 
even, ifpqfnble, opt of Italy, and at pletely routed, and obliged lo fly 
lead to penetrate into the (but hern towards Mantua, leaving above 
parts of the Tyrol, whilf; Ma(lisna '2000 men killed and wounded, 
iliould ifttack it on th(> {jafj, and With 600 prifoners, and ele\tfn 
Joufdan on the north ; ip a worc)^ to pieces of cannon. The Polifh Wgi- 
furroand anfi conquer that province, on of Dombroulky, compofed alnioft 
at once the ramparts of the heredi- entirely of Aulbrian dcfcrlcrs, ha.. 
••'•■• ■' ^•'-  • •". ying 


right of the Anflrmns and the road 
of Vicenza, on which general Kray 
had witely pofltd his refervc, or, 
more properly fpcaking, the main 
body of Itic irmy. Thtee Aufirian 
columns came up with I hem on tlieir 
marth, and af lacked them with fuch 
fpkit, that they Could not red ft, 
bat vv ere obIip:e(l to retire towart's 
their bridge, lulJ three leagues dif- 
tant. Their retreat wa^ nothing 
but a continued engagement. Thev 
continued it for a long time in good 

• \rz been at this affair, Ihe Auftrfan 

loldien, to whom their officers called 

ojt fkirc-* Jf^rro, as much ih vain as 

h'vinnibal did to his at Thrafymene, 

>^Ci:ld jfive mo quarter, but exter- 

M;n«ited with* their bayonets, and 

1 e bur-ends 6f their muikets all 

i'r.i^ men of that loj^ion Who fell 

ii.'o tlicirhancUk The engagement 

tif nit*<! (b decifive In favour of the 

-■\iit::ins, that genera! Kray Wai 

f-n the point of pufliing on to Man- 

ti:a, wlien a courier brought him 

•:.ti*ir;jfnce of the difaflcr eMperi- order ; but, when the left Aiiftrian 

eficed otj hh rights from tlic fuc- column faw that they approached 

<^r>:ul attack by Schcerer*s left. — 

Notwithftanding the fatigue of his 

l:^x>p<;, he marched them the fame 

tvening to the afTiflance of Ihe 

cffiire and of the right, leaving, 

I.t-pnago. A part of thefe re-in- 
t'Vceraents arrived at Verona on the 
tftenty-feventh, and the reft on the 
I'venty-cighth. During thefe two 
diys, Scheerer, difconcerted with 
if^e fc^rere check* on his right, at- 
t<*mpted nothing decifi^'C againll 

the bridge, two battaltons of gfe- ' 
nadiersy detached from it with the 
greateft rapidity along the bridge, 
without firing, and uling only the 
bayonet, overcame all refmance, 
ci-cr^ a fufficient corps of ob- feized the bridge, and thuJJ all who 
l<"rvalion between Mantua and had not already pafled wer^ cut off'. 

The French column, which had been 
fent by the mountaiiys, and which, 
in order to arrire at the bridge, had 
more ground to traverfe, mfet with 
a like fate. A party of it immedu 
ately laid down its arms, and thc^ 
^ ^ rert^, in endeavouring tO efcape 

Verona. The two armies were ftill acroA the mountains, v^ere lik^'ife 
fo near to each other, that, on the almoft all taken. TvCo Ihoufand 
twenty-ninth, they were obliged to men feli into the hands of the Au- 
s^ree on a futpention of arms, to ftrians on this day, and the French 
Ijiiry their dead, who lay oil the field loft all the advantages thev had 
l:i<.e the twenty-fixth, and began gained on the twcnty-fixth. On the 
already to infedt the air. On the fir!! of April, general Scheercr, 
I'Mrtieth, two hours before the ex- abandoning all his pofts which he 
r I ration of the truce, according to occupied between the Adige and. 
tif Aaftriatis, the halfof thetroops, the lake of Garda, and placing a 
♦ommanded by Moreati, That is* ilron^ garrilon in Peichiefa, t(H)k a 
-^'^-"t 10,000 men, having pa/led pofition, with hi*? U^ft and centre, 
ir.p Adige, by the bridge of Polo, teyond the Tarfaro, at Magnan, be- 
^:iacked lh« poftsof the Auftrians, tween Villa l-ranca, and Ytbla- 
v-'liich guarded the left bank# over- dclla-Scala, hi-t r'^ht wing bein^ 
' ifne iheiu and advanced till witfcin before Legnago. On the following 
*'iir a league of Verona, while day the A ultrian army encamped ou 
• nother a>lnmn ' endeavoured to the right bank of the Adtge, before 
gim tilt heijhi% -which ilaun^ the Verona, and on the roud So Villa 

[ T 4 ] Ftanca, 

2^0] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

Franca» Thefe Urd days of the the rtght pu(bed on to Vepooa. At 
campaii^n cod the French the Im- this critical moment, nine baltalkin^ 
mcnfe lois of 10,000 men in killed^ ^ of the Auflrian referve, I«'d by ge- < 
ivotlnded, taken, or deferted. • And neral Lat^jerman, march rapidlv 
that of the Auilrians to half the againd the enemy, to the found of 
noifaber. Turkifti mufic. The French, hither- 
'^ Scheerer feeing that the Au- to vidorious, attacked both io flank 
(Irians aheady a^ed partially on the and rear, were at once flopped, 
oflfeniive, and perceiving that they brokefi, and put to flight. To pre- 
wo.uld attack him with an irrefidible vent the Auflrians from following 
iuperiority, when they (lioyld be up this fuccefs, Scheerer and Mo- 
jomed by the Auflrians, who had reau, with their central column^ 
Jqft ^njXna, on the twentieth of reui forced by fome troops that had 
March, and were rapidly advan- remained in referve, rufhcd fb vigor- 
cirg, jud'ged that but little time re- oufly on th« centre of the Auflrians, 
jnained to give the campaign a that they com peHed it to give way ; 
favourable turn. He refolved, and general Kaim, notwithftandin^j 
therefore, to make a new effort to t h is bra ve refinance, was repu! fed til] 
drive the Auftrians pver the Adige, within half a league of Verona.-r^ 
and tp eHablifii himfelf on the other General Lufignan having then come 
i7de of that river. At the fame time up to hi« afliflance, with three bat- 
general Kray formed on his fide the talions of grenadiers, flill kept in rts 
projedl of driving the French from ferve, the ba-ttle was renewed with 
theirgraTjcfcampof Magnan.anddri- redoubled fury, and long maintain* 
ving I hem beyond the Tartar o, or, if e^ with equal fuccefs. The obfli«r 
pouible, behind the. Miucio. It. n^cyofthe Auflians at lafl prevail* 
was on the fame day, the fiAh of ed, and the French on this point 
April, that the two generals refbl- like wife were broken, routed, and 
ved to attack each other. The French purfued with the bayonet at their 
army, aheady reduced to 36,000 backs. Defeated on the right and 
men, moved from their camp in in the centre, the French could not 
three columns, excluilve of the ad- think of drawing any advantage 
vanced guard. Similar reafbns in- from the fuccefs they had had on 
fluencing general Kray, his plan their left. Serrurier followed the 
wa.^ finiilur. His army, amounting retrograde movement of the reft of 
to 4il,000 men, advanced in order the army, which it executed with 
to attack the French. The two great confufion, leaving- behind 
armies were too near each other, them cannon, ammunition, wag- 
as they were marching forward, to gons, and wounded. The trophic^ 
be long in meeting.' The engage- of this victory were feven teen pieces 
ment was foon begun, and by ten ofcannon, 'and neaf 3000 prtfoners. 
o'clock wa^^i general along ail the It coll the viflors in killed and 
front of the line. For the firll two wounded 2500 men. The lofs of 
hour& it was favourable to tlie the French, in killed and wounded, 
French, who gained ground, on all was at lead 3^00 men. 
iidcs. General Serrurier got pof- On the day after the battle of 
felTion of Viila-Franca and maintain- Magnan, general* Scheerer aban-r 
ed himfelf there. The centre and doned Villa-Franca and Ifola-della- 



ficola, and concentrated his army of the Auftrlan armv, lent hh van- 
between \Sautua and Goito. Con- ^«ard, on the tenth, beycwid tUe 
tinuing hif reUrcat^ on tbe (evenlh, Mincio, to occupy the approaches 
he|feflfed the Mincio, near Goito, to Pefchiera; \vhilfl, on the left, 
at the fame time tlirowing a rein- general Klenau pulhed on to the 
forcement of men and proviiions vicinity of Mantua. On the thir- 
into Pelchiera. The Auflrian van ^teenth, the firft columns of the 
guard occupricd the extent of coun- Ruflian auxiliary army, which wcrcj 
try abandoned hy the French, and immediately followed by the otlierv 
pu(hed on to Valeggio, wliere it arrived at Verona, and the day 
leized the bridge over the Mincio. after, . general Melas, having no 
In the mean time, a flying corps, longer any thing tO' fear for hrs rt*ar, 
under general Kienau, either rank pafled the Mincio witlvall his army« 
or took the armed and provifion which on that day he encamptrd 
boats of the French on the Po> and near to Campagnofa* lii< head- 
gained pofleilion of the countries of quarters being at Valleggio. In tin's 
Oiliglii and Govemovolo on the |)otition he was joined by the Ruf- 
fcventli, thuft cutting off the con>> fian army, el^i mated at 2S,O00, bat 
niunication between the Lower Po, not much exceed rng 20,000 iightim^ 
and Mantua. The long I'upprefled men, and by marihal Suwarrow«< 
dcteilation of the Italians for the who took the chief command of 
French now broke forth. The in- the troops of the two emperors* 
habitants of the two banks of the The inadlial^ immediately took mea- 
Po took up arms tor thcmfelvcsi Aires for puQiingfon^^ards, and made 
cat down the trees of liberty, ab- the necelfary arrangements ior the 
jured ^11 revolutionary infignia, and double blockade of Mantua, and 
coropqflled the French troops to dif- Petchiera. Between 18 and 20,000 
perfe about the country, and to fluit men were^ allotted to that (enice, 
themlelves up in Ferrara and Bo* and tlie comninnd given to general* 
iogna. Affairs were equally prof- Kray, who hallened lo invcft the two 
perous ^t the other extremity ot the fortrcHes. On the iourteenth, fit^ 
line formed by the imperial army, tccnlh, iixteenth, and feventc^nth^ 
General Wackaflbwieh, with dif-' Scheerer, >vith his army» reduced 
ferent fmall columns, alter driving to lek than 20,000, purfucd hit 
the fuiemy (torn the valley of the retrograde movements. On tlie 
Chieik, and the two fliores f^f tiie lall of thcfe days, his rtgbt paffed 
lake of Idro^ had taken poffcllion, the Adda: his rear-guard remained 
on the eighth, of the important on the left bank of the Rhine ; bis. 
deble of Kocca d'Anfo, which left in front of the Oglio, be* 
opened the entrance of the Brel- hind Brefcia: his head-quarter* 
cian, aiul placed him in the rear of were at the famous Lodi on the 
the Fiench army. This threatening Adda. Two days aiterward his 
circumdance determined Scheerer head-quarters were transferred to 
to quit the Mincio entirely, and to Calao off the Oglio; and the right of 
retire behind the Chiefia, leaving the army, by an obHcjue movement* 
PeftJhiera. and Mantua to their fate, approached the left of that river 
General Melas, who had arrived and of Brcicia. The allit^ army^ 
9& the eighth, to lake the cofnisand ibili^wed dole pn the footftcps of 
7 '^ \ Stliecrcr, 


Schecrcn reduced ihc tbWh ihd matiifeftly pfdderit, hci^tcned Ae 

^^tedel of Hrelciai and forced the deteAation in which he had been 

French lo abandon the Oglio. On held in Paris : wl>ere the peoylei 

ite twentieth} general Kaim fevere- according to the natural exaggefa- 

if bt^ut the rear guard of' (he ene- tion of their impetuous minds, did 

My'& righti at Cremona, and took not fcrupie to fay, thati durmg ins 

fnttr hundred ^^'ifoners. In this adminiflration, he had intentfnnaIVy 

ltdfon,theRii(rians«fbrthefiril timei prepared the ruin of ifie French 

lycfc engaged with the French. ahny. A court iliartiil was talketl 

The French had fcarcei^ fufiercd of» Theories of the army, and of 

ft firft defeat, when the hatred fdt, the jacobin councils, compelled the 

ahd the revenge referved tor them diredory to ftrip Schcerer of hi* 

broke ibrth with Italian heat. In commaiid» which wa^ given to Mo- 

tt fnoftoenti 4he infurreclion fpred reau> who was not in their favour, 

Jtfelf on the tiitro banks oi" the Po. and who was inverted wilh the 

The French* difpcrfed about the command on the banks of the Adda; 

Country, fell under the blows of where the French army was reinfbrc- 

fhejfe Italians, who Were a few ed by fome troops from Piedmont, 

days before lb obedient, or were from Gcnoai and from the inteiicH' 

obliged to take refuge in the towtjs of France, which, in partj made dp 

ill which they had garrift)ns« Kven for the facrifices of men it had been 

fome townsi and among others Mi- obliged to make, in forming the 

Mndola, Were taken from them by garrifons of Mantua, Pefchieraj 

♦he armwl pealantR, fupportech by Brefcia, and Piizighetoiie. 

foriie light imperial troops. The The potations taken by thftPlrl!n<?h 

fparks of this fire parted, as it were, were thelej the left wing of the 

over tlie heads ot" the French, and French army* commanded by Scr- 

lighted up the Brefcian, the Ber- rurier, defended tlte upper Adda 

l^ameie^ and Piedmont* The people from Lecco, on the lake of Como« 

aflembled in feveral places, and to Trezzo, where it joined to the 

whiire it did not burf^ it threatened, centre, where Moreau took his Ha* 

*rhe fear of feeing a numerous po- tion> compofed of thfe divifiohs of 

^ulation arriving behind him, and generals Vi^of* dnd Gt-enier. All 

ihe impollibiiitv of making head at the place comprized between 

dnt^ againdthis and the Aunrians> Trez^ aod Caftano was occupied 

tHjntributed not a little to determine by thefc two divifiOns. At Iheir 

Schfi*rer to retire, that he might right, and behind CafTano^ was 

concentrate his forcci fecure the placed the main body of fhelr ca- 

fortified places of Ptcdtnont> alid valry. The bridge-head of Caflano 

•cceivelhofe reinforcements (boner) was ft rt)ngly entrenched, and pro^ 

which were on tiieir way from tccled by the artillery of the catlle. 

France) and from Switderiand. But It was protefltti likeWife by. the 

♦he reveries, and retreat of this canal between the Adda and Nfilan, 

eoiAmanderi though the Ibrnier do Kned with riflemenv and defended 

not appear to haitj been owing to by a great number of batteries raifecf 

any thing that could be much, if at along the banks of the ri\'er* The 

all) blamed in hii* condadti and the right of the* French armyj ^u^rded 
htleri iii hi* rircumriam^s, WM by ^^neral DelmaS) had Us prin« 



«ipal force at Lodi and Pi zxlg lie- 

On the twenty-lhird, the allies 
continued their. march without im- 
p/fi;r/,ei.t, and eiicamped on the 
hsuKy of (he Advia, tiLin^ their 
pt>{ii!ons alon^ that river. at)d Ica- 
Vti)^ thoii? occupied by ()u French. 
T{ii»ir head-qiianer«4 piaegu at 
Trcviorjio. General Kaims' rlivi- 
fi:»M held Pizzi^het"i',f in check, 
o' icrvcd tlie Lower Adda, and 
ai.'^-ance p.irticN beyond tliC Po, to Parma. Oneoflhefe 
parties was lent into the latter 
p*ace to carry oflfthe Pope, whom 
the French were condu6ling into 
France. But the AuiUians, who 
weie not informed of this circum- 
^ance, before it was tuo late, did 
rot arrive at Parma till twenty-four 
hour^ aOer the unfortunate Pius the 
fixth, had been torn from thence. * 

The line occupied hy the French 
on the Adda, though they were 
only 2.S0O0 ClTong, was of more 
than ii!ty miles. Mardial Suwar* 
row, unable to turn this line, and un- 
willing to be impeded by it, refol- 
vecl to force it on the twenty- feventh, 
and to niake attacks, at the fi|me 
time, on its centre and left points, 
on which it was beft dc/ended. In 
the night, betweqn the twenty -fi%tl] 
and twenty -Seventh, general Wuc- 
Icallowich made himfelf mafler of 9 
flying bridge, tyhich the enemy had 
been negligent epough to deftroy 
but imperfedjly. Having quickly 
repaired it, he marched four bat- 
talions and twp fquadrons acro(s tj)e 

river, and took up a pofition ^ 
Brivio, an important point, fituate^ 
at the end of the road leading tq 
Milan, from the lake ofComo, on 
the centre of the allied ^Tjny ? tsy 
reach the c»ppofite banks of tJic 
Adda, was not (o eafy, Jt wai( 
llrongly guarded, its courfc r^pij^ 
and finuous, and its banks Aecp, 
This pallkge could be etre61ed only 
by a concurrence of boldnefs, fictj^ 
vity, and good fortune. This jconr 
currence marfhat Suwarrow lioped 
to find and obtain in the marquis 
de Chaftdler, his qnarter-ma^cr 
general. The marquis having fen( 
an officer of pontooncers, op (be 
night of the twentv-fixth, to recon? 
noitre the banks ot the river oppo*' 
lite Trezzo; and having receivejj 
a report that it was impoOiblp io 
throw over a bridge at that place^ 
repaired to the fpot himfelf. He 
employed fome hundreds of thjt^ 
troops almoli all night, in carrying 
the pontoons and planks neceffary to 
the conftrudion of a bridge, to the 
ed:^e of the water. At half aftef 
five the next morning the bridg<$ 
was completed. All the light troopi| 
belonging to the centre ofthe alliecJ 
army, having made haft^ to pafs thi^ 
bridge, fell upon that part of the 
divifion which had occupied Trezzo^ 
drove it from thence and repulfed i| 
to Pozzo. A battle enfued between 
Pozzo and Bfivio, the French 
were driven out of the ^ illage, and 
fome hundreds made prifonprs. Ge- 
neral Melas thfcw a flying bridge^ 
which he had in readinefs, oyer the 

* The aged snd in^rm fathef pf t^e carholif church, a^ ht pafTcd to Valence, 
through Dzup)nnfy was every where received, by multitudes of peoplr, with fentiments 
and expredions of fy.-npathy, refpcft, and veneration. Thty fell on their knees and 
^em^nded his Wr fling : which he beftowed with great goodnefH and grace in a very 
9ffc€t\r.i manner. After an indifpofition of feveral days, he expired at Valence, on 
Jhc nineteenth &t Auguft, in his eighty- ft<ond year. He was ele<ftcd pope, Febniary 
1 5, I775. UnUackcd hmc was thrown into the grave Co confume his body. 

684] ANNUAL REGISTER, ligbl 

AddvL, pafled it wi^h bis two divi- 
iion^, and rejoined, on the fame 
ti'rght; marflial Sau'nrrow, at Got- 
gonzello. The enemy who re- 
tired . towards Milan were purlued: 
but the obfcurity of the night, and 
tfie fatigue of tne. allied troops, fa- 
voured their retgeat. On the nior- 
t'ov^, general Melas's divifions, left 
fetigucd than thole of the Ruffian 
marfliars marched towards Milan, 
whtyre they arrived without any ob- 
ftacle. The imperial troops wer^ 
received, in that populous capital of 
lombardy, with tlie fame demon- 
firatidfis of joy tliey had lavifiied on 
the French three years before. On 
the fame ni^ht, marflial Suwarrow 
arrived at Milan with his whole 

General Wuckaffowich, by fin>- 

Jrizing the paffagn of the Adda ^^t 
irivio, and poftin^* himfcif at that 
place, had cut off the line of com- 
munication between the centre and 
the left of the French. This divi- 
fion, commanded by Serrurier, 
was on the point of being fur- 
rounded, on the twenty-eighth, b)' 
It body of Auftrians and Ruflians 
under Wuckatfo^xjch, battered in 
^^ery dire61ion with his artillery, 
find charged witli his cavalry i \a hen 
the general, whofe foFce was now 
reduced to three thoufand men^ de- 
manded to Capitulate, which was 
granted lo him. The conditions 
wefc, that the whole troops fliould 
|ay down their arms and (^e made 
prifbners of war. The generals and 
pfficers, however were permitted to 
return to France, on tlieir parole, 
not to ferve again until exchanged. 

This Taft condition was a mark of 
refpefl (hewn to the bravery of oM 
general Serrurier, and td the pro- 
bity of bis condua.* The l»ttte 
of the twenty-feventh, and the 
a6!ions to which it led, on the upper 
Adda, rofl the republicans fiva 
thoufand men made pri(oner<; be- 
fides Tour thoufand wounded or 
killed. The lofs of tlie allies, on 
thefe different heads^ amounted at 
leaft to two thoufand hvi^ hundred 
men, and thirty-two pieces of can- 
non on the field <tf battle, and a 
much greater number at Milan, 
Thus it appears that the impe- 
rial ifts fought for the fafef\ of Ve- 
rona under its walls, on the twenty- 
fixth and even thirtieth of March, 
and that eight-and-twenty days 
after, they were- eflabliftied in Mi- 
lan, having, in the interval, inveftcd 
two fortrelTes, forced the paflage of 
a river lined with entrenchments, 
obtained two brilliant victories, 
killed or woundt^ more than fif- 
teen thoufand men, made a like 
number of prifoner*, and taken 
more than one hundred pieces of 

After the battle of the Adda, 
Mureau, compelled to yield iM 
Milanefe to the conquerors, found 
himfclf in a very embarraffing fitu- 
ation. He had with him Icarcely 
fifteen thoufand ; 'and wliat re- 
mained of his forces, on his right and 
left, hardly amounted to ten thou- 
fand more. With this ftnall num- 
ber, he had at once tq preferve his 
communication with Swit^rland^ 
to defend the approaches of Turin, 
tq cover the fortified places of eaft* 

^ This old gentleman, prcfervlng, under the republican Aandard, that fenfe of honour 
which had raifed him to the rank ot lieutenant under the oW government, kepi liimfclf 
fi> pure, in the midft of the extortions committed by the other generals^ that he was 
called the Via GSN qf tne A&my* 



em Vledmoni, tg fecure the pre- waAe the campaign ip a war of 

ftrvalion of (be pafTes of the Ap- pofts and fieges, and thu« torelard|^ 

r>enlncs, lo leave to the army o)^ or even prevent, any projed of in* 

Napl«-s Ihc means of effedling Ilj vafion they might form againft 

retrot, and to fupprefs the iniur- Francci and give the republic tiine 

rt'clions, which \yere breaking out to collect new armies. 

^j^^lr.a him on al) iides* To en- ' - Marftial Suwarrow, after entcr- 

(icavt)ur to face fo many duties, ing Milan, contented hirofelf with 

( "ills, and dangers he made his rigjht fending out lonie light troops in pur* 

f^ill bac|^ from the Adda to the Po; fiiit or the retreating enetny. As 

his centre from Milan to Pavia ; foon as the diiFcrent directions they 

and his left to Novara. He quitted had taken were known, after leav* 

t lis latter town, vyhcre he had his ing four thoufand men, under gene^ 

^cad-quarter?, and repaired to Tu* fal Latterman, to blockade the caf. 

rn. to put it in a Aate of defence: tie of Milan, he put h\$ army in 

r.ut (he city, for which his whole motion on the firft of May, anq, on 

army would hardly have fufficed to the fourth, eftabliihcd his he^d- 

r^rm a gorrifon, but the citadel, quarters at Pavia, General Kray, . 

^I'lch required a much fmaller oiie, who had remained on the Mincio> 

Having made the arrangements ne- widh twenty thonland men, to be^ 

rclliry for this purpofe, and (liflcd fiege Pefchiera and Mantua, mad^ 

^' njcjiule infurieQfons, which dif- himlelf roaficr of the latter on th« 

t'rhed his communication with fifth. Tl>e grand duke Con ftantirtc, 

France, by the vallips of Piedmont, Ion of the. emperor of Kutlia, who 

J^* rejoined hi« army. Too weak was at that time on his way tojoiii 

*'» Ixi enabled to protect equally the army of marflial Suwarrow, wa$ 

>n II Turin, Tortona, and Alexan- prefent, as he palled, at the taking 

^:a> lie determined to leave Pied* polllflion of this fortrefs, which, 

'" nt lo its fatei to dilpute the reft though froalL i* advantijoreoutly fitu* 

I*' Italy inch by inch, and by gain- ated. On the fame day, the fifth, 

i'i( time to lave the campaign. On general Lattcrmun invelled, in 

I'iefevcnth of May, he chofe a pOt form, the cafiie of Milan, and g^ 

^'ion, bv which his right refted on neral Kains that of Pizzighetone* 

Altxandria, and the Tanaro; and This Ii/1 place, fur rendered on tb<^ 

^"^ left on Valentia and the Po. ninth, aftvr an cxplufior^ of a fmall 

^s this pofition, on one fide, he fup- magazine of pc»wcU;r. 1 he garxifun, 

p»rtcd Tortona, and on the other, confiliingofiix liuudred joaen, wer^ 

U the courfe of tJie Po, gave fome made priiciiers of war. 

pfi'k-Qion ^oTn^in. He prc*ferved, From the time that mnrnml Su*- 

i't thcfam^ lim^, if not thefhottefl, warrow perceived tlie defenfiv^ 

at k*aft his niofl irojK>rtant commu' plan adopted by Moreau^ he rc- 

iiications with France* as well at duccd his own to Lbree principal 

^'iIj the Genoefe territory, and points: lo interrupt, as much a$ 

<^'>nfequenlly with the army of Na- poffible, Moreau's coraraunicationf 

P'*:'5. And, what he had princi- with Switzerland and* France; to 

pally in view, hfi hoped thereby to cut oft (.hat which he^ l;iad with 

^ix the attention of the allien in the Tufcany and with tlie array, of Nar 
«-''i;tEe o( Italy, tv oblige them tq pks> and to oblige: him to quit the 

• ' ' * advantageous 

9§6J ANNIJAL KEGiStER, ng§ ' 

advantageous pbfition which he had and folely inilifary, ' to give a (te* 
taken. General Wuckailbwich, tailed Account. All that can .b« 
faking pofleffion of the whole of the done in the political hiflory of to- 
left bank of the Upper Po, aban- rope, 6n our f cafe, is to keep an eye 
^oned by the French, pufhed his on the principal bodies of the con- 
ad vancea pods as far as Chiavadb. tending armies ; to record the mol! 
A (!rong detachment of his corps, ftriking cifcunoAances, and the prin- 
uhder the command of prince ci pal events of the campaign; and 
Charfes of Rohan, entered the vaN to mark the mod critical periods, 
hy of Aafli, and took potteflion of and the final iffue of the wRole. 
jorea. The centre of the Ruffian Conformably to the plan already 
if my, under general Rofenberg, oc- . mentioned, marfhal Suwarrow de- 
tupic^ the Lummeline, prefcnting termined to attack^ at the fame time, 
st front againft the French army, both Moreau's flanks. On the 
The left wing traverfed the duchy fourteenth of May, the allied armv 
6f Parma, and occupied Bobbio. pafTed the Scrivia, and encamped at 
The right puflied its advanced pofts St. Juliano, thus taking a pofition 
as far as Vaghera. On the rear of on the right flank of Moreau. Nei- 
the army, colonel Stranch gained ther this movemeni, nor another bf 
more and more ground in the Val- general Wuckaflbwick on the other 
t^lline, and took the important poft fide, (liaking the firmnefs of Mo- 
6f Morbegno. Prince viftor of reau, marftial Suwarrow, hoping to 
Rohan, with two thoufand men, weary him oiit by a new movement, 
stid^d by the inhabitants of the gave orders to his army, in the night 
^6untry, after taking poffeffion of of the lixteenth, to fall back and to 
Como, purfued the enemy, who had go and pafs the Po, near Cafa 
retreated to Chiavenna. Another Tifma, ^nd from thence tp proceed 
tbrps, fent from Milan, -proceeded towards the Sefia. Moreau, in- 
as far as Arona, on the lake Mag- formed of this order, or for fome 
gione. Such is the condenfed pic- other reafbn, in the night of the fif- 
ture of the multiplied operations teenth, threw a bridge of boats over 
which the allied army undertook the Bormida, and on the iixteenth, 
dt the beginning of May: opera- in the morning, pafled that river 
tions which divided it into a great with ten thoufand men. He over- 
number of corps, and thus, very threw the advanced ppfts of the al- 
itiiich reducing the principal body lied army, and drove them by Mi- 
6f the army, afforded Moreau the ringo, towards St. Juliano. An 
hope of being able to maintain his a£tion enfued, in which, after feve- 
ground. The allies were adling on ral vicifStudes, he was forced to re- 
a line almoft circular round the ba- treat, and at the 611 of the night, to 
fon, formed by the Alps and Ap- draw back all his troops acr6fs the 
penines, and interfedled by the Po. Bormida, with a lofs orone thoufand 
Of the great variety of objedls which twohundredmeh in killed, wounded, 
{his campaign, in Italy, embraced, and prifbners. On the twenty-fiftb, 
and the multiplicity of adlions going in the afternoon, the combinedfanuy, 
on, at the fame time, in different compofedof three Auffriaui and 6ne 
places, it is utterly impoflible, in Ruffian divifion^ more than thirty 
iinr other than a hiftorv profeflbdij tkonfahd flfoDg, ehti^mped Within a 
, ' 6 hfegul 


kM:r.ieofTurin, in which the rnemy 
hi'I two thoufand dve hundred, un-* 
(Kr ^.^neral Fiorelb, who, refufing 
at fir ft to fiirrender tlie city, rellrccj 
ii'to the citadel ; frotn whence he 
throw into the city fome balls and 
fhells. But having been given to 
«M derftand, that if the firing was 
rntimied no capitulation would be 
ftiiowrcd him, he readily con fen ted 
i'> a convention^ by which he en- 
pi^ed to fire no more on the town^ 
a I he allien did not fire on the cita- 
fid from that quarter. The four 
^»itta!ions, which had been left at 
M.'Ian, with general Latternian, not 
'>»^in^ fufiicient to undertake the 
nv'^e of the caftic, marflial Suwar- 
r^>w commiffioned general count 
Hohen»Hern to go and lay fic'ge to 
fhecartlc of Milan, and gave hinj 
(^\ battalions mof^ for that purpofp. 
Om iho night, between the twentieth 
««nfl (wenty-flrA, the count opened 
'ne trcnchen againfl the caflle ol* 
^!|ldn,and,on the twenty-third, the 
^''mmandant, bei ng Tun)nioned a fe- 
J"nd time, confentod to capitulate, 
r«'e principal conditions were, that 
tie garrifon, conii fling of two thou- 
iai.(l twQ hundred men, fliould re- 
♦lirn to France, but (boufd not fprve 
f-^ra year againfl the two emperors. 
Ji was at this time much regretted, 
(•)■)! this garrifon, as well as that 
''f Peichiera and fome others, hacl 
r. t been made prifoners of war, 
'I'iread.of returning to Francp, 
^':<'re they were made ufe of to 
'^^ntain the dire^orial defpotifm, 
t'J acl againfl the royaIif{s of Brj- 
unny, and to enable the French 
'filers lo fend troops to the armies, 
*«^hich they would otherwifa. have 
t '^n obliged to keep in the interior 
•J rrance. But the allied generals 
Htre dtfirpus of pouverting be? 

fieging into difpofoable corp« g< 
foon as poflible. The capture ol 
the caftlc of Milan did not coft the 
Auftrians fifty men. The maga- 
zines, which were found here, ap4 
at Brcifcia, Cremona, P«rchicra, 
and otlier j^lacvs were immenfe, ^))ji4 
abundantly fupplied the allied ^f- 
niies. The fpoils of Italy, at lc^(^ 
thofe of the foil, paft, in part frofn 
the hands uC the French, into Ihbfp 
of the imperialif^s. The citadel qi 
Ferrara alio was taken by capitula- 
tion z on the twenty-luurlh, tfjc 
garrifon, confifting of one thoufanfl 
tive hundred and twenty-five mop, 
were fen t to France, under the en- 
gagement not lo fervefor fix months 
againfl tlie allies. Two days after-^ 
wards, the \e(i wing of the y\uf|riaps 
extended itfelf fliM farther. Foyr 
companies of A uflrian infantry, l^j^- 
nt the mouth of the Po, took pof- 
fclTion, without obftacic, of Vor^t^ 
Digoro, and, on the twepty-fixth, pf 
Porto primero, wherp they difcm-r 
barked, and from whence, fupportcii 
by three hundred infurgcnls of th(5 
pouptry, they marched agaipfl K^? 
venna, ipto the port pf which an 
Auflriaa fk>tilla| had'Jufl entered 
at the fame time, The French ape) 
the Italian patripts fhqt its gate$ ^ 
but one of them was foon forced^ 
and th(! garrifon obliged to fly by 
another towards Lucca, The cap- 
ture of Ferrara and Ravenna com? 
pleted the eflablifliroent pf the Auf* 
triap5 on the Lower Po, gav^ fup? 
port to their lei\^ and rendered thpir 
maritime communications, and the 
arrival of their tr^nfports, piore eajy 
and more feci^re, Thus the AuA 
(rians, confine^ an4 tbr^^tene^J ei.^ 
they bad been at tha end pf Marph, 
Qf\ the of the Adijge, \\§i, in 


«88] ANNUAL REQISTER, 1790. 

two months/ carried their right to fubdued ; left there his heavy ^f* 
the frontiers of France, and their gage, and with a reinforceinent of 
left if> tlic Adriatic fca. all the troops in that date, except- 
It has already been fcen that, at ine fome fmaU garriibns which he 
the opening of the campaign, the left at Rome, Civita Vecchia, Vi- 
French were niafters of only a part terbo, Pegia, Konciglione, and 
of the provinces, and of the capital Ancona, he haftened towards Tuf* 
of the kingdom of Naples. Since cany, the capital of which he reached 
thai time> general Macdonald had on the twenty-fourth of May. He 
been prevented from extending found there tne dtvi6on of geoeral 
iheir conquefts by the gradual di- Gauthier, and eilabliflied acommu- 
miiyition of his army, which, for nicatioii with that of general Mon- 
fome month.s had received no rein* trichard, which ^as oppofcd to ^ 
ibfcementii, by the antied loyaliAs, neral Klenau, in the country of Bo- 
un^br cardinal Rufl<), and other ip- logna, and in Romagna. The \inm 
fe r lor leaders ; by threat** of defceni of all thefe tr<x)ps, corapofed o(' 
from the EngliQi, Ruflians, and French, Italians, and Poles, formed 
Turks, who cruized on the coafls of an army of about twenU'*tive thou- 
both Teas; and ladly by (hedifatlrous fand men. With thi.s force, Mac- 
news which he received from Up- douald hadtojoinMoreau, whowas 
per Italy. He had been obliged to atone hundred and fifty milejidil^ 
content himfelf with fecuring the ^^ri^* and to ovc^rcome the niultipiied 
fubmidion of the capital, witli putr obfiaclcs, prcfoated both by the na« 
ting the coafts in a Aale of defence, ture of the country and the enerov. 
and completing the reduction of the To effedl an union with his col- 
two provinces of Ahruzza and Ca^ league, he had two roads» on dif- 
'pi'ana, and of the tvvo.princi pa lilies; ferent lides of the Appenines : the 
which rcduciion i)c had not been one goes along the Riviera di Po* 
able to cill'Ci but by burning ieveral nenle and is knovvn under the name 
towns and vilhigcs, and putting to of the Corniche: but it could rot 
the fword fome thonfands of pea- ailmit of the palfuge of artillery i;r 
Cmts. Such was the fituation of even 'of baggage. Th^e fect>rd 
Macdonald, when he received, from ''^^"d was that between the Appt- 
the directory, an order to e,vacuate nines and the Po, acrofs tfaeducliit< 
the kingdom of Naples and join ^f Modena, Parma, and Placeniia. 
Morcau. According to his infrruc* This was the road clK>fen b\ the 
tions, he depofited all power in the two republican generals, who al- 
hands of the patriots; leaving, ior ready had a free and fpeedy inter* 
their fupport, republican corps, courle with one anotl>er by the Ri- 
raifed in the country^ and tlje gar- viera di Levante, and begaa tooth 
rilons of St. i''(me, of Capua, and c-ert their plans and meaaires, M- 
Gucta, which could eafily com in u- tliough Macdonald had refolvcd t.) 
nicale and aflift one another. Sot- ad^^ance between --the Appeninci 
tiiig out, with all the relt of his and the Po, it was, nevertheleu, 
troops, lie traverfed, in dole co- ucceirary that he ihould be mafttc 
lumns, the RomiAi ftate, of which of thcjoad by the Corniche, for »t 
l^vvrai parts fvere but imj^er^ec^ly was by tliis tlial he was to prcit/^e 



rtttStORY OF EUROPE. [28d 

Ills inlercourfe with Moreau, nnd, by \^Tth a pnrt <>f his army, to reinforce 

road<; branrhii^g off from thi??, that he mariha] Siiwarrow, wherever he 

covild pcnetratfe into the plain acrols (hould be required to do io. This 

the mountains i Alacdohald, on occafion was now come, and, con- 

the twenty-fixth> allembiing' his fcquently, as has been mentioned in 

troops, on the frontiers orTiifcany, the pr^^ceeding chapter, general 

proceeded on his iftarch, diflodging Bellt^garde, quitting that country, at 

Ihe iroperialifts from Jcveral impor- the end of May, virith^bout fodrteea 

tant pofts as he advanced, particu- thoufand men, arrived at Milan on 

larly that bf Ponlretnoli, and> on the the fourth of June. He was then fent 

"thirlietli, had his head-quarters to, by Pavia, to candii6l the blockade 

at Lucca. Meanwhile, Moreau «f Alexandria. This reinforces 

adranced half way to meet his ment, with fome free corps, from the 

colleague; and, leaving only his hereditary flates, enabled the fielj- 

Jeft wing in the pofition of Coni, marfhal to nnite about forty thou- 

arrived with his right acrofs the fand fighting tnen to oppofe the 

inaritime Alps at Savona, occupy- two French general. Macdonald^ 

ing with his centre the upper Valley after two a6lions with the impe- 

of the Tanaro. Pufhing on a divi- rialifts, on the tenth and the twelfth, 

fion fliJ? farther^ he occupied, with in one of which he himfelf was 

confiderablc force> the defile of the pretty feverely wounded, advanced, 

Bocbetta, and other pafles of the on the thirteenth, towards Rheggio, 

Appenines. AIT preparatory med* entered Parrtja on the fourteenth, 

fores being iaken^ Macdonald put from which the duke and all his 

his army in motioh On the family fled on his approach, and on 

eighth of June, inarching himfelf the fifteenth arrived at Placentia. 

with the centre toward Modena, Marfhal Suwarrow, leaving Wuc-» 

and the other divifions talcing the kafTowich, with a corps ot obferva- 

road to Fomovio and Rheggio, tron, fn the province of Mondovi, and 

As long as marfhal Suwafrow had general Kaim with the brigade of 

tmetwniy but Moreau* he cuuld, with Lufignan, to cover, on the (?de of 

the forces he had, continue the war, France, the ficge of Turin, Yet out 

and even aQ offenfively againft the from the city, on the tenth/ with 

army of the enemy. Bat he had the principal part of his armv, 

forefeen that, wlien Macdonald amounting to from twenty- five to 

Ihoald come to throw his weight thirtythoufand, and placed his hoad- 

into the fcales, his fituation would quarters,' the fdlne day, Tit Alt't, 

he much altered. He had, there* from which they were transferred, 

fofe, beforehand, afked for rein* on the twelfth, to Acqui. On iha 

fbrcemetits, both at Peteriburgh and fifteenth, he let out with a little 

Vienna. The firft of thefecourt«, more than twenty thotiland men, 

detathed to his affiftance eleven of whom two-thirds were Ruflians. 

thonCalid men, of the fort}-five A dreadful battle enfaed, which was 

ihoxdkni, which it had deflined to interrupted only by the night, on 

%i6t in SwitJterlaod. The fecond, the feventeenth, eighteenth, end 

attrfbating lefs importance to the 'nineteenth, on both fides of the 

ccnquefl of Switzerland than of Trebbia. Macdonald, though 

Jia/y, ordered general Bellegarde, wounded, followed and defied 

Voi^XLl. [\J} his 

290] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1799. 

his array, wlilchy being thirty thou- formably to the capitulation^ th^ 
fand ^rong, was equal, in numbers, garrifun, two thoufaiid fcven huiv- 
to that of the allies. This battle, dred men, was conduced, on the 
or courfc of battles, terminated to twenty-fecond^ to the frontiers of 
the advantage ofmarQialSuwarrovv. France, afler laying down its ariof 
General Macdonald, afler loCmg ou the glacis, and giving its fiarole 
more than a third of his army, re- not to ierve, till exchanged, againi^ 
turned to the •fauie fpots to which tlieeniperorofXjIermany and hi sallies* 
he had fet out. The lofs of the About the end of June, tlie juno* 
allies, in killed and wounded, was tion of general Bellegarde's corp^, 
little iefs than that of the enemy, the co-operation of general Had-^ 
JMardial Suwarrow haftened back, dick, in the valley of Aou (I and the 
marching his army towards Alexan- NovarrTe, and the arrival of a 
dria, to go to meet Morcau, who frefli body of eleven tlioufand Rui^ 
Kad pailed the Appenines, raifed the fians ou the Brenta^ put marihal Su- 
blockade of Tortona, and forced ge- warrow in a flate to oppofe ninety 
neral Bellegarde to retreat behind thoufand men to the fixiy thouiand 
the Burmida. Moreau, on the ap- of the French, wh<» were, exclufive 
proach of the RuQian commander, of the garrifons of Mantua, Tortona. 
retired to Genoa. and AlcKandria, garrifons which 
An event, highly advantageous to amounted fcarcely to fifteen*thou- 
the allies, wIiicTt happened at the fand men. The advantage, which 
fame time with the victories of the marilial Suwarrow fought now to 
Trebbia, completed their triumph, derive from his fuccefics, wa« re- 
and juflified the hazardous and fin- duced to two principal objedts, that 
gular plan for the campaign, adopted of recoiiqutnng Tufcany, and 
by the chief commander. The ne- taking the three ilrong places juil 
(cffary preparations retarded tlie niculloned. It had been with ex- 
open ing of the trer.cher., before Tu- tremc reluctance that the fubje6ls of 
rin, till the twelfth, when they were the grand duke of Tufcany, at- 
boldiy ope!ied at three hundred tachcd to their fovereign, and his 
paces diftant i'rom the covered niild and equitable adminiilration, 
way. The principal batteries were fubmllted to the French yoke* As 
diimounted; the barracks, maga- foon as Macdonald had removed 
2ines, and a great number of build- himfelf from the Appenines, many 
jngs, including general FiorellaN own thoufands of the inhabitants of the 
houfe^ were fet on /ire : water had pfovince of Arcz£o, encouraged and 
penetrated into the cafemaie>, which directed by Mr. Windham* the en- 
had been negledted: and anti-repuh- voy from England, took up arms in 
licandifpoiitions wcremanifefledby favour of their fovereign, and (boB 
apartofthegarriibn,which wasL'om- amounted to twenty-five thoufand 
pofed wholly of Swifs and Piedmon- men. At the fami? time, a Cifal- 
tefe. All thcle circumfiances de- pine general, Lahooze, command- 
termincd the commandant to capi- ing, for France, a corps, of Italian^ 
tulate. The capilulallon was li^necl* in the march of Ancona, together 
on the twcati<;lj«> at eleven o clock wilh iiis troops, defcrted the caufe 
at night, and the imperialifls wcie of ihe republic, and embraced that 
put in pollellion of the gates. Cou- oftho iilUes. Uiiiting wJtJi his oun 



different bands of infurgents, he re- 
doced, under the power of the al- 
lies, the province which he had, till 
then, defended againft them, and 
proceeded to invert the capital on 
the fide towards the fea, blockaded, 
a« already roentioned,by a fleet, Tur- 
kish and Ru({ian. In thefe circum- 
tbnces, Mocdonald loft no time in 
contriving his retreat from Tufcarvy. 
The tfoops could retreat by the 
Reviera di Levante; but, there was 
no other i^eans of faving the artil- 
lery, the baggage, and the nume- 
rous cherts filled with the fpoil of 
Italy, than to fend them by fea 5 a 
refoarce which the continual crui- 
zing of fome Englifh men of war, on 
the coafts of Tufcany, rendered 
extremely hazardous. But, as it 
was the ©nly fefourct; which re- 
mained, Macdonald U'ni all the ar- 
tillery, ba;;g3ge, and republican 
property, wliich he could collect, to 
be traiifported to Leghorn. Only 
a fmal? part of this could be em- 
bnrked on board an American vef- 
lel, in which manv vJhcers of the 
ftdff, took iheir patlage, as fvell as 
the civil agents oithe republic. The 
veflel (et fail on the ninth, and fell, 
almort in going out of port, into the 
bands of the Eiiglifl^ On the fame 
day, the allies made a more impor- 
tant acquilltion, which was that of 
Urbino, tbegarrifonof which, after 
fufiaining a fire of fume hours, ca- 
pitulated, and obtained permiHlon 
to return into France, on condition 
of not ferving, for ^x months, 
againrt the allies. The preparations 
o? the French for retreat, in all 
parts of Tufcany, encouraged more 
and more the infurreflion of the in- 
habitants. Thofe of P lorence broke 
out on the fifth of July, cut down 
t/ie tree^ of lib.rty, and de(lro)ed 
a/i the odief marks of their lubjec- 

tion. The republican garrifon with- 
drew into the forts, which it quitted 
the next morning, in order to re- 
treat towards Legnorn. This place 
it alfo evacuated on capitulation. 
Afler the evacuation of Florence, 
the infurgentsof Arezzo, fupported 
by the imperalifU, and joined on 
the road by almort all the inhabi- 
tants- of the country, marched to- 
wards the coaft, approached in 
large bodies the places which ti)e 
French ftill occupied, and prepared 
to drive them thence by main force. 
This was unncceflary ; for Macdo- 
nald, whofe^etreat, by the Corniche, 
was by this time rendered fate, and 
in a good mcalure already etrcded, 
gave orders, on lhefeventt;enth, i'af 
the e\'acuation, not only of leg- 
horn, on conditions, but the whole 
of Tufcany. 

While the allies were employed 
in the deliverance of Tufcany, and 
thereby precluding the French 
troops, which ftill pofl'cflcd, in the 
territory of the church of Rome, Ci- 
vita Vccchla, Peruyjia, An^oiia, and 
Fano, froin-all poHibility of retreat, 
Macdonrild, towards the end of 
July, accomplilhcd that of his own 
army, reduced now to about 13 or 
14-,000mcn; and, in the environs 
of (renoa, joined Moreau, in which 
it was bft. By their re-union, ge- 
neral Moreau had a difpofable force 
of 4-0 or 50,000 men, who were 
fpread from the eaftern extremity of 
tne ftate of Genoa, as far as Coni^ 
and occupied, in that line, all the 
defiles of the Appenines. After 
the evacuation of Naples, by Mac- 
donald, cardinal Ruffo, at the head of 
the royalift army.confiftin^ of more 
than '20,000 men, and tome hun- 
dreds of Rufiians, having defeated 
the republican levies of men, which 
were opj)oIed to liiiu, marched a- 

[U 'ij gainft 

292] ANNUAL REG! STfiH, l79^. 

gainft Ihc capital, wliich, on the '{oxi^ wlilch defended it. Tlie ohy 
twentieth of June, (unendered, by towns not yet rtfdiiced, under hu 
capitulation. A few days after, a authority, were Capua and Gaeta. 
coalefted army of Englith, Ruflian, Capiia mrrendered, by capitulation^ 
Turkifli, Pi)rtutrLiefe, and Italian, to commodore Trowbridge, on the 
troops, came into port, animated twenty -eighth. The French garri- 
"by the activity* and directed by the Ton Jaid down their arms on the 
talents of admiVal Nelfan, ana his glacis on the twenty-ninth, and 
xvorthy fccond, captain Trowbridge, marched towards Naples, to be 
To the treaty, which the cardirial (here embarked lor France, on the 
bad agreed to with the prince of ufual condition of not fervinjr again, 
CaraccioU and fome other leaders til! exchanged, againft the allies.— 
of the revolution, on equal terms^ The furrender of Capua was, twa 
admiral N^elfon refufcd to accede* days after, followea by that of 
A body 6f Englifli, Ruffian, and Gaeta, which had only been block- 
^ortuguefe troops, having obtained aded, and whofe gatrifon of courfc 
polTeinon of the cafllcs of Ova and obtained the honours of war, ^nd a 
Nuovo, on the twenty-fixth, under free return to France. Genera! 
the command of captain Trow- Girandon, who commanded, at the 
bridge, invefted the caflle of St. fame time, the troops (hut up in 
tlmo on the twenty-ninth. Seven both places, to the number of more 
batteries, armed with Cannon of than 2,400 French, figned both ca- 
the largeil bore, were fucceffively pitulations, and conlented in botli 
'eredled, and on the eleventh of to furrender, unconditionally, the 
July, 30 pieces (^ordnance were revolted Neapolkans, who had taken 
ready to play on the fort. The rpfugc in Gaeta and Capua, or 
batteries of the place being almofi compofed part of their garrifons. 
alf di (mounted, and the works very It is painfut to relate that the court 
much fluttered, the garrifon de- of Naplc?; chofe rather to adhere to 
ftiandcd to ca[)itnlatc, on the Gime the fecond, ihan the firft cupitula- 
(lay; and the terms were a;;CrGcd on tion. A fpecial commillion was 
and fjgncd on the twelfth. The gar- appointed, which pronounced ft*n- 
rifon, after having laid down their tence of deatir, withx)ut much fbr- 
ann«;,vvas to be embarked for France,- mality, on fuch as had taken an 
on the condition of not fervirg again adlive part yi the iaLe revolutionary government. A dreadful fcene of 
T\:is agreed, that the patriots of Na- executions cnfued, or lather a maf- 
plcs, compoling a part of the gar-, facre of the moll dilnnguiftied 
rifon, fhould be given to the allies ^ among the patriot:^, in which cvcfn 
and, that llie bi)oty, ft>nnd in the fome noble ladies were facrificed to 
fort, Pjould at the fame time be? a, and an atia- 
put into their hands to bereflored kened thirft <^^ blood. Almoft the 
to the lawful owners. wlr»jle of the late leglllalive and 

The king of the Two rKJlics, executivecojim)itr:oncr>,perifiied by 
wholiad hoificd his flag on biard the hands of executioners. Adrai- 
tlie Foudroyant, the Englifli a I mi- ral Nelfon and cojnnujdorc Trow- 
* ral*s fiiip, (aw alfo his flag waving bridge did wUi confine their etfort* 
once niorco\cr his capital, and th« to* the reftoration of the king of 



Ka pies, bill extended them to (hat raini, at the end of July. • General 
of the papal ciTair, While the com- Gaft, IIjc conimandant, informed of 
modore cruized on the coafl of the the rtdilt of the dreadful battle of 
Roman ftate, and blocked wp Ci- Novi, <»f which we are preltntlv 
vita Vecchia, a part of hia fmall to give iome general account, made 
array marched towards Rome. an agreement, on the 23d of Au- 
It has already been mentioned, gufl, with tlie bcficgcrs, to fur- 
that, after tlie viclory of Trcbbia, render hlmfelf on the eleventh of 
and the retreat of Moreaii into the SepieinlhT, if he (liould not be re- 
mountains, marflial Suwarrow em-, lieved before that time. Attempts 
p.teyed hirofeii' merely in befieging were made by Moreau for relieving 
the three ftrong places of Mantua, Tortona in vain ; and the garrifon, 
Toctona, and Alexandria. From agreeably to the capitulation, fur- 
the large circumference, which the rendered to the Aullrlans, and fet 
fortrefa ol Alexandria rendered it forward on jts road to France. 
Deceflary to encJofe, it was not till The misfortunes experienced on 
the fourteenth of July, that the tirft all tides by i^y^ republican armies, 
paraHel, with the ordinary ofTenfive under the old direflory, Jiad fur- 
9Jid defenfive works, was finifhcd, ni(hed to the jacobins, at Paris, 
and tliat tlie artillery was placed both the pretext and the means of 
on the batteries. On the twenty- overthrowing it. The mixed party, 
fir/l, general -Gardanne, the com- which (ucceeded it, having at- 
niander, who had regularly defend- tained the lupreme power, from 
ed the approaclies to tlie body of the defeats oi their prcdeccflbrs, 
the place, au4 never cea(e4 to JLecp hoped to maintain it by viflories, 
up a vigorous fire, having exHaufled The difafbrous battle of Trebbia, 
his ammunition, difpatched an otiicer cotemporary with their elevation, 
fo offer a capitulation, which was thwarted their hopes, but did jiot 
Cgned the fame evening, and pur- deflroy them. It was attributed, 
pwrted tliat -the garrilbn, amounting by themfelves, and by others, to the 
ilill^ including iick and .wounded, negligence or imprudent meafures 
to 2,400, iliould be made prifoners of the former direclory. Relying 
of war, and fent into Germany, on the popularity which commonly 
Oq the thirtieth, Mantua alfo fur* attends newly acquired power, they 
gendered, by csqjitulation. The gar- decreed, with more vigour tlian ever, 
rifon was permitted to return to requifilions of men, money, horfes, 
France, on the condition of their provifions, and military ftores. They 
sol ferving afain until they fliould created a new army of the Alps, 
be exchax^;cd. It amounted flill to and another of the Uhinc. Ana a 
6,700 men, of whom 6,600 only plan of general attack was formed, 
were French. We fliall here iften- as has been ftx-n in the la ft chapter, 
tion the fall of Tortona too, timugh on the enemy's line in Italy, 8 wit- 
it did not happen lill^ fome time s^.erland, and Germany. Moreau, 
after other important events, and being deRined to command the army 
bvw^hich alfb its fall was occafioned. of the Rhine^ was (ucceeded, in 
The fiege of Tortona, which ha(J that of Italy, by general Joubert, 
for lome Ume beeii interrupted, to whom the .directory, which had 
YVa^ recammenced by general A^ been revolutionized on the eigh- 

[U5] tci?nHi 

294] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

» • . - 

teenth of June, tlius reftored the from Aquf, atid taken a pofition at 

fitualion of which he had been de- Orba, in the plain of Alexandria, 

prived a few months before by Tbcfe movements had left marfhal 

their predecefTors. Suwarrow no room to doubt what 

The pliins of general Joubert, were Joubert's intentions : the 

who joined the army of Ital) in field-marfliai therefore concentrated 

the beginning of Auguft, were ma- ht$ forces, and marched, on the 

rialiy deranged by Ine rapid. deter- thirteenth of AuguH, towards the 

minatiOn of the two fieges, ofAlex- enemy, vvho had then penetrated 

andria and Mantua, even to the e>c- * to NWi. 

tin6licn, in a great mealure, 6f his The republican army> on the lif- 

hopes. He was in %vant, befides, teenth, prepared to oiler battle, be- 

of time to reorganise his army; to ing drawn up, in their encampment, 

difcipline the body, lately joined, of upon the heights, terminating the 

confcripts, or new men of the laft e^^tenfive plain of Piedmont, which 

rcquifition ; to receive frefh fuc- form a rJdge or ch$in of hills be- 

cours ; and, above all, to avail him- hind the city of Novi, and \vhrch, 

felf of a diviCon intended (o have though not Very high, yet, frpm 

been made by the army of the Alps, their fudden tife, make the afcent 

formed in Dauphiny and Savoy, by of great difficulty. Notwrthfland- 

general Championet. iftg the ftrength of this advantageous 

In addition to thefe difappoint- fituatfon, Suwarrow, 'by whom dif^ 

inents, 20,000 men were, by the ficulties were not regarded as ob- 

means juft mentioned, on the point ftacles, when his • plan was once 

of being added to the aflive body formed, Tcfolvcd • tipon engaging 

of troops, under general Suwarrow. Jwibcrt in this pofition, the next 

It was of great confeqaence to the morning at the hour of five, being 

republicans to prevent' the Junction the fixteenth of Auguft. 

of fo confiderabic a force ; and this The republicans received the at- 

rcinforcemeni had not left Mantua tack of the imperial troops*^^ 

before Joubert determined to ad on their ufual -firmnefs and intrepidity; 

the offenfive, and hazard a battle, fh' and drc^e back ibcif centre ancf 

order to relieve Toi'R>na. ri^bt wing three fcveral times. The 

The French force amounted to French appeared to be iipmoveable 

ftbout 40,000 men ; the combined in their pofition, und Aifiamed with 

army was more confiderable ; and^ equal vafou^ repeated charges, in fo. 

befides the fuperiority of the latter much that $t noon theVconfidered the 

in point of numbers, they were day as their own. Thte lois of the 

choicer troops, better . ditciplined; combined army, particokfly on the 

and flu(bed with recent vidlories. part of the RnAians, ^ceeded that 

Joubert tru^ifed with no fmalt reli- of the French, until their right win|J| 

ance on his former good fortune, began to give way. This iving of 

and hoped, by the attack^ to fepa- the republican army was "crtm- 

rate the two armies. mandedby'MoreaU, who hid' lately 

Joubert had, a few days bef«>re, been appointed to the command 

advanced his left wing from Mi- of an army form ing* in A\f6t^, but 

lefimo, had crofled the Bormida^ who, from a fingularkttachroent to 

and diflodged general I^^tlegarde Jobbert> remained with hita as a 

 . ^ . volunteer. 


mluntecr, fubmltting fo a61 under 
bis ordors. The French, failing of 
fop port from this Cu\e, could not 
prevent general \h*las, ^vho inoft 
opportunely, and fortunately for 
the fuccefs of the day, came up at 
the head of fixtepn battahons of 
Auftrian infantry, from turning their . 
flank, and purfuing his advantage. 
Joubert, having received a mor(aI 
wound, had by this time quitted the 
command, which now devolved on 
Moreau. The troops difcouraged, 
through die want of their leader, 
foil into difbrder^ about two o'clock, 
And the viftorious army got pof- 
feflion of the hilly ground. The 
republicans then began to retreat 
"ivith twecipitation, and were pur- 
fucd by the whole line. The lofs 
in killed and wounded on both fides 
was great. On the fide of the 
French, eight thoufand men were 
killed, and f«)ur thoufand made pri- 
foners. Thirty pieces of cannon, 
and fifty-feven tumbrils, fell Into 
the hands of tlie Allies, in cmifo-'^ 
quence of tlii« vidory. The impc- 
rialirts paid dear for this viclorv by 
thelofsof fe\'en thoufand men, killed, 
wounded, or lofh Thefe lofl, did not 
exceed fix hundred. The KiifTians 
gave no quarter. 

The .object of genera! Joubert 
l/^'as to raife the fiege of Toftona, 
ani to that ex\d he was to have 
made an attack, on the fixteenth \ 
fn which defign he was nnticipater! 
by the great vigilance of the field- 
maHhaK The republic commander, 
having received a mufketb^H in hi^s 
right fide, did not furviye the de- 
feat of his army more that) two 

Thus fell Joubert, regretted by. 
the army, ami all his countrymen, 
except the jjicobins, who alone re- 
fiifed lo do juflice to his memory, 
*on accoMiu of the independence of 
his fpirit, and his attachment to the 

There cannot exifl a doubt but 
the news of this viflory was received 
at Vienna with all the lenliments 
which fuch brilliant fuccefs merited; 
but it is observable, that the Court" 
Gazette is remarkably cool in 1*3 
mention of the part which tiie Ruf- 
fians contributed towards the glory 
of the day. The Cgnal copdu(^ 
ajid bravery of the field-marfhal, 
who commanded them, certainly 
deferved fome flronger acknow* 
ledgements than are therein to be 
fhund, of the vi^tcry of the fixteenth 
of Auguth 

As loon as the republicans had 
recovered from the con (Vernation, 
occafioned by this defeat, they took 
thL-ir pofiiions nearly iti the lino 
they had before occupied. Su yar- 
row pnrfiied a plan for difpoHefTing 
them of their fituafion, and forcing 
the pafliij^e.s to G>enpa, cither by tlie 
way of the Bochetta, or by the 
eaftern river, or, as it t< tometimes 
called, the river of the Levant ; 
toward*; efre<fling which jr'*neral 
Klenau had made fome proirr«ils; the 
field marHial's ultimate delign be 
ing to furround and form the fi"ge 
of Coni. 

The Auflrians, by the departurq 
of. marftial Suwarrow, on the* 
eleventh of September,"* for Swit- 
zerland, k'ft to conclude the cani- 
paipi in Italy, without the aid pf 
their Ruffian allies, maintained their 

• It has hccn already mertioncd, in our preceding chapter, tihat the marthal had re- 
vived to IjeRin his marcl> three days he6)rc, but that he was kept back by the feint wiiich 
Moreau madc| of wUhing to attempt the ^efcue of Tprcona. 



996] ANNUAL REGISTER,. 1799. 

fuperiorily over the French in three ncral Rodio. By a capitulation, bttt 
feveral attacks. The firtl was made tween the Fee nch general Garni er 
6n the twenty-fecond of September, and coinraodorc Trowbridge, the 
by princ^ Victor de Kohan, on gey prifoncxs, about five llioulandt ta-i- 
neral Thureau, v^ho defended the ken in different ^arrifons, were, by 
vale of Domo DoiTobf and was the capitulation, to be fent either 
obliged to quit it, and re-afcepd the to France or Coriic«» a&. might be 
nountaimi; the recond» was made, judged moil convenient. 
on the twenty-fourth> upon general On the fourth and fiflh of Nq« 
Kray'i leading a detachment to^ vcmber, the Aufirians difplayed, 
wards Aoila, when he repulfed and under general Melas, a iignal piece 
drove the enemy into the higher of good judgement and miluary* 
valley ; the third happened the lame fkill, which was attended with ail 
(l^yy whence prince Lichen Hcin its roeritec) fucceis. By this the 
diflodged him, and took Pigne- French army was prevented from 
role. penetrating into Piedmont, in order 

Befides tbefe advantages, a vie- to raife the feige of Coni, when 
lory wa« gained, by the Aufirians^ it fhould be undertaken^ and eda-* 
over th^ French, in the plains of blifh their winter quarters in that 
Stora, when marfhal Melas, afliftcd cpuntry; an object to themofcon-r 
by general Kray^ heai. twelve thou* ilderable importance. The ^vACuai 
fand French, encamped there, and tion of Mondovi, and other pofl-S 
obliged them to retire to Coni. was midajcen, by. general Cham-. 

After this la/l viftory, the French pionnet, for a re.treat; .Le therefor^ 
undertook nothing to the diflurb- advanced as in purfuit; bpt, ontfao- 
aiice of the i^pper Piedmont. Far contrary, wasmetJby general Me^ 
from indicating any deiign of that las,whenan engagement took. place,! 
kind, Championet, now com- in which the French Iqil four thou* 
mander-in-chief of the two armies faod three hundred men taken pri« 
of Italy and the Alps, removed his foners, bcfides a very confideiabl^ 
head-quarters, about the end of No- number in killed and woanded, 
vember, tack to Final ; not, how- The French likewife failed it> ano- 
cver, entirely leaving his former ther attempt, which waii to cut ofT 

tofition on the A pcnnmes, whereby the communication with Turin. 
e could prqte^ and watch Genoa General Kray attacked them in thet 
and Qoni. neighbourhood of Alexandria, and 

, On the twenty-ninth and thirtieth made one thoufand prifoners. la 
nf Septerpber, commodore Trow- thefe battles the Aufirians Jofl two 
J>ridge took poffedion of Corneto, thoufand killed and wounded. 
Tolfi, and'Ciyita Vecchia, which This fignal vidory prepared tbd 
he had blockaded with two fhips of way for the (iege of Coni. Genera) 
war; at the fume tinie that general Championel aiTemblcd his whole 
Bonricard, in the fervice of theking force at Mondovi, and upon the 
pt Naples, entered {lome ; which mountains as iar as MonafleHo, in 
a few French and fbme Romans, which pofi lions it was not poflible 
headed by the prince, Borghefe and to befiege Coni, a fortrefs which had 
St. Croce had defended, for fix fuflained many attacks without falU 
iveeks> againd tlie Neapolitan g^ in^; ; as> belides its difHcuIty of ap* 



^>roach, it bad received every addi- ' The ftronj^ 'fortrefs pf Coni, ontj 
CionaJ Itrcngtli the moll able cngi*. of the ftroiiacft iu Eur,ope, and (he 
jieefs could poliibly lufirgcft to reii- only one which remained iu pollef- 
dor it impregnable. In addition to t;i>n of the French, in Ilalr, /ar'« 
aH this^ the French had furnilhed rendcrerl to the Auflrian amis, on 
it witli every nocc(ra.ry meaiis for the tlurd of December, The ^ar- 
defence» and had added fome new- rifon, to llie number of three ihou*- 
svorks, Thiswasnow tiioonlyftron}^ (and, wore made prifoners of war«^ 
place remaining in Italv, i^i which tiie. and conducted to the imperial ilate^. 
f rench repubiicar\s had a garrifon. The. trepches before Coni were 
The French having evueuated the opened, on the twentyrilxth of N<>- 
citadal of Mondovi by iiigh^, re- vember, from which tiiae to it» for** 
treated to Vico and Omiica, .pur** reader tiie ilege w^s conducled by 
fued by general Bell egardc. j prince.LichUinllein. 

 On the eleventh of November, . TliefituationoftijcAuftrlanshad,. 
th« city of Ancona capitulated. U before that event, been daily im- 
ivas befic^ed not ouly by Anftrians provnigin other parts of Italy. They 
find R uihans, but alfo • by EngliGi had, among otiier advantages, ob* 
c^nd Turk^k The ilrails to vfbich. taiaied podeHion of the important 
the ^rrilbn and inhaii^itants, the polls in the valley ofStnra. Mon- 
latter, to the number of twenly-fi>ujr dov.i.' ,Ceva,j and Scrravalle, iiad 
^loufand, were driven^ by the iiege been fiirreudiTed to Lbc Au(lnan« ; 
of this place, which w^^ begun to' and there remained, in aihltaly^ 
be bombarded on the third of Sep* qaly G^noa and iti; fmali territory, 
tember, are fcarccJy to be con-' in the poiTetiion of the French, at 
ceived, and do not admit of deicrip* the clofe of tiie year J 7 99. 
tioii. Its obdinate defence mwd be A itatrment may be expe6ted of 
confidered as tiie natural confe- tjie iof>s (uftalned, on both fides, ia 
quenceof it^ having been the place tjiis eventful and bloody campaign. 
of refuge relbrted to by a number of It is not prelenned, on this fubject, 
traitora to their country. The gar- to prelent an arithmetical certainty, 
ri(bnt confiding of Jews and the ja- which no pecion couM obtain ; not 
cobins of Lombardy, were made pri- even thofe at tlie head of armies, 
foners of war. The republican com- Tlie Infs of the allies, in killed and 
|nander,Gamier,who, itfecms,muft wounded, has been ftatedy by the 
have been exchanged as a prifoner of moil competent judges, at thirty 
war, obtained tlie condition of furrcn- Ihoufand killed and wounded, and 
dering to the Auftrians only ; a cir- ton thoufand in pri Toners : that 
cumftance of great moment to him, of the French, in the iirft refped, 
OS tlie beiiegipg army conHfted of at iqrtyrfive thoafand, and at thirty* 
troopftofdifTerent nations* In the gar- fivethoufandin ihc lerond. 
rifon was found a confulerablequan- In this campaign, Ihe road to 
tityof artillery and warlike f lores. vi^lory was opfjncd bv geuiTal 
The important pofjs ofFollano Kray, at the battles of Lc;j^iago and 
^nd Savigliano, afiur having been Map;nan: an^l it was purfued with, 
taken by the French :epublicans, dccjnon, energy, and advantage, 
yrere at length ro- taken by the A uf- by field- mar Ilia I Savvarrow. He 
(fianSf Vfi^ier general Mclas. iramped upun it the do;able influence 

298] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 


I * 

of his own energetic chara6)er, and either extremity of this natural ffne 
the fincere views of his fovereign, of defence, a fbrtrefs of equal 
which pointed dire6i1y to their ob- ftrfcnglh, though of oppofite na- 
jedt. It is, at leaft, doubtful whe- tures, the morafies, lakes and ca- 
ther a general, more dependent on nals of Holland, and the mountains 
the Aunc council of Vienna, would of Switaerland. Thefe two coun- 
have darc^ to undertake, or would tries formed two great baflions for 
even had permiiSon to accomplifh the defence of the eafiem frontier 
fo much. It is not probable that' of France : the Rhine was extended ' 
Auflrian prudence would have a^ between them as a curtain. Of 
lowed* him to march to Turin, be- Switcerland, it is very probable 
fore Mantua had been reduced ; and that ^he allies might have obtained' 
to befiege or blockade thofe two^ pofleflion, if the archduke had re- 
places, at the fame time, with thoie mained with his great force fo ro- 
of Alexandria and Tortona. As he. operate with Suwarrow, who count- 
had, fortunately, a glorious and fuc- ed on his co-operation. And al- 
cefsful predeceflbr in general Krdy, though a French army might have 
fo kad no inglorious or unfaccefsful over-run a nart of the empire and 
fucceflbr in general Melas. And the hereditary dominions, for a time^ 
merit of 'all three was proved and they could not have kept perma- 
illuflrated by the talents of fu'chan- neni or k>ng pofleflion, under the 
tagonill commanders as general debility ofdilatation, and the general 
Moreau and general Macdonald. hoflility of the countries invaded on 
On a general review of Che cam- the one hand; and a mighty com- 
paign, it is evident, that the advan- bined army in pofleflion tf fuch a 
tage, on the whole, wa^ pretty garrifon as the Alps, fupported by 
equally balanced. The AuHrians, fuch a granary as Italy, and the 
at the clofe of the year, and alfb of country of the Grtfens oi\ (he 
the campaign, occupied all the other. 

pafTes in the mountains, which fe- While thefe opeY^tions were go- 
parate France from Italy. The ing on at land, a Ruflian fquadron, 
cxpuHion of the French from this of four fliips of the line and fome 
Inft country was a great atchieve- frigates, under f he command of ad- 
ment ; the importance of which is miral MackarofT, leaving Sheernefs 
not to be mcuiured by its diminifli- about the middle of May, failed for 
ing the fources, and contrafling the the Mediterranean, where he co- 
boundaries of the French domina- operated, in the efforts above re- 
tion, but by the opening of the ports lated, with the allies. The ports, 
of Italy to navigation, commerce, on the fhores of Holland, France, 
and the water-carriage of troops and Spain, were blocked up by the 
and military /lores, and the elafti- fleets of the Englifh. Yet the 
city that if muil give to (he minds French fleet, infulting, as it were, 
of the Italians, and other nations, their vafl naval fuperiority , and all 
On the other hand, the French their combinatioas, after having 
kept prfTeflion of the whole lefl efcaped from Brefl^ where it had 
bank of the Rhine, from its fource been long confined, pafled the 
fo where it falls through <lifferent f^raits of^ Gibraltar, touched at 
channels into the ocean ; and, at Toulon, threw fome reinforcements 




and proviiions into Genott, fticwed 
iUelf, for fotne little time, on the 
coaHs of Tafoany, and had again 
the good fortune to return by the 
fame road, and, on the twenty-firft 
of July, to enter fafely into the port 
of firefl, taking with it tlie Spanifh 
fle^, which had joined it off wadiSj 
the whole amounting to forty-feven 
iai) of the line. This expedition 
hsd an iiDpol^Oj^ and profnifin{ af* 

pe6t ; and no doubt was entertain- 
ed in France, but it would end in 
fome atchievement fplendid and de* 
ci6ve. The general mortification 
was in proportion to the general 
expe^ation. And the expenditure 
of fo many millions on fo vain and 
fruitlefs a ihew afibrded a new 
proof of the eTUravagancc and folly ' 
of the directory. 


5«03 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1795, 


&tpedUiPn; imder the Command of the Dtttre ^/York, fo HoUand.'^OhjeA 
•4yf ih{5:'-^nm tf' Co-cfpnation hctxvetfi Great Britain and RvJfia.'^An 
Armament Jets Jail from Deat-y rfri the thirteenth of Avgnji,*- Plan of 
Operations, —Stormy Weather, — Tlic^BrHiJh Trocps^'^lai^' dt Holder, ^^^ 
Force oppofed to them, — Engageme?it,^^The Britijh Army gains PoJfeJpDn 
of Helder.'-^Surrender of the Dutch Fleet, — Pofition and Force of the 
Enemy, —'An Adioti, in which they are defeated, and forced to retire la 
Alkmaer,"'^ Engagement on the nineteenth of September. — Motives which 

, induced the Duke of York to renew the AHock on the Enemy. ''^Several 
Places on the Zuyder^Sea, fubmil to the Britijh Fla^, and thi Authority of 
the Prince of Qrange,'^The Britijh Army, on the fhcond ofOBoher, at^ 
tacks the French,'-^lVho are defeated, — Progrejs of the Britijh Army to 
. Alkmaer.-^The French take Poji on the Ijlhvius bctireert Beveruick and 
the Zuyder'Sea,~r-The Britijh moved forward to a new Pofition, -^zThe 
French advance from Beverwick to meet them.-'-^Engagement.—^Night 
coming on, imtfecided,-^The Brittjh Troops withdraw from their advance^ 
Pofition to their former Station at Schagenbrug,'— Attacks on the Britijh 
at Schagenbrug, — RepulJed.'^Farther Succejfes of the Marine Force of the 
Britijh in the Zuyder-Sea — Sufpcnfion of Arms, — Capitulation. ^-^Thc 
Britijh and RuJJian Forces return to ETigland,^r^Meeting of the Britijh 
Parliament in $eptembe?\ — fts Proceedings, 

IN the whole courfe and cxteni of common interefts, and a reciprocal 

the prefcnt war, nothing could tion of commercial advantage. A!* 

be more natural than for the court though commercial rivalily and jea* 

of London, and the Britifti nation, loufy, inflamed by the intrigues of 

to make a great effort for the deli- France, had fometimes fet £nglan4 

verance of the United Provinces and Holland by the cars, their mur 

from the fiate of iervitude and de- tual hoflilities were not inveterate, 

gradation in to which they bad fallen. Their mofi efiential iuterefls were 

and to redore them to their rank a- confidcred to be at bottom the 

mong the independent nations- of fame. His late majefly king George 

Europe, a rich, fiourifhing, and II. was wont to fay of England and 

happy country. The provinces had Holland, " that they were like man 

long oeen conne^ed with England, and wife, who might have«their 

by various ties, between the houfes bickerings, but ought never to part.*^ 

of Orange and Brunfwick, as well B;^ the united influence of the fa* 

a.N the other claffes in fociety, by milies of Brandenbourg, including 

rcli|;ion, habits, mutual good offices, tiiat of Hanover, the fladtholder 




Ijac!, at different times, recovered pais^n in the low countries with an 
his power, and extended his pre- allied army, of fomenting inlurrcc- 
rogative. By the fpirited and united tions among the inhabitants, a great 
exertions of Pnifila and Great Bri- part of whom were ftill ready for 
tain, the defigns of France, in the revolt; and, on the whole, for re- 
Seven United Provinces, in 1787, floring that political barrier, between 
Were defeated, and a tripple alliance, France and Holland, which feemed 
offenlive and defcnfive, formed a- fo indifbutably neceflary, not only 
mong the flates-general, PrufTia, to the feciirity of Britifh commerce 
and England. The revolution in and naval power, but to the inde- 
Holland, in confequence of which pendcnce of the greater part of 
that alliance was formed, was one Enro])e. Even if an attempt, for 
of the mod rapid, as well as lea/l the deliverance ^f the provinces, 
fenzuinary anddeflru6tive recorded fliould not be finally fuccefsful, ftilf 
In niftory. The remembrance of a great diverfion would be effed^ed 
this atchievement naturally fuggefl- in favour of the allies, compelling 
ed the idea of accomplifliing Tuch the French to fend to the Unitea 
another, by the fame or fimilar Provinces a great part of the force 
means. Though the French had deftlned for t!ie army of the Rhine, 
penetrated into Holland, in 179i, For an expedition therefore to 
through the nnforefecn defedlion of Holland, a plan of co-operation wsl% 
the king of Prufila, from the coal I- concerted between Great Britain 
tion againft the French republic, and RulTia, in the confidence that 
and the early and fudden freezing numbersof the Dutch, opening their 
t)f the rivers, flill lefs forefeen, this eyes to their real interefls, would 
conquefl did not feem to jjoflefs the combine with thofe, whom they 
permanency that arifes from long might juHly confider as their deli- 
ineditaled defigns, matured by a verers, as loon as they faw they 
general concert of wills, among the could, with fafcty, atl accordii^g to 
invaders and invaded. The public their fentiments and wiflies. 
voice of the provinces, though fup- To enable them to exert them- 
prefled by an overbearing force, was felves for their emancipation fitom 
'iilU in favour of the ftadtholder, and their prefent (lavery, the mofl cfier- 
a connexion with England. No tuil means was to fend a povverful 
pains were wanting, in order to in- force to their afTiftance. The pro- 
duce the court of Berlin to return parations for th'^ anaamcnt were 
to the fuccels, the advantages, and rapid, energetic, and cfib6iual 
the glory of its condu61, refpeding When the force wa: levied, all pri- 
the Unilcd Provinces in 1.797, but vate convenienee was willingly, 
all in vain. "and joyfully, facrificed to lufien the 
The recovery of thofc countries troops to the place of deftination. 
from the influence, and, in fa6l. Early in Augufl, above twelve 
the dominion of France was an c»b- thoufand men were aflbmbled oa 
je6l 0f the firft importance, not only the coafl of Kent, and above twelve 
to Great Britain, but the confede- thoufand more were preparing, to 
racy.- By the re-eflablifliment of the reach the fame rendezvous. On 
ftadtholder, a way would be pre- the thirteenth of Auguft, fir Ralph 
parbd for opening again the cam- Abercrombie and admiral MilchcL 


0023 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

let fail from Deal, with their army 
and Aeef, and joined lord Duncan, 
iu the north-feas. The weather 
being uncommonly Hormy, Ibr that 
feafon of the year, they encoun- 
tered great difficulties and danger 
in their voyage, and were, unex- 
pededly kmg before they arrived 
at its concluuon. The firfl obied 
wa< two-fold; to effedl a latiding 
in Holland, and to receive or take 
poiTeOjon of the Dutch (hips in the 
Texel. On WeHnefday, the twen- 
ty-firft of Augnft, they came in 
fight of the Dutch coaft, and had 
made a great preparation to land 
on the twenty-iecoiid. fiut, by a 
heavy gale of wind, they were for- 
ced out to fea. On Saturday, the 
twenty-fourth, they were again in 
iight«of the Texel; but the wea- 
ther wa.^ too (qually, and the fdrf 
too high, to attejnpt a landing, and 
it did not abate till Monday morn- 
ing, .the twenty-fixth. That day 
they came to anchor near the* (Iiore 
of the Helder, a iirong point, in 
the northern extremity of the main 
land of Holland, that commands 
the Mars-Die p, the narrow chan- 
nel which joins the Zuyder-iea with 
tlie German ocean, between the 
continent and the iiland of the 
Texel, and which is the princi- 
pal paflage of Amfterdam. There 
they made preparations for eflcdling 
a landing the next morning. At 
day -light, on the twenty -Icventh, 
they began to di fern bark. The 
enemy had aiSembled a numerous 
body of infantry, cavalry, and artil- 
lery, and were pofled at CalantP- 
ogc to theri;r}it of the Holder, but 
did not qppoie the landing of the 
firft divifion, waiting in hopes of 
attacking them before tlicy could 
bs fupportcd by the r*./l of the 
troops. Adnur:^! Mitchell with very 

great (kill and ability, corer^'the 
landing of the troops, which tir 
Ralph fuperin (ended with equal in-* 
trepidity and vig6fir. Botk the 
armv and navy aaed with the mod 
per/eel unanimity, infpired hj mu- 
tual confidencei (ameneis of*^ wifh, 
and the moft thorough reliance on 
the coorage, profeflional knowledge, 
and wifdom, oftheirrefpedive lead- 
ers. In the marine language of 
admiral Mitchel, they pulled heariii^ 
together. When the firft divt(ioii 
was landed, under lieutenant-general 
(ir James Pultney, the enemy at- 
tacked the right flank. The poti- 
tion of tiie troops was on a ridge 
of fand-hills, that ilrefch along the 
coafl from north to foath. The 
Britifli h&d no where Sufficient 
ground on the right to form more 
than a battalion m line ; yet, as (ir 
Ralph obferves, the pofitioti, though 
tingular, was not, in our fltuation-, 
difadvantageous, having neither ca- 
valry nor artillery. The contcfl 
was arduous, and the lofs was con- 
iiderable ; but the courage and peN 
leverance of the Britilb troops, at 
lengUi compelled the enemy to 
retire to a pofition iix miles diHanL 
Our lofs amounted to about five 
hundred. Sir James Pultney, who 
greatly diflinguitlied himfelt hy his 
activity and bravery, received a 
wound ih the arm, which ouliged 
him to quit the fiM* As the ene- 
my ftill retained pofletlion of the 
Helder, with a garrifon of near two 
thou fand men, the troops being no«^ 
all landed, it was det^rmificd to 
altack it the next morning. The 
Dutch fleet, in ihc Mars Diep, got 
under wcigi) ; the garrifon was 
withdrawn, and two regiments, com- 
manded by major-geiieral Moore, 
and the marauisof Huntley, on the 
lv»'e]il}-cightn, took pofllinon of the 



Helder. The firft faccefs of this both of the additional Briti(b and 
day wa<i principally owing to gen- Ruffian troops, fir Ralph continued 
ral Coote's brigade, commanded by at Helder, while, in the mean 
colonel Macdonaid, who, inflead of time, tlie ifland of the Texel was 
waiting the attacks of the ejiemy, taken pofleffion of by our fleets, 
advanced on every occaiion to meet The French and fiatavian forces, 
them. In a (ituation where the twenty-five thoufand flrong, under 
fmalleft piece of ground could not the command of general Brune, 
be lofl without danger, this conduct occupied a flrong pofltion between 
was the befl that could be purfued. the Helder and Alkmaer. The 

Lord Duncan, naval commander- numbers and the ftrengtb of their 
in-chief, in the north iea, was off portion determined (ir Ralph to 
the Texel during an engagement, continue on the defenfive until the 
in which both his public and ph- arrival of the powerful reinforce- 
vate afifeflions were Orongly inte- ments, which he, with certainty, 
refied. His fon, a lieutenant in expe6led. The enemy, confident 
the guards, a yoatli of nineteen, in their numbers, September ihe 
was in the heat of the battle. tenth, ventured an attack, and' », 

By this time are-enforcement had' very obiiinate engagement eniued, 
arrived of five thoufand men. And in which they were repulfed, witit 
the Britiih army, the precaution the lofs of one thoufand five hundred 
being taken to fifen^then the for- men, killed, wounded, or taken 
^ifications of the Helder, prepared prifonecs, while our lofs amounted 
to proceed ina foutherly direction, -to two hundred. The enemy re- 

The Britiih, having efTecled one . tired to Alkmaer. His royal high- 
part of their fir A object, which was nefs landed in Holland on the 
to land their troops, and take pof- thirteenth of September; and (bon 
XelHon of a pod of fecurity, loon aAer feven tliouiand Ruflians, from 
after fuccccded in the fecond part. Revel, and the third embarka- 
On the Uiirtieth of Augufl, admiral tion, confiding of about feven 
Mitchel fummoned the Dutch thouland Britifli troops, and ten 
fleet to furreodcr to the fquadron thoufand Ruffians, joined the army, 
under his command, and to hoid the The army now confi/ied of nearly 
^ag of the prince oi Orange. The thirty-five thoufand men> including 
Dutch fleet, attached in general to feventeen thoufand Ruffians, and 
the prince of Orange, furrendered, was deemed fufficiently flrong for 
without flriking a blow* It con- offenfive operations. A general 
filled of two ihips of 74 guns : five attack was refolved on by his high- 
of 68 ; one of 66 ; three of ^4 ; nefs ; and, on the nineteenth, every 
eight of 44; two of 32; four of arrangement was made. The arm v 
■24; one of IQ^ and four India- advanced in four columns, ex tend- 
meii. ing firora the right to the left coafl. 

Meanwhile, about feven thouJand The column, to the extremity of 
more forces failed for Holland; the right, confifted chiefly of the 
and, on the ninth of September, his Ruffians, in twelve battalions afliu- 
royal highiicr» i\\^ duke of York (et ed by, the feventh light- dragoons, 
off to lake tlie chief command of and general Manners's brigade, was 
the army. Expecting the aj rival commanded by the Kuliian lica- 


804] AN NUAl. REGISTER,- 1799. 

lefi»nf-«ronerfif, n'Herrrmnn, an4 the principal forre of the cndmt 

-^Kfonded to f>i^ fand-hJ!M on the was placed. The Pvufiiann, aa^J 

cwaft Ti^^jrthef^moM^ Ca»'';>^d<5iv*'n, vanrin^ wHh an infrepiditt^ that 

of! which hefj^htsc Cf»lumn of tht ovei*look^d the powerral refillancC 

*nen1y were plaf<*d at a very gn*at ihey were to nteet, vrcrf5, by their 

AHvan(3^«. 'J'he ft^cohd, com- imr»eJiioii^ cfy\tf\^e, tratifportet! be^ 

manded by lieutenant-general Diirr- yon^d the bounds of that order 

das, confifled df tno ftjftradfdni off which w<»n!d ha\'e enfured fafety 

the efevenib IighMrac'oons, two endfuccef*; and after a mofi vahant 

brigades of fbot-gtjards, and major- eontet^, obliged to retire with con-, 

general his hf^hnefs prince Wifflam fiderabfe hh. Both tlie fecond 

iif G lotN^fler's brigade. Its objedl and third columns had a Ifo great diflS^ 

wfts fo force the enemy's pofitlon culties to .encounter, in the deep 

at Walmenhnyfen end Schorefldam, ditches, and canals, by which ther 

«nd to co-operate with the column fcene of their operations was inter- 

wuder ffeu^enant d*Hermaf>n» The fefied; the fecond, under general 

third dolarrtn, comnrnnded by lien- Dundas, after carrying the ports, it 

•ferrant-general fir James Puftncy, was dcJftined- to attack, extended 

cnnfifled of two fquadrons of the (after the retreat of the Ruffians)/ 

•f4^eoth !?«^ht-dragoons, major-ge- to the fight, and though weakened^ 

iwm! Don s brigade, and major- of courfe, by an extenfiorr fo drf- 

Ipmeral Coote's brignde. Thfs propbrtionate to their '<oa'e, re-^ 

cc^himn was intended to take jiof'- newed the battle with confiderable? 

MiohofOod-Scarpel, at tht: he^ad Aicccfs, but was at length obHged 

frf" the Lang-Djke, a great road to retire- Lieutenattt-general, iii* 

lendtfY^ to Alkmaer. Thefourtli, James Pukney, with th'e^ thirds 

and ?e(t colnmn, under the a^m- effected his oDJe6l in oarryrng, by 

irrtrd of fi CO tenant -general fir Horm, the poft of Oud-Scarpc!, aC 

S.>lph AbercfX)mbic, confined of the head of the Lang- Dyke j but 

tWo f([m!drons of the ei^teenth the disappointment of the right/ 

l>»ftt-dia;»ooriS mnjor-general the prei^ented our army from profitting- 

earl of Chatham's bri^de, major- by this advantage. !i became 

fehera! Moored brigade, major- e?{pedrcnt fo withdraw the third 

ffiMieral the et^rl of Ca van's' brigade, column. The fame circumtlance 

Ifirll bl!t1alion of Brififh grenadiers led to- (he neceflity of re-cailirg 

of thf» line, firft battalion of light- the corps under lieotenant-generaf 

itifartry of the line; and the twenty- fir Ralph Abercrombie, -who had 

tb*«rd and fifty-fifth rej^imenf?, uniicY proceeded without interruption to 

cnkmef MacdonalH, was drained tb Hoom, of whrch city he had taken 

Twrn the enemvN 'right on the poflellion, togetiitef with Hs garrifon. 

Zuvdcp^fea. To the attainrricnt of The whole of* the army returned 

th^ie many and important objecls, to its former pofition. Thefoldicrt 

the mof! formidable obfiaclcs pre- and officers, both of Britain and 

Jonted themfefves. To the right, Ruflia, difplayed a valoar and en- 

where the Ruffians were to ad- terprize moft honourable to them- 

Vance, the country was almofl felves and their refpcfliVe court- 

covered with w»>od«, efpecrally tries, though no( crowned with the 

near Uu? tillage of. Bergen^ where, iuccds that,. from the comproliert- 
8 £v0 

Ifl^XpRY OF E,UR.OPE. £.305 

five and able plan of attack, was ciiptain Taylor, his aid-de-camp, 

t)aturally and rtafonabry expe61ed/ the only Englilh officer who had 

Having thus given (uch a genfera] ftccoitipanied the Ruflian column, 

yievy of this feverfe enga^emeiit as of wh^t had happened at Bergen. 

jB rtind not converfant with military Soon after tie had the mortification 

manoeuvres and adions may com- to fee, that the KuiQians continned 

prehend witliout di(ficulty, We /hall their retreat towards the Zype, 

add fome farther particulars* wor- and had paffed Schorel, which the 

thy of notice. porfaing enemy had already enter« 

The column, under general Dun- ed. His royal highnefs then adopt* 

jdas, directed again A Warmenhuv- ed the only m'eafure that could repahr 

Yen and Schwclflam, having Alk- the diforder of the Ruffians, tirid 

maer on thfeir right, (^ circum- renew thd engagement. He'im- 

tlance which is neceffary, as will mediately attacked the village of 

prefently appear, to be mentioned), Schoref w'ith gener&l Manners^ 

was accompanied ,by the duke of i>rigade, flippdtted <by Ihi'ee batta^ 

Vo^k,' in perfon, who endeavoured, -lions of RuOians,' by the fir(l brigade 

,as rnuph as hecouIH, to quicken it^ of guards, and fhe thirty-fifth regj- 

^ march. 'It was, however, necef- ment, commanded by prihce Wii- 

farily very flow, the enemy havint> TJam. Schorel wa^ carirled, and 

^fleflroyecf alt the roads, and the the enemy Was flopped in the?r 

troops being obliged lopafs, as well bhrfuif. This advantage might 

as they could, acrofs the .fields, nave changed the face -of aflkirs, 

ivhc^^e ey^ry furrow was a wide 'and ded^^'thfe»dair in favour of 

dil^h, over which it was necdfiary the allies, if the •KufliAns could 

^to form coqmuhications, or even have ,been '.prevailed on to diicon* 

^ to throw brieves. Notwithftanding tinue their retreat, "aAd tb form on 

jthegreatefl exertions, and afthougfi the (and^hills, dn the right of the 

, had been carried Englifli. But ^general Ellen could 

, between nx and revtn in tHe notTefcue theni from the diforder 

morning, thev could not arrive be- and difcburagement into which 

I fore Scnorefdam until nine o'clock : thev had fallen ; arid was obliged to 

* wheii this entrenched poft' Was Tu/ter them to continue their retreat, 

attacked, on the fide of War men- to get to their former poiition, in 

^Imyfen, by the corps of general ' the Zype, where they arrived be* 

Z)un4as;*,and towards Schoier, by 'tween eleven o^lock and midnight. 

, tKe brigade of general Manners, On a conflderation of the complete 

.and csurried. Before any fupport though difficult fucceCs that attended 

'could' be given, to the attack' made the other three columns, it cannot 

by the Ruffians, it was nece(&ry to be doubted, that if the Ruffians had 

attack, the canal of Alkmacr. The fhewn, on this occafion, that fpirit 

enemy had ietiroyod the bridge, of discipline and obedience, for 

\ but before ten o'clock means were which, as well as for intrepidity, 

found to repair it, and part of the they were renowned, and had ge- 

^ troops immediately croffed ihe neral ^erman been able to keep 

canal, and marched to Schoier. pofTeffibnof the long but narrow 

At this moment intelligence was extent of ground, fo rapidly galn- 

, brought to his royal highnefs, by ed; until it mould have been poffible 

Vol.. XLI. [X] for 

r I 

306] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1799. 

for the generals Pundas and ^laor indignation, i( was not extravagant 

4iersto.come to his, aflinance, the tofuppofe, would be rou fed at lafi 

.event of that da^ would ha^vc iufti- by the prpfpedl of deliverance fron> 

Red the plan, of the duke of Vorki their opprcflive invaders. The 

jind, as EDUch a^ circumflances .fpirit of the Britilh troops was high 

,couId have allowed, forwarded the and unbroken; and the Rudians 

•object of the expedition, A great inanifefied a defign to wadi out the 

part of general Herman's divifion /lain, with which, they conceived, 

•waa killed or taken, and the general .tiieir arms had been fullied. 

jhimfelf was among the pnfoners. . In the fame degree, as the good 

Thejofs of the £ng)i(h \ about .difpofition of the troops allowed 

one hundred and twenty killed; the duke of York to rely* on thcg^ 

four hundred .wounded i and, when fuccefs of an attempt ip f^^^^^^^pB 

.the returns were .m^e up, about victory, every confideration prefcri- 

five hundred miifing, . The French bed to him the neteffity of hkfl^n- 

libUed their lofs at only Afly killed ing it as much as poifible. He 

.ftnd diree hvindred tyounded. liad received intelligence, oh which 

The duke ,of York was ;iot lu- .be could rely, that great part of the 

timidated b^^ tbeadverfe events of reinforcements, expelled by general 

the nineteenth of September, from Brune, were not vet near arriving. 

a defign of 4^enewing the attack on The fuperiority or numbers, which 

the enemy with all poflible expedi- was {i\l\ on the (ide of the allies, 

tion* Animated at once by all the and the decifive advantage which 

'hereditary courage of his family, they had obtained, on every point, 

and. the gen(pro(ity of the cauie excepting one, in the affair of tlxc 

in whicli he was embarked, and nineteentli, could not Tail Co keep 

•trained up in die elements of war, alive a degree of confidence in the 

under a princoi who rofe with minds ol the well-intentioned 

an elaflic force under misfortune, Dutch, and Come hopes might 

he determined not to relax iu the confcqucntly be yet entertained of 

roofi vigorous efforts for bringing their eventual afll flu nee. His royal 

tJie Briti(h enteqprize, , in favour, ot' highncfs therefore thought, on the 

the United Provinces,